Solution-Focused Vs. Compared To Narrative Therapy Sample Essay

Both SFT and NT are postmodernist approaches to therapy, which means that their techniques are built on the idea that reality is relative and people’s experiences are influenced by everything around them. Therefore, the role of the therapist is in assisting the client and helping them understand more about themselves and their views on the world, as opposed to being an expert with all the answers. SFT is rooted in the idea that a therapist can help the client see the gaps in their goal setting and achievement practices to enhance their wellbeing. The notion of NT was developed by Michael White and David Epston and is based on the story metaphor (Metcalf, 2018). This paper will discuss the two differences between NT and SFT, the pragmatism, and mental health issues that each approach can address.

The goals of the two therapies are different, as SFT uses a more pragmatic approach and emphasis finding a solution to pressing issues immediately. SFT’s tools are helpful for people from pragmatic cultures because this therapy is focused on finding solutions over the curse of quick sessions (Metcalf, 2018). Through these sessions, the client can better understand the gap between their goal and the current citation and set objectives that will help them achieve this goal. However, unlike the NT, the SFT approach is focused on the immediate problems and is not suitable for the exploration of deep personality issues (Metcalf, 2018). Hence, the briefness of the SFT makes it useless when applying for the treatment of deep-rooted issues, such as substance abuse and personality disorders. Moreover, the pragmatic of SFT also results in the fact that with this approach, the client is in charge of the therapy process, and they are the ones finding solutions to their immediate concerns. With the NT, the therapist asks the client questions to understand their construct of reality and the stories they develop around their lives. Hence, there is no need to set immediate goals with the NT and find solutions at each of the sessions.

As opposed to the pragmatic approach that is the basis of SFT, NT is focused on allowing the client to build their own narratives that are rich and meaningful. Hence, the main difference between NT and SFT is their orientation on the pragmatic and non-pragmatic objectives. With NT, the client can create rich and meaningful stories, which will help them address some of the deep-rooted issues and concerns, while SFT is helpful for addressing immediate problems that a client is struggling with. Therefore, this method can be helpful when working not only with some immediate problems but also with deep-rooted mental health issues and concerns.

Although SFT and NT are drastically different, these approaches offer a unique set of benefits for the client. Metcalf (2018) describes a combination of SFT and NT that allows the client to take responsibility for telling their own story and, therefore, empowers them to find solutions to the pressing issues. This shows that the differences between these therapies discussed above, in fact, can be very helpful when combining SFT and NT and can allow the therapist to help the client reach better results. In summary, the main differences between SFT and NT are the pragmatic orientation and mental health issues that can be addressed by each of these therapies.


Metcalf, L. (2018). Marriage and family therapy (2nd ed.). Springer Publishing Compan.

Individual’s Role In The American Revolution

The Founding Fathers are featured prominently in most accounts of the American Revolution. The Revolution, on the other hand, began as a popular revolt in the 13 British colonies, affecting not only future historical events and international order but also the lives of a number of people, each with their own history, motivations for joining the conflict, and outcomes (Gerengi, 2022). Completely out of global history and especially politics, however still important, the individual’s revolution accounts are scarce and rare.

Many colonists were enraged by the British King George and the British Parliament’s robust control over their life by the mid-1700s. Many Americans chastised Britain for its lack of representation and decision-making when it levied a series of high levies on the colonies beginning in 1763 (Miller, 2019). Initially, they organized protest organizations and boycotted British goods to protest taxation. Tensions rose when Parliament ordered the colonists to house British troops in the hopes of preventing an uprising among the Americans (Gerengi, 2022). The British then attempted to quiet the demonstrations in Boston by sending soldiers to seize the city in 1768 (Gosse, 2020). Soldiers and enraged residents battled in the streets. To combat, ordinary Americans began to hide firearms and form militias.

Congress approved the establishment of the regular forces in June 1775, and Washington was chosen its commander. However, there were few skilled combatants who could stand up to the British forces’ expertise. Washington’s army consisted mostly of citizen farmers and merchants from all 13 colonies, including locals and immigrants (Gerengi, 2022). They left their homes to fight for the independence of the United States of America. Women were frequently obliged to protect their children, houses, and fields on their own while their husbands went to fight (Gosse, 2020). British soldiers stormed homes on a daily basis, grabbing what they could and destroying what they couldn’t. The women, on the other hand, fought back in their own particular manner. By customizing military clothing, many people contributed to the war effort (Gosse, 2020). Some wives, sons, and brothers accompanied their husbands, sons, or brothers to the battlefield, serving as chefs or nurses in the troops’ encampment.

