The working class has a wide range of problems in accessing not only healthcare in the US but having quality services dispensed unto them. There is a problem when a country invests in people having great healthcare services but not all the population can access it. Many factors need to be rectified in a bid to have all the people get the medical services they deserve. The amount that is dispensed by the government to ensure accessibility by all populations especially the middle working people is above the GDP and this is approximately 17.9% of the total (Wallin, et al., 2019). As opposed to the many countries that invest in healthcare, the USA caters for the largest amount to its citizens but the outcome does not amount anywhere close to the value offered. Cases like fraud and being overcharged since most middle-class families use insurance services have been on the rise. A medical test that costs a small amount in one hospital will be exaggerated to amount to double or triple the amount. Transparency is a factor that has hindered the growth and progress of the medical fraternity, making it difficult to have equality in healthcare services. The presence of private sectors and the public hospital also bridge a gap in the accessibility of quality and affordable services to all the population. The middle-class incomers should enjoy the benefits of having insurance covers and also reap the benefits of transparency. In this write-up, transparency on the prices of drugs and all the services are stated and implemented in the system to ensure the middle-class earners reap the benefits of accessibility and affordability (Eriksson, et al., 2017).
The problem of health insurance covers must cater to all people in the United States to ensure that progress is noted in classes of people especially the middle-class earners (Eriksson, et al., 2017). There is no doubt that the middle-class earners are just like the low-income people. They have to work 8-12 hours a day and they are still struggling to make ends meet. There should be an introduction of the UHC services where cover applies to all the population. When there is a certain group of people that do not have access to the insurance services, there is a strain and they are likely to fall to the point of need. Moreover, having the low-income earners have an access to health insurance at the expense of the middle earners that make up to 45% of the population is not fair. The government should implement services that ensure health insurance against long-term illness will also cover the middle-class earners and probably all the population. There are social factors that hinder the accessibility of free insurance covers and also political hindrances. People from all classes must have access to healthcare that is not just affordable but get the insurance covers that cater for a large percentage of the medical bills. Based on the preventive and curable insurances that people seek from the agencies, it is vital that a small amount is deducted by the government and that politically it becomes accessible to the middle earners. Additionally, these healthcare services should have healthcare workers that are competent in the amount that is required for payment in a bid to ensure the value of a treatment program applies to the changing needs and amount charged in each disease. The insurance cover should also cater for the medicine since most of the healthcare points only diagnose, but fail to offer the applicable drugs to the ailment.
Figure 1: SHOWS the variants of people that have an access to healthcare, and those that lack the accessibility to the insurance services.
The importance of ensuring that UHC services are applicable might put a strain on the government, but instead, the amount that is needed by a hospital must be cut. If there is a relief to the middle earners and they get to only pay a smaller portion, it will also help in catering to the problems of the country like poverty and the livelihood standards of the population. They have been a hindrance on the amount the government can use in catering for the amount spend on medicine due to COVID 19. Institutions like DAVIS insurance services in the USA can be publicized where the government caters for the amount paid every month. In contrast, it is vital; that the government reduces the amount that is charged on the services to ensure accessibility to its citizens. Moreover, ensuring competence and that health workers are fully compensated is vital for the progress of the treatment and catering to the population. Having universal systems that cater for nearly all the expenses is vital for the middle-class earners to get freed off the hefty amount they have to pay from their small salaries. Since most hospitals and insurance companies are commercially based, the government can take ownership and ensure that people don’t have to pay a lot of money. It is vital that people will be offloaded off the monthly deductions and that taxes are used to ensure a healthy nation. In a bid to have the middle-class earners categorized as the poor. The Medicare and Medicaid Services and programs should be installed with fewer criteria to have the middle earners fit in the category that requires the financial aid desired. Often, the middle earners can be part of the low-class earners and those that have no jobs, and rely on their retirement benefits. The age structure and the dependability of the frail to the middle earners should be eradicated. The eradication of the high dependency rate can be done by ensuring the government offers full payment in case they fall sick and cater for the drugs required.
