Spinal Muscular Atrophy Sample Paper

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a hereditary disorder that weakens and wastes away muscles due to damage to the motor neurons in the spinal cord. It results from a change in the SMN1 gene on chromosome 5. SMA can present in different forms, ranging from severe infantile-onset SMA to milder forms that may appear later in childhood or adulthood (Keinath et al., 2021). To offer the best care for persons with SMA, a thorough care plan must be designed to accommodate their needs.

Physical care is an essential element of caring for patients with SMA. Nurses should assist with actual living and mobility to maximize independence and prevent complications associated with muscle weakness. Collaboration with physical and occupational therapists is vital to design individualized exercise and stretching regimens that can assist in preserving muscle strength and flexibility (Serra-Juhe & Tizzano., 2019). These workouts can be tailored to a person’s capabilities and help them become more functional overall. Additionally, educating the client and their family about proper positioning, adaptive devices, and assistive technologies can enhance their ability to perform activities and improve their comfort.

Another crucial aspect of care for those with SMA is respiratory support. People with SMA run the risk of respiratory issues because their respiratory muscles are weak. Regular monitoring of respiratory function is required to spot any changes as soon as they occur. This includes checking vital signs, oxygen saturation, and respiratory effort. When necessary, non-invasive ventilation, breathing exercises, and appropriate airway clearance techniques can be implemented with the help of respiratory therapists (Serra-Juhe & Tizzano., 2019). Education of the client and their family on signs of respiratory distress and when to seek medical care is vital to ensure timely intervention and prevent respiratory problems.

Care for those with SMA also includes providing them and their loved ones emotional and social support. The diagnosis of SMA can have profound psychological effects on the affected person and their family. Nurses should provide emotional support, acknowledging the challenges and difficulties they may face and facilitating open communication. Connecting individuals and families with support groups or online communities can provide a sense of belonging and allow sharing of experiences and coping strategies (Keinath et al., 2021). Collaboration with social workers or psychologists can address psychological distress and provide additional support and counselling.

Nutritional support is essential for individuals with SMA, as they may experience swallowing difficulties and have specific energy requirements. Nurses should assess the client’s nutritional status and provide appropriate dietary recommendations. Collaboration with dietitians can help develop a well-balanced diet, addressing potential weight loss or nutritional deficiencies (Serra-Juhe & Tizzano., 2019). It is essential to consider modified textures, feeding techniques, and the need for supplementation to ensure that the individual receives adequate nutrition. For the client’s overall well-being and to maintain optimal health, it is crucial to educate the client’s family about methods for ensuring proper nutrition.

Considering potential ethical conundrums when caring for people with SMA is crucial. Access to genetic testing should be egalitarian so that all individuals can make informed decisions about their health. Addressing societal biases and prejudices associated with genetic conditions can promote inclusivity and reduce stigmatization (Jablonka et al., 2020). Providing comprehensive reproductive counselling supports family planning decisions, including options such as prenatal testing, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, and adoption. Nurses should respect the client’s autonomy and provide accurate information to facilitate informed decision-making.

An interprofessional approach is necessary for the optimal care of individuals with SMA. Genetic counsellors provide specialized expertise in genetic counselling, discussing the genetic condition, inheritance patterns, recurrence risks, and available testing options. Physical and occupational therapists offer expertise in maximizing mobility, strength, and functional independence through tailored exercise programs and assistive devices (Keinath et al., 2021). Respiratory therapists are crucial in managing respiratory function and implementing airway clearance techniques and non-invasive ventilation strategies. Social workers provide psychosocial support, connect families with community resources, and assist in navigating financial and insurance-related challenges (Jablonka et al., 2020). Nutritionists/dietitians develop personalized dietary plans to ensure adequate nutrition and address specific needs related to SMA. Collaboration among these healthcare professionals ensures comprehensive care that addresses the diverse needs of individuals with SMA.

Educational resources play a significant role in planning care for individuals with SMA. Disease-specific websites and online platforms provide comprehensive information about SMA, treatment options, ongoing research, and support networks. Educational materials from genetic advocacy organizations offer resources on genetic conditions, genetic testing, and available support services (Keinath et al., 2021). Staying updated with scientific literature and research articles helps nurses stay informed about the latest SMA management and therapies advancements. Attending webinars and conferences allows for learning from experts, sharing experiences, and networking with other healthcare professionals involved in SMA care. Ongoing education and professional advancement enable nurses to deliver care based on empirical evidence and assist clients, and their families in making knowledgeable choices regarding their health and welfare.