Deborah Sampson, a Massachusetts woman, disguised herself as a male to fight alongside the rebels and was wounded in multiple fights. When Deborah Sampson disguised herself as a man and joined the Patriot soldiers during the American Revolution, she became a hero (Gosse, 2020). For her service in the Revolutionary Army, she was the only woman to obtain a full military pension (Gerengi, 2022). Sampson was one of seven children born in 1760 in Plympton, Massachusetts, near Plymouth (Gosse, 2020). The Sampsons were having financial difficulties, and when Jonathan did not return from a sea expedition, his poor wife was compelled to put her children in other homes. Deborah was enlisted in the service of Deacon Thomas, a Middleboro farmer when she was ten years old (Fussel, 2018). Sampson, who was self-taught, worked later as a weaver and instructor.

During the Revolutionary War, Sampson disguised herself as Robert Shurtleff and enlisted in the Fourth Massachusetts Regiment (Gerengi, 2022). She was given the perilous mission of scouting over no man’s land in order to evaluate the gathering of British troops and equipment in Manhattan, which General George Washington intended to assault (Fussel, 2018). She dug trenches, helped attack the British fortifications, and withstood the cannonade during the siege of Yorktown (Gosse, 2020). Despite close contacts, Sampson’s real gender remained disguised for more than two years. She withdrew the gun bullet after receiving a cut on her forehead from a sword and being wounded in her left thigh (Gosse, 2020). She was revealed in Philadelphia after being ill during a pandemic, being rushed to the hospital, and passing out (Fussel, 2018). Sampson returned to Massachusetts after earning an honorable discharge on October 23, 1783 (Fussel, 2018). After Sampson’s death at the age of 66, the military committee found that there was no other analogous example of female bravery, devotion, and fortitude in the Revolution’s history.

After recalling an individual story of Deborah Sampson, an example of outstanding bravery and patriotism, it is important to look closer to the situation in the region of Massachusetts and its low, middle class. Its examination can provide insight on why such individuals, since there were many more volunteers similar to Deborah Sampson’s situation, were eager to join the Revolution and fight for American independence.

Massachusetts was part of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, which was a royal colony. Massachusetts Bay Colony, Plymouth Colony, and the territories of Maine and Nova Scotia formed the province (Miller, 2019). Because the earliest demonstrations, riots, and other acts of revolt, as well as the first battles of the Revolutionary War, took place in Massachusetts, the state became synonymous with the American Revolution. During the Revolutionary War, Boston was considered the nucleus of the resistance, yet patriotism was felt across the province and not only in Boston (Gerengi, 2022). The anti-Massachusetts Government Act demonstrations spread well beyond the courts, affecting practically every aspect of society, including those that were previously aloof and apolitical (Miller, 2019). The British presumably intended for this measure to push the Massachusetts countryside against Boston, but it instead effectively compelled the Massachusetts countryside to cooperate with Boston.

In most sections of the province, lower-middle-class farmers persuaded local courts to close and local magistrates to pledge that they would not open courts, would not have any ordinances, would not fine anybody, and would not make any decisions based on new laws (Fussel, 2018). However, the actual mobilizations of the individuals like Deborah Sampson came with the British army. During the fighting, British forces committed several thefts and rapes. Arrests were made, citizens were imprisoned, and some espionage suspects were put to death. The British army’s plunderers were everywhere, seizing the crops and property of both rebels and loyalists recklessly (Fussel, 2018). The robbery was frequently accompanied by rape throughout the process. Some British commanders forbade their forces from taking captives, and as a result, injured and defeated American soldiers were slaughtered on the battlefield (Gerengi, 2022). When American soldiers were taken prisoners, they were held in such deplorable conditions that the fatality rate was relatively high. For the majority of the residents, incarceration was akin to a long and terrible death.

The Revolution began as a popular movement that impacted nearly every resident on modern-day American territory. While many colonists were incensed by strict British regulations and unfair legislation, the Revolution began for many ordinary people with the army’s actions. Every day, British forces raided the homes, seizing what they could and destroying what they couldn’t. Deborah Sampson, a Massachusetts citizen who disguised herself as a male to fight, was one of these persons. She was born amid the Revolution in the Massachusetts province, and she first supported it. The genuine mobilization of people like Deborah Sampson, on the other hand, took place with the British Army.


Fussel, M. (2018). Between Dissimulation and Sensation: Female Soldiers in Eighteenth-Century Warfare. Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies, 41(4), 527-542.

Gerengi, S. (2022). Heroes of the American Revolution. Journal of English Language and Literature Club, 4(1), 1-5.

Gosse, S. (2020). Female Patriotism. The General: Brock University. Undergraduate Journal of History, 5, 45-51.