Since the provision of insurance services is to the Medicaid and Medicare services, the government must exclude the burden to the middle-income earners. When there is a reduction in the requirement for those that qualify for these services, it becomes easier to have access to the medicines and care needed (Wallach, et al., 2018). When it comes to long-term illnesses like diabetes and pressure, insulin and drugs for the management of the ailment must be favorable. Most middle-income earners do not have enough capital to ensure they pay for the subscriptions. Therefore, the institutions must have access to the services without factoring in the continuous deductions from their small salaries. When there is a program funding for cancer and terminal illnesses, there is a chance that the population feels the need for equality. Often, the high-class earners and people that are almost 30% of the total population in America do not feel the burden of catering for their medical insurances. Therefore, having people that are low-income earners and those that make middle money have an access to all the care, management of the population in America will be bearable. The state and the federal government should be highly involved with the services of care and that it becomes a law to have a healthy population (Bayham & Fenichel, 2020). Moreover, having a healthy and stable nation is the key to ensuring a state and all the countries in the USA are stable. There are countries in the world with maximum involvement in the payment process of healthcare and it is time that America took the consideration to have a healthy nation. The middle-income earners and low-income ones should be incorporated as a project to relieve the burden that comes with inaccessibility and affordability of healthcare.
Transparency is mainly based on how accessible true and reliable information is to the different parties that could show interest. Usually, transparency is overlooked because of the individuals with malicious desires. Several measures need to be taken as a solution. Purchasing drugs is a part that is manipulated by most healthcare centers (Papanicolas, et al., 2018). When it is clear where the medicine is purchased from, there is some basis of accountability. Different manufacturing companies are known based on how efficient and reliable their commodities are. Therefore, knowing exactly which one is servicing the needed medicines to which healthcare center will enable an increase in accountability. This can be achieved by putting up a board of directors to lead in the procurement. Each director will ensure that every step taken is known to them.
Quality will be a key factor of consideration when purchasing both the medicine and medical equipment. Lack of transparency promotes the possibility of using substandard medicines. The after-effects of these commodities are seen in the community as they are served with low quality. Quality medical equipment being purchased enables proper and quality processing of data and specimens which in turn produces proper diagnosis. Transparency on this can be achieved by doing thorough research before placing an order (Blomgren & Sahlin, 2017).
The upgrading of medical equipment is easily and effectively done when there is transparency. Usually, an upgrade takes time but it is easier to advocate for an upgrade especially in cases where questionable acts are not seen. Due to transparency, the tenders are given to the best companies and not just any company (Mackey, et al., 2018). Therefore, it promotes fair competition among those giving the services. Competition in most cases leads to excellence which is exactly what is offered where transparency prevails. Investing in outsourcing is a way of curbing this irregularity. The leadership should take time to visit different manufacturers and get qualified technicians to run the machines. The leadership can invest in training their employees on how to use the upgraded equipment.
Transparency in medicine and medical equipment is important because it ensures good, and up to standard services to all the social groups. Proper channels in giving different health practitioners a chance to work for the USA government will ensure the availability of the medical team to the middle and the low-class groups (Mackey, et al., 2018). It is a major problem in society to get doctors to attend to them because of how hard it is to secure a chance. Therefore, making them accessible will be better. This can be done by advertising the chances publicly and holding the interviews on a fair basis.
Increasing transparency in the information offered on the online platforms for them that seek to get their knowledge and answers from the different platforms will be reliable. This can be achieved by having a particular doctor respond to the online audience. The government can collaborate with the doctor’s union into allocating specific doctors for the online assignment. Moreover, for better response, the union can work towards creating a website that will be reachable for those that cannot afford to visit and pay a doctor (Anindya, et al., 2020).
Transparency in the employment of standard doctors will promote encouragement to the young generation. Those that are in school from both the low class and middle class will be encouraged to work towards such courses (Anindya, et al., 2020). Moreover, employing qualified doctors from other regions would make it easy for health care servicing. This would be easier in creating good relations among different countries. To identify the standard doctors, the government can create a portal that will have their names and therefore counter possibilities of fraud and poor services. Transparency in the doctors will ensure unquestionable personnel takes charge.
Conclusively, the best alternative will be to ensure that insurance services are offered to all people in America. It should not be only catered to the low earners since the middle ones struggle to put food on their table at times. The government must be involved in ensuring that Medicare and Medicaid services are accessible and that people will not strain to qualify for the services. Based on recent statistics, 91.4% of the population in the USA has access to healthcare insurance (Bernales-Baksai, 2020). However, the private sector makes 66.5%, with the public one only being 34.8%. It is an indication that the government should be more involved to ensure that coverage applies to those that cannot afford the private sector (Bernales-Baksai, 2020). The over dominance of the private services in ensuring care is catered through the private sector in most hospitals should be reduced. It is time the government took a stand and establishes free insurance for the middle earners and those that have a problem in affording and accessing the services. Therefore, if the government concentrates more on having the prices of medical care reduced as opposed to other factors like transparency, there will be a tremendous improvement in the medical field.