In conclusion, developing a comprehensive care plan for individuals with Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) involves addressing physical care, respiratory support, psychosocial support, and nutritional needs. Ethical considerations related to genetic testing, genetic prejudice, and reproductive choices should be considered. The quality of treatment given to people with SMA is improved using interprofessional resources, such as genetic counsellors, physical and occupational therapists, respiratory therapists, social workers, and nutritionists/dietitians. Nurses can also deliver evidence-based care and assist patients, and their families in making knowledgeable decisions about their health and well-being by including educational resources. Nurses can enhance the general well-being and quality of life of people with SMA by using a holistic and cooperative approach.


Jablonka, S., Hennlein, L., & Sendtner, M. (2022). Therapy development for spinal muscular atrophy: perspectives for muscular dystrophies and neurodegenerative disorders. Neurological research and practice4(1), 1-32. https://doi.org/10.1186/s42466-021-00162-9

Keinath, M. C., Prior, D. E., & Prior, T. W. (2021). Spinal muscular atrophy: mutations, testing, and clinical relevance. The Application of Clinical Genetics, 11-25. DOI: 10.2147/TACG.S239603

Serra-Juhe, C., & Tizzano, E. F. (2019). Perspectives in genetic counselling for spinal muscular atrophy in the new therapeutic era: early pre-symptomatic intervention and test in minors. European Journal of Human Genetics27(12), 1774-1782. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-019-0415-4

Sports Organization Bylaws Comparison Essay Example For College


Comparing and analyzing the bylaws of FIFA & NBA is what this essay intends to accomplish. An organization’s operations are bound by the guidelines set out in its bylaws which detail its governance structure. Understanding the bylaws of sports organizations is essential for understanding how they operate by their goals and values (Aghey, 2020). This essay will examine how FIFA & NBA utilize key mechanics, including Governance Structure, Membership Criteria, and Decision-Making Procedures, to streamline system functionality while retaining steadfast commitment towards their inherent values.

Governance Structure

FIFA’s and the NBA’s operations are controlled using specific guidelines detailed in their governing documents. FIFA has established a hierarchical structure where its supreme power vests in the FIFA Congress as per its bylaws. Every member association within the Congress is given a vote proportionate to its number of members. FIFA’s Executive Committee is accountable for executing Congress’s verdicts and monitoring special committees devoted to specific territories of football advancement. By using a top-down approach, there is the assurance of both centralized decision-making and global representation.

Compared to other leagues, the NBA has a more dispersed governance model, with the critical decisions made by the NBA’s main decision-making group – The Board of Governors – representing each team. Voting rights rest with each team’s proprietor, with large verdicts requiring approval from at least three-quarters of them (Halevy, 2012), while both organizations have governing bodies accountable for making decisions; the difference between FIFA and NBA lies in their organizational structures. While FIFA has a more centralized approach reflecting its worldwide authority over football governance, the NBA has embraced decentralization by incorporating the preferences of individual teams into maintaining their collective competitions.

Membership Criteria

FIFA and NBA’s respective bylaws specify guidelines that must be met to become an affiliated organization, and national associations are required to meet certain membership criteria laid out in FIFA’s bylaws. These criteria include holding independent football activities and following FIFA’s statutes. At the same time, the network of affiliated bodies is extended via delineated membership categories set out specifically for continental and regional confederations as discussed within these bylaws.

The NBA requires adherence to specific conditions specified within its bylaws which define how a team may join its ranks, and the most commonly observed criteria while considering a team’s eligibility include their financial status and ability to comply with ownership stipulations while also upholding guidelines put forth by respective leagues. Membership to NBA franchises is granted only after scrutiny ensuring conformity to the league’s guidelines and ability to elevate professional basketball.

Decision-Making Processes

If one refers to the bylaws of each organization – FIFA and the NBA, respectively – there is a full explanation of how they reach decisions. Important decisions are made during the FIFA Congress meeting through a voting system where member associations vote. Certain matters, such as amendments to the statutes or electing the FIFA President, require Congressional approval with a two-thirds majority instead of just a simple one (Follert, 2020); while it differs from this case, NBA’s decision-making process involves the members of its board. Three-quarters of all team owners must agree when making crucial decisions like changing rules or establishing contracts. In contrast, the person entrusted with proposing and executing important league-related decisions is the NBA Commissioner, chosen by the Board of Governors. FIFA and the NBA’s decision-making processes are influenced by both their organizational structures as well as the nature of their respective sports

Reflection on Mission Alignment

FIFA and the NBA share similar guiding principles that drive their actions; these principles are reflected in each organization’s governing documents. FIFA is committed to promoting soccer globally, fostering honesty and an equitable playing field for all players via specific clauses included in its bylaws. The objectives conveyed through NBA’s bylaws are consistent with the association’s efforts to grow basketball while endorsing values such as teamwork and inclusivity along with entertaining audiences (Follert, 2020), and the NBA’s governance structure lays great emphasis on ensuring the overall success of the sport along with promoting fair competition amongst teams while upholding its integrity.


