Spiritual Leadership Book Reflection Essay Example For College

A reflection of chapters three and four of Spiritual Leadership by Henry and Richard Blackaby provides deep insights into leadership and the role of divinity. Chapter three provides a discussion of a leader’s preparation and spiritual development (Blackaby & Blackaby, 2017). It focuses on the natural elements of this development that are influenced by worldly aspects and provides an overview of divine factors that influence a leader’s development. This chapter has changed my leadership perspective and enabled me to acknowledge the critical side of divine influence. I now realize that despite leadership being sought after through worldly means such as popularization in democratic settings, there is a need to seek divine direction. Leadership cannot hold through worldly means alone without divine influence. Leaders who ignore this second divine aspect while focusing on the earthly aspect fall short and may fail to deliver their mandate.

Chapter four of the book focuses on a leader’s vision and the role of God or divine influence in this. The chapter emphasizes that a good vision is only borne of God’s revelation to his leaders on earth (Blackaby & Blackaby, 2017). The authors enumerate the role of vision in motivating people as it helps keep them focused on set goals. Proper communication of vision by leaders is a critical aspect of their responsibility to the people they lead. This chapter has enabled me to decipher vision as a vital aspect of any leader, and the lack of vision is a recipe for catastrophe. I have learned that as a leader, I must ensure that the people under my direction understand and support my vision. Above all, I must keep God at the center of everything to ensure that the vision has divine backing and support to avoid failure.

Reference

Blackaby, H. T., & Blackaby, R. (2017). Spiritual leadership: Moving people on to God’s agenda. Heart Cry.

Followership And Leadership In Healthcare

Abstract

This paper aims to identify patterns of the followership styles and their relation to the leadership styles with a particular emphasis on the healthcare sector. The analysis is based on a review of scholarly articles on the interaction between followership and leadership in healthcare. The results reveal that there are different forms of followership type with the primary model encompassing “alienated,” “passive,” “conformist,” and “exemplary” followers. Further, the results show that the most prevalent leadership styles are the thought, courageous, inspirational, and servant leaders. Followership and leadership need to interact positively for the benefit of healthcare administration for the ultimate delivery of quality services. Furthemore, the paper will focus on the followership and leadership assessment and how the respect followers can improve on the areas that need adjustment. It will entail a five-year development plan that indicates how leaders and followers can work of their respective abilities using different approaches.

Introduction

Leaders make decisions within organizations and cause others to support and implement the resolutions. Leaders utilize rewards, binding force, and interpretations of culture to obtain the collaboration of others. Leadership in its highest form develops a common understanding with followers and changes their primary ways of thinking. This paper seeks to create a comprehensive list of desirable followership styles and traits. It also highlights the leadership styles and qualities specific to the healthcare administration field and role. The description further involves a discussion of the importance of each of the styles and traits to success, especially in the healthcare administration field and role. Principally, followership and leadership are important in healthcare since they facilitate the delivery of quality and safe services to the patients.

Relationship between Followership and Leadership Styles and Their Traits

Followership is the capacity for subjects to meritoriously obey the instructions and back the determination of a leader to make the best use of a structured organization. Stewart (2019) states that followership does not depict any form of negativity, but people generally associate it with undesirable and patronizing words like weak, passive, and compliant. Leadership entails the power to influence people in the desired direction. A leader has to exercise the mandate through different ways that define their role in ensuring the organization attains the intended objectives.

Followership has further been described into different variations such as “bystanders”, “isolates”, “activists”, “participants”, and “diehard” or ‘resource’, ‘partner’, ‘implementer’, and ‘individualistic’ (Bjugstad et al., 2006). However, according to Stewart (2019), the main typology of followership involves the ‘alienated’ follower who is independent, proficient, and a critical thinker. Secondly, the “passive” follower is judged to lack ambition and novelty and is therefore inclined to be highly reliant and under-enthusiastic in performing their mandate (Gardam, 2020). Thirdly, the “conformist” follower seeks to satisfy the leader’s desires by praising the ruler’s decisions and actively implementing them. However, they do not analytically participate in formulating the decisions or their mode of implementation. Lastly, “exemplary” followers have the potency to question the leadership, and they are innovative and independent; hence highly critical to the success of any organization (Bjugstad et al., 2006; Thornton, 2013). They can easily interact with other associates and present themselves reliably to all they associate with.

Leadership is perceived to be of more excellent value than followership because it effectively coordinates activities to accomplish the objectives. Varpio and Teunissen (2020) state that in rewarding leaders, followers are generally forgotten despite their active role in making the success. That’s why there has been little consideration for followership compared to leadership. In general, people feel uncomfortable using the term ‘followers’ hence the low level of research on the topic. Therefore, effective leadership ought to let lose the optimum potential of the followers to propel them to reach greater heights and go farther than they formerly thought (Gnambs, 2017). Such leadership is founded on the belief that people, groups, and even countries hold undiscovered capacities and unexploited wealth.

In general, influential leaders can be summed up into four main types: 1. Thought leaders seek to tie together the power of thinking to realize change by actively stretching the followers to visualize new potentials. 2. Courageous leaders come out strongly to chase their vision irrespective of any risks or opposition. They strongly believe in their purpose/mission, values, and long-term goals/vision. 3. Servant leaders come out as individuals who sincerely care for others. Bjugstad et al. (2006), manifest this character by removing the blockades and impediments that hold others from attaining their unlimited potential. They make every effort to craft an environment where their followers can do their finest work leading to better results.