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Staphylococcus Aureus: Epidemiology, Prevention, Treatment Sample Assignment
Staphylococcus aureus is the main human pathogen that results in a variety of medical contaminations. Staphylococcus is both a commensal bacterium and a human pathogen (Tong et al., 2015). Close to 30% of the human population carry the germ in their noses (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021). The infections resulting from staph infections are likely to be severe or fatal. Bacteremia is the best-described exhibition of aureus infection. Several studies document the prevalence, prognosis, and outcome of aureus. The organism is well-known for its capacity to gain opposition against a variety of antibiotic classes.
S.aureus is a gram-positive bacterium that appears to be spherical. The S. aureus cells appear in clusters, often resembling grapes, mainly when perceived under the light microscope following gram staining. The electron microscope shows unevenly sphere shaped cells with level surfaces. The electron microscope depicts thick cell walls, distinct cytoplasmic membranes, and amorphous cytoplasm. Close to all segregates of S.aureus produce coagulase enzyme, which is a virulence influence that aids in identifying the bacterium. The bacterium tends to be salt-tolerant and can develop in mannitol-salt agar medium. The bacterium tends to be oxidase-negative and catalase-positive.
Virulence Factors and How They Affect the Host
Virulence factors refer to the factors a micro-organism produces that evokes diseases. S. Aureus produces several virulence factors. Some of them include hemolysis, proteases, leukocidins, exfoliative toxins, and immune-modulatory factors (Bien et al., 2011); aureus offers a combination of virulence factors that contain toxins, adhesins, and immunomodulatory molecules facilitating the infection of various host tissues. Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the host causing severe life-threatening ailments (Balasubramanian et al., 2017). The microbes live in and contaminate a widespread range of host tissues, from shallow surfaces to the skin and deep tissues for instance the heart and bones. Owing to the diverse regulatory networks in its possession, the pathogen can adapt to various environments modulating virulence.
According to Zychinsky and colleagues, structures known as neutrophil extracellular traps, which contain histones, chromatin, and azurophilic granule proteins, can kill bacteria aureus. Human neutrophils use oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent means to kill ingested micro-organisms (DeLeo et al., 2009). Hence, the neutrophils, a kind of white blood cell, ensnare attackers in neutrophil extracellular traps(NETS). The NETs are web-like structures of proteins and DNA.
The seized microbe is then wrecked by the amoeba-like white blood cells, which are identified as macrophages. S. aureus takes part in activating adaptive and innate immune systems (Karauzum & Datta, 2016). The innate immune response is triggered by outline recognition paths that help discover markers of microbial infection that are not specific, thus activating neutrophils. On the other hand, the adaptive immune kicks in later in the disease depending on the exhibition of bacterial antigens by antigen-presenting cells (Karauzum & Datta, 2016). Hence, the prevalence of aureus implies a decline in the functionality of adaptive immune responses.
Infectious Disease Information
Staphylococcus aureus results in skin infections and, at times, may result in endocarditis, pneumonia, and pneumonia. The bacteria is likely to result in abscess formation. Once the bacteria get to an individual’s body, it is highly spread to other organs and tissues, such as bones, joints, lungs, the heart, and the brain (Medline Plus, 2021). The skin infections that are left untreated result in severe and fatal disorders of the blood and bones. Individuals are likely to experience recurring infections with S. aureus. The ailment is associated with acute infections, wherein biofilms they are linked with chronic infections. Several staphylococcus aureus species are opportunistic pathogens that result in significant diseases (Coates et al., 2017). Staphylococcus aureus is a bacteria that mainly occurs on the humanoid skin, armpit, groin, and other areas.
There is no present vaccine to S. aureus infection. Any individual stands the risk of acquiring Staphylococcus though certain groups are highly susceptible to the ailment. The groups include individuals with cancer, eczema, lung disease, and individuals who inject themselves with drugs. The best prevention method against infection is by maintaining good hygiene and ensuring the frequent washing of hands. The fatal strain of S. aureus is prevented through the maintenance of hygienic practices such as hand washing. Equally, individuals should avoid overly crowded places and also avoid contact with other individuals.