By analyzing FIFA’s and NBA’s bylaws comparatively, it is clear that there are some shared elements related to the governance structure and mission alignment and some distinctive ones concerning membership criteria. FIFA’s governing structure is focused on representing football worldwide, whereas the more decentralized management approach by NBA seeks to balance diverse individual team interests under one umbrella organization. By enforcing specific requirements aligned with each sport’s nature, FIFA & NBA ensure that affiliated bodies & teams comply with established standards in terms of both excellence & morality. Their organizational structure has influenced how they make decisions, using collective or league-wide approaches.FIFA’s bylaws focus on promoting fair play in football while simultaneously growing the sport worldwide – a mission also reflected in the NBA’s aim of supporting basketball growth. These regulations have a critical role in preserving an institution’s objectives and ethics by directing its running procedures and molding the essence of each sport.


Aghey, C. (2020). Integration of eSports in the Structure of Ifs: Disruption or Continuity? The International Sports Law Journal20(3-4), pp. 120–125.

Follert, F., Richau, L., Emrich, E., & Pierdzioch, C. (2020). Collective decision-making: FIFA from the perspective of public choice. The Economists’ Voice17(1).

Halevy, N., Chou, E. Y., Galinsky, A. D., & Murnighan, J. K. (2012). When hierarchy wins: Evidence from the national basketball association. Social Psychological and Personality Science3(4), 398–406.

SR For Nursing Safety Essay Sample For College


The assigned paper examines the possible application of speech recognition (SR) technology to improve the efficiency and quality of nursing documentation. SR software enables nurses to use voice commands to enter paperwork into the electronic health record (EHR). Regarding patient safety, this technology brings both opportunities and concerns (McCartney, 2013). Potential patient safety hazards derived from the article include flaws in transcription due to misinterpretation of spoken words, variations and dictation style affect variances ng accuracy, and potential errors in the final documented text (McCartney, 2013). These concerns can jeopardize patient safety by resulting in erroneous information in the EHR, miscommunication among healthcare practitioners, and potential adverse events.

NPSG Goals:

The following goals can be addressed based on the 2022 National Patient Safety Goals (NPSG) to alleviate the possible patient safety concerns connected with the usage of speech recognition technology:

  1. a) Goal 1: Improve patient documentation accuracy: This goal guarantees that correct and complete patient information is documented in the EHR. By addressing this goal, healthcare institutions can reduce the likelihood of transcription errors caused by misinterpretation of spoken language.
  2. b) Goal 2: Improve healthcare provider communication: Communication is critical for patient safety. Healthcare organizations can limit the hazards associated with variation and dictation style by invariances cementing ways to improve communication when employing SR technology and guaranteeing precise and accurate information flow among healthcare practitioners.


Healthcare institutions can use the following ways to meet the identified NPSG goals:

  1. a) Education and training: Provide complete SR technology training to healthcare providers, including accurate enunciation and dictation skills. Training programs should highlight the necessity of clear and succinct speech to achieve proper transcribing.
  2. b) Quality assurance and monitoring: Create a method to monitor and assess the accuracy of the transcribed documents regularly. This can include auditing and reviewing SR-generated content regularly to find any discrepancies or inaccuracies. Healthcare practitioners should be given feedback to help them improve their dictation abilities and solve any reoccurring concerns.
  3. c) Integration with EHR: Collaborate closely with informatics teams to ensure that SR software is seamlessly integrated with the EHR. Real-time transcribing, automatic formatting, and standardized templates should all be included in this integration. These features can help improve the accuracy and consistency of nursing documentation.
  4. d) Ongoing improvement and updates: Stay informed about improvements in SR technology and interact with manufacturers regularly to investigate new features and enhancements. Conduct continual research and review of the literature to identify best practices and share experiences with the use of SR for nursing documentation. This strategy for continuous improvement will ensure that technology advances following patient safety goals.

By employing these practices, healthcare organizations can limit the possible patient safety risks connected with using SR technology for nursing documentation. These measures aim to increase accuracy, boost communication, and ensure quality assurance. By resolving the hurdles and optimizing the potential benefits for patient safety, it is critical to maintain a balance between the benefits and hazards of SR technology.


Finally, the future application of speech recognition technology for nursing documentation offers prospects to improve speed and quality. However, it also raises patient safety risks due to transcription errors and communication difficulties. Healthcare organizations can avoid these hazards and improve patient safety in SR technology by addressing the defined NPSG goals and applying tactics like training, monitoring, integration, and continuous improvement.


McCartney, P. R. (2013). Speech recognition for nursing documentation. MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing38(5), 320. https://doi.org/10.1097/NMC.0b013e31829c0ae0

National Patient Safety Goals® Effective January 2022 for the Hospital Program (n.d.). https://www.jointcommission.org/-/media/tjc/documents/standards/national-patient-safety-goals/2021/npsg_chapter_hap_jan2021.pdf