Miller, M. (2019). Entangled Lives: Labor, Livelihood, and Landscapes of Change in Rural Massachusetts. JHU Press.

The Analysis Of Aldi Discount Supermarket Chain


Aldi is a German-based discount supermarket chain that operates in several countries across the globe. Theo and Karl founded the organization after the Second World War (Gebel & Askinasi, 2019). Before they took over, their mother was running the grocery and transformed it into a supermarket offering goods at low prices. However, in 1960, the organization was split into two distinct halves, namely, Aldi Sud and Aldi Nord, after a disagreement on selling cigarettes. The supermarket has more than 10,000 stores in 20 countries worldwide (Gebel & Askinasi, 2019). Apart from Germany, the organization operates in the US, Australia, the UK, and many more. Aldi uses its discounting business model to achieve a competitive advantage over its competitors in the market.

The Approach to Evaluation

My approach to business evaluation is the income approach due to its effectiveness when measuring business value. It is among the main methodology used when it comes to business evaluation. The income approach is important business determines the value of a business based on its ability to generate revenue benefits to the owners (Almabekova et al., 2018). Without looking at the revenue generated, it would be difficult to describe the impact of the business, the direction of its activity results, and the actions that must be done to improve the outcome. Largely, the effectiveness of an organization has been evaluated based on financial data provided in financial reports. To better unravel causal relationships between management decisions and final activity results, an organization’s financial indicators have received a lot of attention.

The income approach as an evaluation technique relates to McClelland’s theory of achievement motivation. The success of a business organization usually depends on its ability to make a profit (Almabekova et al., 2018). This indicates that a company’s primary goal is to maximize profit for its shareholders while remaining socially responsible. This view is supported by McClelland’s theory, which states that entrepreneurs are defined by a desire to achieve, develop, and expand, also known as achievement orientation (Güss et al., 2017). Based on this theory, people have three motivations for doing things: the desire for achievement, the need for connection, and the need for power. Thus, entrepreneurship is driven by a desire to succeed and a desire to have power.

The Entrepreneurial Personality of the Main Characters

Karl Albrecht

Karl is among the two founding brothers of the Aldi retail business. He is one of the world’s most successful entrepreneurs and a core owner of Aldi. Karl and his brother developed a global food store from a small store managed by the mother (Gebel & Askinasi, 2019). As a successful entrepreneur, Karl tends to be self-sufficient and concerned with the challenge of new things. For example, he refused to embrace the selling of cigarettes in the stores, citing that it would attract shoplifters (Gebel & Askinasi, 2019). Karl is also considered an introvert with low anxiety due to the attribute of being cautious and highly critical of flawed thinking. As a result, Karl’s personality includes being cautious and self-sufficient.

Additionally, Karl is a motivated self-starter and assertive due to his trait of doing what has to be done without being told. Starters usually take the initiative in their affairs and lead themselves (Walker, 2021). For example, when Theo wanted to introduce cigarettes as one of the products in the stores, Karl refused to give in despite the conviction that it would increase the organization’s profitability. Based on the nine Belbin team’s roles, Karl fits the role of a plant (Ampuero & Abreu, 2021). When he disagreed with the brother over the sale of cigarettes, he solved the problem unconventionally. For example, he agreed to split the stores and area of operation to avoid unnecessary rivalry. Therefore, as an inspired self-starter, Karl solved the problem from his conviction.

Karl is also a hard-working person due to his ability to continue driving growth even after separating from his brother. According to Lee (2019), a hard worker puts effort into doing and completing tasks. He continued with the culture of providing customers with low-priced and quality products. Karl ensured that the employees remained focused on achieving organizational goals. Based on the nine Belbin team’s roles, Karl is a shaper. He ensured that the team did not lose direction (D. Brandes, 2019; N. Brandes, (2019). As a sharper, some of Karl’s strengths include thriving under pressure. He did not yield to the pressure in the industry of adopting technology and increasing the prices of goods. Karl ensured that the team focused on activities that would preserve their culture of providing low-cost products to customers.

Theo Albrecht

Theo Albrecht is one of the founding brothers behind the Aldi supermarket empire. He is among the successful entrepreneurs and owners of the best-performing retailers. Together with his brother, Theo built a global grocery titan from their mother’s shop in 1913 (D. Brandes, 2019; N. Brandes, (2019). As a successful entrepreneur, Theo is a hard-working and strongly disciplined person who enjoys performing his tasks. He is also committed, focused, and determined to achieve the anticipated goal. Theo is considered an implementer because effectiveness is his yardstick. They are usually well-organized and appear to have endless energy. For example, the grocery chain now operates in more than 10,000 locations across the globe (Gebel & Askinasi, 2019). As a result, Theo’s hard-working attribute was integral to the business’s success.