Quinupristin-dalfopristin and linezolid are the two new antimicrobial agents available with action against drug-resistant staphylococci. The agents are efficacious against the organism as they are protein synthesis inhibitors with a gram-positive spectrum. Mechanism of action includes enzymatic hydrolysis of the beta-cell -lactum nucleus (Lowy, 2003). Also, there is the synthesis of dipeptide with a reduction in affinity for vancomycin. Other agents include glycopeptide, carbapenems, quinolones, oxazolidinones, and tetracyclines (Lowy, 2003). Also, several states are making an effort to come up with a vaccine against S. aureus. Also, there should be supportive care for individuals regarding medical advice on the preventative measures they need to put in place to evade infections.
S. aureus silently stays in the body of humans and could at times subject their lives to danger. Besides its capacity to outsmart the immune system, the pathogen serves as a multidrug resistance phenotype making it the most obstinate pathogenic microbe in the antibiotic chemotherapy antiquity. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus infection results from a kind of staph bacteria that results in resistance to several antibiotics. MRSA is a strain that is known in healthcare-associated with pathogens. Individuals who stand higher risks of MRSA include athletes, school students, military personnel in the barracks, and individuals who are inpatients in the medical sector. Several antibiotics are used against the MDR strain, and they include Polymyxins, Aminoglycosicides, Tigecycline, Carbapenems, Fosmycin, Ceftazidime, Meropenem, and Ceftotozolone.
In conclusion, Staphylococcus is a bacterial infection that mainly affects the nose and other body organs such as the lungs. The effects of the disease may be acute and, at other times, chronic. The types of microscopes used in viewing the organism are light and electron microscopes. The pathogens possess virulence factors that affect the immunity of the persons. However, the neutrophils aid in defense against S. aureus. Some of the infectious diseases it results in are pneumonia and skin infections. A vaccine is yet to be developed to fight against the infection. Thus, individuals are advised to maintain high levels of hygiene, avoid contact with other individuals and shun overcrowding to curb the acquisition of the disease. Quinupristin-dalfopristin and linezolid are the two new antimicrobial agents available with action against drug-resistant staphylococci. There are drug-resistant strains, and one is Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection which is clinically recognized. The are several antibiotics used in the prevention of MDR strain, and they include, Polymxins, Aminoglycosicides, Tigecycline, Carbapenems, Fosmycin, Ceftazidime, Meropenem and Ceftotozolone.
Balasubramanian, D., Harper, L., Shopsin, B., & Torres, V. J. (2017). Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis in diverse host environments. Pathogens and disease, 75(1), ftx005.
Bien, J., Sokolova, O., & Bozko, P. (2011). Characterization of virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus: novel function of known virulence factors that are implicated in activation of airway epithelial proinflammatory response. Journal of pathogens, 2011.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). Staphylococcus aureus in Healthcare Settings | HAI | CDC. Cdc.gov. https://www.cdc.gov/hai/organisms/staph.html.
Coates, R., Moran, J., & Horsburgh, M. J. (2014). Staphylococci: colonizers and pathogens of human skin. Future microbiology, 9(1), 75-91.
DeLeo, F. R., Diep, B. A., & Otto, M. (2009). Host defense and pathogenesis in Staphylococcus aureus infections. Infectious disease clinics of North America, 23(1), 17-34.
Karauzum, H., & Datta, S. K. (2016). Adaptive immunity against Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus, 419-439.
Lowy, F. D. (2003). Antimicrobial resistance: the example of Staphylococcus aureus. The Journal of clinical investigation, 111(9), 1265-1273.
Medline Plus. (2021). Pneumonia in adults – discharge: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Medlineplus.gov. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm.
Oogai, Y., Matsuo, M., Hashimoto, M., Kato, F., Sugai, M., & Komatsuzawa, H. (2011). Expression of virulence factors by Staphylococcus aureus grown in serum. Applied and environmental microbiology, 77(22), 8097-8105.
Tong, S. Y., Davis, J. S., Eichenberger, E., Holland, T. L., & Fowler Jr, V. G. (2015). Staphylococcus aureus infections: epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management. Clinical microbiology reviews, 28(3), 603-661.
Stewie Griffin – Family Guy Sample Paper
Stewie Griffin is portrayed as a one-year-old Caucasian male, although he could also be five years old as he attends preschool in later episodes. He is also unemployed but shows a keen mastery of mechanical and physical engineering (Lumen Learning, n.d.). Throughout the show, he designs things such as weather control, mind control, teleportation, and fighter jet devices. Stewie does not exhibit clear physical abnormalities, disorders, or illnesses, but there are certain observable health issues. For instance, he is quite hostile towards others, vindictive, and constantly defies authoritative figures and parental rules. Besides, Stewie lives with his parents, Lois and Peter Griffin. Notably, his father, Peter Griffin suffers from mild mental retardation, which was evident after he scored a 70 on an IQ test (Lumen Learning, n.d.). Despite this, Stewie’s parents dictate all aspects of his life, for example planning for playdates, and toys to play with.
Moreover, Stewie shows strong introversion in all social relationships. Currently, he has not established a close relationship or friendship with any of his family members (Lumen Learning, n.d.). This is mostly because he views people, especially his peers, as barriers in his journey toward achieving complete world domination. As a result, he constantly destroys lesser characters using guns, tanks, and other weaponry. It is also important to point out that while there are no consistent patterns of Stewie taking alcohol, he has consumed excessive amounts on various occasions. This poses a significant problem, as excessive use of alcohol for a one-year-old can severely hamper brain development. Stewie’s goal is to achieve world domination by getting rid of his mother first, who he considers to be a barrier. All his daily undertakings are meant to accomplish these objectives mostly through creating weapons like carjacking, forgery, and loan sharking. Despite this, Stewie also shows weaknesses of being an infant such as refusing to eat his vegetables and teething.
Stewie Griffin currently shows various symptoms showing oppositional defiant disorder. For instance, he is quite disobedient towards the authority and believes he is acting in the right manner (McKay, 2015). Stewie is also affected by delusional behaviors like holding conversations with Rupert, his stuffed teddy bear. Throughout the show, he does all he can to protect Rupert and avenges any act of malice directed at his beloved teddy bear. Stewie goes on to deliberately annoy people by constantly highlighting their inabilities and appearances. He even shows resentfulness and anger towards Luis Griffin, his mother, who he feels wrongly punishes her for the things he does to improve himself and achieve world domination. All these factors have made Stewie be a vindictive and spiteful man (McKay, 2015). Lastly, Stewie often uses a scapegoat to mask his failures; for example, when he fails to kill his mother, he blames her claiming that she is bitchy and unfair.
By looking at Peter Griffin, who suffers from mental retardation, it is evident that Stewie’s condition is an inherited family-based health problem (Martin, 2005). Peter has a short attention span and exhibits inappropriate and erratic behavior. Thus, it is conceivable that he suffers from ADHD or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Peter also has the frequent habit of trying to show his masculinity as he does not want Lois to fall in love with another man. Like Stewie, a majority of teens and children suffering from this behavioral problem have close family members living with mental disorders, personality complications, and anxiety. That said, there are other environmental factors behind Stewie’s condition such as dysfunctional family life, inconsistent parental disciplinary measures, and substance abuse (Martin, 2005). Likewise, the constant need to do better than his peers has reinforced Stewie’s vengeful behavior. Lastly, from a biological perspective, Stewie’s condition might be the result of injuries or defects to certain parts of the brain, which often cause behavioral disorders. The condition can also be linked to certain chemicals present in the brain known as neurotransmitters. These chemicals facilitate proper communication in the brain’s nerve cells, and when there is an imbalance; messages may not be delivered correctly causing certain behavioral symptoms.
Diagnosis: Oppositional Defiant Disorder
This is a condition where a child is often cranky, defiant, angry, vindictive, and combative towards those in authority. The child’s behavior often disrupts his daily routine, including activities both at school and at home (Nazario, 2020). Professionals in the field of psychology state that it is not surprising or unusual for children in their early teens and ‘terrible twos’ to show defiance towards authority once in a while. Their defiance is seen through disobedience and arguing with teachers, parents, and other adult figures. If such type of behavior lasts more than 6 months, then the child exhibits operational defiant disorder. Research shows that at least 16% of teens and children are suffering from this condition (Ogundele, 2018). For young children, the operational defiant disorder is common among boys. As they grow older, the condition affects both genders on an equal capacity. Note that a majority of children and teens living with this condition have clear behavioral issues such as learning disabilities, attention deficit problems, anxiety disorders, and depression.