The Company’s Approach to Innovation Management

The first approach the organization uses to manage its innovation is the use of organizational culture. It unifies employees and promotes organized work structures to assist people in working together and generating appropriate ideas. Aldi is known for its cost-saving practice to ensure that customers get low-priced products (Gebel & Askinasi, 2019). One of the symbols of the organization is poorly furnished shops. The organization wants to be simple, cheap, but good. With this culture, employees are only allowed to brainstorm ideas to ensure that customers get low-priced products. The company’s innovators are guided to avoid introducing practices that are likely to increase the prices of goods. Therefore, the organization’s culture is integral in guiding employees in adopting cost-effective innovation.

The second approach used by the organization to manage innovation is the global strategy. This is a strategy in which a company grows to enter the worldwide market. The goal of creating a global strategy is to boost sales all around the globe. Although the organization started in Germany as a small grocery, it now operates globally (Gebel & Askinasi, 2019). The strategy helps Aldi in acquiring and learn important ideas for its development. The organization also believes that they are likely to attract talents across the globe through expansion who can generate ideas that resonate with its culture. In addition, with its size and success, Aldi can influence its employees to adopt cost-effective ideas. Therefore, the strategy ensures that the organization attracts and retains new talents.

Recommendations for Strategic Changes

The organization has traditionally been resilient to retailer reactions that seek to dilute its core offering and new kinds of internet competition. Theo and Karl formed the business on the grounds of offering discounted products to consumers in the market (D. Brandes, 2019; N. Brandes, (2019). However, the competitive advantage it currently has in markets is dwindling and will continue to do so in the future. Aldi must consider what would happen if shoppers’ value was increasingly determined by their ability to use voice assistants rather than price alone (Kingsnorth, 2019). Its brand has been founded on what it has not yet done in terms of alternative supermarket formats over the years. Unlocking its innovation potential requires looking at what it can afford to say no to and what it cannot. Therefore, the organization should consider adopting others ways to remain competitive in the market.

Aldi should strive to adopt modern marketing strategies to reach more customers. Marketing is an important practice for the effective performance of an organization (Kingsnorth, 2019). It ensures that the organization remains relevant in the market by appealing to the public. Although Theo and Karl have used discounting techniques to sell their brand, there are certain modern marketing strategies that the organizational authority might use to drive the organization’s growth. These methods will assist the organizational authorities in defeating competitors and maintaining the organization’s competitive advantage. In addition, it will ensure that the organization attracts and retains more customers. Modern marketing strategies are helping contemporary organizations reach out to their customers in the market easily.

The first market strategy that Aldi should adopt is affiliate marketing. This type of business approach enables businesses to reach out to a large number of people (Patrick & Hee, 2019). It is based on the fact that a large number of people use the internet to progress in their professions all over the world. As a result, Aldi may rely on websites like these to market its brand to a specific audience. Webmasters will be responsible for marketing Aldi’s brand and products to their audience through their channels. As a result, Aldi’s discounts and mission will ultimately become known to a huge number of people, which could boost the organization’s sales. Thus, the company will be able to reach many customers across the globe and increase its market share.

Internet advertising is another cost-effective promotional tool Aldi marketing managers can utilize to reach their stated purpose. Internet marketing has been found to influence business profitability (Kingsnorth, 2019) significantly. To attract a large number of customers, Aldi management can request that their technical department construct such advertisements. Aldi will be able to place advertisements on a variety of sites. For example, Wal-Mart is recognized for using this internet ad strategy to push fresh deals to targeted customers (Ajitha et al., 2019). The technological team keeps track of its target audience’s social media operations and uses that information to target them with online ads. Therefore, using this marketing tool, the organization will be able to reach internet users and convert them into customers.


The success of Aldi is linked to its low-pricing strategy to attract more customers. Theo and Karl founded Aldi based on offering products at a low cost. The company adopts cost-effective strategies to maintain its pricing. To manage its innovation, Aldi uses its organizational culture to guide idea generation and implementation. For example, the employees are not supposed to develop ideas that would drive up prices. However, the organization might lose its competitive advantage due to the changes in the market. Today, contemporary organizations are using technology to attain a competitive advantage. They can consider using Internet ads to market their products and attract customers. Therefore, Aldi can also use technology to improve efficiency, reduce the cost of operation and attract more customers.


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Ajitha, P., Gomathi, R. M., & Sivasangari, A. (2019). Design of online shopping cart using prestashop e-commerce. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), 10(5). Web.

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Walker, B. (2021). Six Personality Traits of Successful Entrepreneurs. Forbes. Web.

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