By looking at Stewie Griffin, he clearly shows at least four symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (Lumen Learning, n.d.). He constantly blames others for his mistakes like blaming his dog Brian when he gets caught trying to blow up the kitchen. Stewie also loses his temper in many instances such as cursing and screaming at his mother when he is put in a baby chair. Likewise, Stewie is annoyed by every character and only seems to trust his teddy bear, Rupert, and Brian. This pattern of hostile, defiant behavior and negativism is a clear indicator that Stewie is indeed suffering from oppositional defiant disorder.
Additionally, disturbances in one’s behavior cause clinically significant impairment issues in academic, occupational, and social aspects. Stewie is socially impaired as he fails to nurture and develop his relationship, and instead views his peers as a barrier towards achieving his objectives, and should be defeated by any means possible (Lumen Learning, n.d.). As a result, he has failed to establish any fruitful relationship with other characters outside his family. Another evident symptom of oppositional defiant disorder is that it happens outside the standard levels of development, causing impaired functioning. Stewie’s behavior is not that of a normal one-year-old, and this causes impaired functioning such as coming up with strategies of taking his mother’s life. He is also seen on various occasions making weapons to finally achieve world domination.
Before diagnosing Stewie for Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), he was also showed impulse control impairment. This is a serious mental condition where the person has trouble controlling his behaviors and emotions. Many times, the behavior violates others’ rights and conflicts with the law and societal norms. This is also the tendency to act hastily without thinking. However, while Stewie has acted without thought such as seeking vengeance on his mother, such kind of behavior is quite common among children and is not always an indication of trouble (Lumen Learning, n.d.). In any case, Stewie is a clever boy who mostly seems to make calculated strategies and well-thought moves on those he considers as hindrances to his world domination. He has, therefore, developed an oppositional defiant disorder by being defiant and hostile to those around him. These defiant tendencies are brought about by the endless amount of rules such as when to eat and play (Martin, 2005). These rules have created an urge to finally escape and conquer the world. Unfortunately, to achieve this, he has to kill his mother who he feels is the person responsible for his ‘terrible’ predicament.
Successful intervention and treatment practices for any behavioral condition take place in a specific setting based on the recommendations and assumptions of the medical professional (SAMHSA, 2014). With the knowledge that children like Stewie tend to indulge in inconsequential behavior, without the slightest regard of their varying implications, choosing the best treatment plan will help in understanding the child and provide the conditions necessary for a quick recovery. Here, offering supportive psychological help is crucial to a successful recovery process.
First, many modern treatment interventions and behavioral models consider the family as a crucial part in the social-economic wellbeing of the child (Conger et al., 2010). They also offer useful insights into psychological wellness and assumptions from certain settings within the family. Hence, in Stewie’s case, a psychological treatment plan requires beneficial and supportive relationships based on health psychological, and social practices. Like Stewie, Children who have limited time with their parents because of total absence or separation live a miserable life as they lack certain essential survival needs offered by the family. Hence, Stewie’s aggressive tendencies have only emerged because has no healthy connection with any member of his family other than their dog, Brian. To solve this, therapy, medication, conducting frequent objectives and personality Assessment personality tests are some of the efficient and proven oppositional defiant disorder treatment methods.
When diagnosing oppositional defiant behavior, medical experts draw on their various clinical experiences to assess both their behavior and symptoms. They also use questionnaires in gathering information from different sources, such as teachers and parents. Normally, they look at three behavioral categories, which include irritability and anger, argumentativeness and defiance, and vindictiveness (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). For a child or adult to be diagnosed, he or she should show at least four recurrent symptoms. Similarly, different settings such as school or home can trigger such symptoms. Healthcare experts often categorize the severity of ODD based on the number of settings present. It could be mild for one setting, moderate for two settings, and severe for more than three settings.
Likewise, healthcare professionals will analyze other conditions that cause similar symptoms. For Stewie’s condition, this will include a careful examination of conduct, learning, attention deficit hyperactivity, and anxiety disorders. Sometimes, such conditions occur together with ODD symptoms. However, in other cases, behaviors triggered by other causes can often mimic oppositional defiant tendencies. For instance, people living with autism may have a rigid frame of thought, which creates irritability and defiance but are rarely vindictive. For Stewie, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is the recommended first step to seeking treatment for ODD (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). During these therapy sessions, it is important for the parent to actively participate in the session as it ensures they learn supportive behavioral management techniques. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or (CBT) will also ensure that Stewie replaces his irritability and defiance behavior with positive strategies and calming thoughts. Other objectives of CBT include identifying outbursts consequences and triggers, and learning techniques to regulate one’s emotions. This form of therapy further encourages self-monitoring emotional changes and uses relaxation techniques to help patients stay calm.
Moreover, for Stewie to get better, his parents, Peter and Luis Griffin should change their parental response patterns that encourage unwanted behavior. To do so, they will require parent management training where many parents are taught to pay no attention to attention-seeking behavior and reward appropriate child behavior. For instance, if Stewie uses a tantrum to get something, this training teachers parents to ignore such tantrums when used later. There is also a need for a parent to child interaction therapy sessions where the therapist gets to monitor the level of interaction between parents and their children. For Stewie, this therapeutic session will help in mending the rift between him and his parents. At present, there is conflict and anger directed towards his mother while he seems to share no bond with his father. Finally, Stewie should be taught collaborative problem solving that recognizes that people living with oppositional defiant behavior lack the skills and desire to get along with others. Instead of forcing their beliefs on others, this initiative will teach Stewie how to reach a middle ground using both compromise and proper communication.
For those living with oppositional defiant disorder, medications help in addressing the coexisting health issues (Hamilton & Armando, 2008). For instance, stimulant medication eases the frustrations caused by symptoms of ADHD which in turn decreases symptoms of ODD. These stimulant medications have proven effective in improving ODD symptoms in children like Stewie who suffer from impulsive behavior. Examples of such stimulants include mixed amphetamine salt and methylphenidate. Another effective medication is atypical antipsychotics, which are mainly used in reducing the aggressiveness of ODD (Hamilton & Armando, 2008). Doctors can prescribe in cases where stimulant medication and therapy have failed to work. For Stewie’, this should be the last treatment option as it can result in potentially detrimental hormonal, neurologic and metabolic complications.
Regular Objective Personality Tests
An objective personality test is a psychological assessment used to measure the characteristics of an individual. Here, the beliefs of the examiner do not influence it hence it is said to be free from bias. They usually involve asking a bulk of questions compared and marked against a standard scoring model similar to how school examinations are administered (Ortner & Proyer, 2015).
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
This test follows the personality theory by Carl Jung. Over the years, it has grown into a famous personality assessment technique, especially in non-clinical populations. Unfortunately, though, the method faces notable criticisms for its low reliability and poor statistical validity (Ortner & Proyer, 2015). Despite such concerns, the test continues to provide objective personality assessments across the following bi-polar dimensions. When analyzing Stewie’s condition, will help in evaluating his attitudes to determine whether he is an introvert or extrovert.
Second, it will measure Stewie’s ability to perceive different situations or whether he can interpret or understand new data through intuition (King, 2017). The method will also measure his thinking-feeling or judging function to determine whether he is empathetic or rational when making decisions. Lastly, this self-report measuring technique tries to understand one’s lifestyle preferences (Ortner & Proyer, 2015). How does Stewie relate to the environment in and around him? Does he use the feeling-thinking function, or is he still a perceived individual who trusts his intuition. Other relevant tests include:
- Neo Pi-R
This method is designed to measure a person’s characteristic traits following the five-factor way. Using this model, the five personalities include extroversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, agreeableness, and neuroticism (Ortner & Proyer, 2015).
This personality factor, self-report measuring inventory, evaluates one’s character using the 16-factor personality theory by Cattell. The technique is quite applicable in clinical settings and assists psychologists and mental health practitioners in providing an accurate diagnosis of various psychiatric disorders. It also helps in therapy planning and prognosis (Ortner & Proyer, 2015).
Personality and Reliability Assessment: The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
Reliability, in this case, is the overall consistency of a given measure and its capability of producing similar findings under consistent or within the right conditions. Validity is the extent to which a conclusion, measurement, or concept is founded with information that directly corresponds to the real world. Now, different personality assessments today differ when it comes to levels of reliability and validity. Objective tests, such as the Neo Pi-R and Myers-Briggs are considered free from examination bias or influence. As such, they are said to be more valid as compared to the projective tests. The only challenge with objective criteria is their overreliance on individuals providing authentic and accurate information on their character and behavior.
To account for these weaknesses, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory tests have been adopted to help in collecting credible data in both non-clinical and clinical populations This includes reliability and validity scales together with the standard clinical scales. In the validity scale, there is the Lie Scale, which has fifteen items that help ascertain whether the examinee is providing fake psychological problems to appear healthier. An excellent example of such a scenario is when someone says that they have never committed an offense or lied, just to look better than others (Ortner & Proyer, 2015).
On the other hand, reliability scales the consistency of the instrument over time. This is meant to ensure that if the MMPI test is administered on someone today, then five years later, the data collected should be 100% similar. Interestingly, in a past case study, the test was conducted on a group of police officers (Ortner & Proyer, 2015). This first trial showed that they were susceptible to alcoholism, anxiety, and somatic symptoms. Once the same test was administered two years later, it found the same individuals to suffer from a high risk of alcoholism and related complications.
Moreover, many of the first MMPI model limitations were later corrected in the updated MMP1-2, increasing their overall usefulness. For instance, the first MMP1 was for clinical applications only with normative samples consisting of patients with psychiatric conditions. In the MMP1-2, however, normative samples represent a broad demographic, thereby expanding its application mode. Other tests, like the ‘Eysenck Personality Questionnaire,’ were created to provide excellent validity and reliability (Ortner & Proyer, 2015). There is also a huge chunk of research demonstrating the rational use of this personality self-report measure. As previously mentioned, there are different types of objective personality assessments. The second edition MMPI is now the most preferred method because of its accuracy. Despite the advantages seen in these personality tests, sadly, they are also marred by a significant number of disadvantages. These strengths and weaknesses include:
This is one of the growing disadvantages of using the objective personality test. Unlike other tests which provide simple insights into a person’s character, objective criteria like MMP1-2 determine outcome and predictions of treatment for the patient. This often takes a lot of time, considering the MMP1-2 contains almost 570 items to review (Ortner & Proyer, 2015).
- Time and Cost
This is one key advantage of using objective personality tests. They are quite cost-effective and use paper sources that can be kept in a simple filling system or a machine. Furthermore, they are carried out at the discretion of the patient. This makes them more convenient than projective tests, which require professional use of testing equipment. Hence, unlike objective assessments, projective tests do not allow patients to carry equipment or questionnaires home and return them later (Ortner & Proyer, 2015).
- They Are ‘Objective’
Just like the name states, these objective tests are direct, making the collection of data quite simple. They also remove the possibility of biasness from the examiner. While this is a huge benefit, scorers should be vigilant in correcting score procedures to avoid awful cases of misdiagnoses (Ortner & Proyer, 2015).
- The Risk of False Information
There is a possibility that the one taking the test may provide incorrect or fake information. While a method like the MMPI-2 has taken significant measures to prevent this from happening using its validity scale, others like the Myers-Briggs are vulnerable to lies, misinformation, and biasness (Ortner & Proyer, 2015).
Lastly, note that objective tests like self-report measures are some of the best and reliable methods of measuring an individual’s personality. Therefore, it is not surprising that many psychologists and medical practitioners are using them to identify and treat mental disorders like that of Stewie. Outside the clinical perspective, they are also crucial in evaluating performance levels among employees in large and small organizations. However, there is still room for improving these tests. For instance, they are too rigid by only prescribing ‘yes’ and ‘no’ answers and should be carefully modified to incorporate additional opinions or information.
Any normal person watching family guy would agree that Stewie Griffin is growing in a rather abnormal way, compared to his average peers. On the other hand, someone with knowledge in behavioral psychology will see that Stewie is suffering from oppositional defiant disorder. Stewie is a cartoon character introduced to assist in breaking the barrier of normal growth and development for babies. He even shows the perceived inability of an infant through the eyes of their parents. Conclusively, this show explains oppositional defiant disorder by creating a strong character that exhibits every aspect or symptom of this disorder. Even though Stewie fails to accurately portray the average one-year-old, he is still a child and infant suffering from this serious mental health condition. Thus, to effectively mitigate this problem, Stewie and his parents should take part in cognitive behavioral therapy together with other engaging therapeutic sessions. He should also be provided with the right medications followed by constant personality tests to prevent the occurrence of related mental complications in the future.
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