Finally, inspirational leaders are characterized by their prospect to support change by the supremacy of their zealous pledge to accepted wisdom and ideals. They can engage their gift and use the power of words to stir up confidence make stronger convictions that inspire others to act. They have positive attitudes that build solid emotional relations with people. In research by Varpio & Teunissen (2020), it is stated that inspirational leaders prefer to use words such as freedom, justice, pride, honor, respect, and love that bring people together and inspire hope. Their encouraging conduct shapes the self-confidence of their followers and provokes their unswerving commitment. Inspirational leaders can easily explain the importance of their preferred course of action in urgent situations and detail the actionable steps people need to embrace.

Followership and Leadership Expectations in Healthcare Administration

Leadership is a crucial element in attaining organizational objectives, particularly in healthcare. Healthcare administration involves various operations through different people, systems, and other resources. Garcia (2017) argues that administrations across different sectors call for effective leadership to attain the preferred result of high-quality and safe care. Skilled leadership inspires productivity, quality care, innovation, and creating a culture in which the followers tend to be more supported, empowered, and motivated. The outstanding traits of followership in healthcare administration are the ‘alienated’ follower and servant leadership. The preference for the alienated follower is supported by their capacity to act independently, proficiently, and be critical in analyzing situations. Such attributes will help the follower to ensure they provide the best possible care to the patients. On the other hand, servant leadership is preferred because it is founded on caring for others who mainly involve the patients requiring critical care.

The present-day healthcare environment presents complex challenges, such as globalization, shifting population demographics, tricky economic considerations, uneven government policies, and informational and medical technologies changes. The difficulties require the healthcare administration to implement constant reforms due to factors both within and out of its control. The situation further calls for effective leadership and followership. Varpio & Teunissen (2020) state that the players in the medical realm must balance their interests to produce a leader or follower distinctiveness from moment to moment. Such strewn leadership practices lead to reduced errors, infection, and mortality, better patient experience, improved staff morale, and abridged staff absenteeism and job-related stress (Blanken, 2021; Allen et al., 2018). In addition, through effective leadership, the followers, including those in non-formal positions, such as medical trainees, learn essential qualities required of them throughout their careers and cultivate a leadership character.

Furthermore, healthcare leadership is informed by evidence-based practices (EBP) that support change and upgraded patient outcomes. It is expected that the followership and leadership in healthcare will involve creating multi-disciplinary teams that provide better healthcare delivery systems (Stewart, 2019). In light of the constant changes in healthcare, the practitioners are expected to learn new competencies that are needed in transforming healthcare delivery. Competent and compassionate leadership can be attained by simply certifying that the roles are performed well and upcoming practitioners are supported in growing the career. Better leadership can be facilitated by finding opportunities to enhance the clinical skills and general knowledge of people who provide healthcare services. Schattke and Marion-Jetten (2021) indicate that such can be facilitated through basic training provided by arranging workshops and seminars, using training manuals, or deploying online training to show the commitment to the profession across the organizational local, and international settings.

Followership and Leadership Assessment

It is important for individuals to evaluate to understand their followership and leadership abilities. In a healthcare setting, various operations require personnel to follow an expert and the guidelines given during and off duty. It is important to comprehend and work together with supervisors on different occasions (Malakyan, 2014). Similarly, one can lead others to perform a given task or be the head of the department responsible for managing crucial activities within the hospital. Therefore, a person should evaluate personal strengths and areas worth improvement to be a good follower and a manager.

Followership Strengths

Commitment

I am always committed to ensuring that all the directives given by the administration are executed in the intended order to enhance the safety and quality of the services. Working in a health care unit is very demanding from all directions, which requires an assurance to the leader that all duties will be managed accordingly. Whenever I commit to doing a given task, I give it my best for optimal outcomes.

Effective Listening

As a follower, in most cases, I take orders from the supervisor. Healthcare entails complex details that require an individual to be very keen and have the good listening ability. To be able to understand and put into action the directives, I ensure I take my time to listen effectively to the instructions. It is essential to ensure the required procedures are followed accordingly without any mistake that can risk a patient’s wellbeing.

Correct Judgment

Followership entails following directions and orders issued by the administration. It requires an individual to be careful and only execute moral instructions. I have a good judgment ability to distinguish between unethical practices and the right actions (De Zilwa, 2016). The capability enables me to work on the appropriate acts. Deciding on what to do after directives is significant in the health sector because it enhances quality and safety.

Ego Management

Working amongst people and following directives needs a strong sense of understanding oneself. Healthcare requires corporation and engagement with other staff members. I can manage my ego to enhance the ability to fit and collaborate effectively with my supervisor at work. I have significant interpersonal skills that enable me to relate with people, which contributes to the success of the task. Character management is a vital aspect of my development in the field of healthcare administration.

Areas that Require Improvement in Followership

Courage

Courage is an essential element that a follower should possess as the main trait. It enables individuals to confront the leader about issues that might be off the work. I feel scared most of the time, and I find it challenging to challenge my supervisor (Gobble, 2017). Improving this aspect would make it easier for me to correct minor mistakes unintentionally by the supervisor. Having courage would also facilitate my ability to participate effectively in different areas of health care administration.

Competence

As a follower, one should have the necessary skills to perform the required tasks. Sometimes I find it challenging to undertake some duties delegated because I lack experience and knowledge on how to handle them. Improving my competence would hence my ability to play the roles in every position I hold in the administration. Therefore, to become a good devotee, I should have arrays of competencies in the field.

Leadership Strengths

Confident

A leader must show followers what to do, and to achieve this, it requires self-confidence. Leading by example is necessary in healthcare administration, in most cases, critical decisions are needed, and it is through self-assurance that other workers will believe in the option taken (Kumar, 2013). I am an assertive person, making it easier to instill courage amongst practitioners to enhance their output within the unit.

Excellent Communication Skills

Healthcare is sensitive since it deals with issues of patients’ lives that are vital. Therefore it requires fluent and direct communication when issuing orders. I can communicate effectively to people, making it easier to give directives in a simple, understandable term. The precise and detailed statement is useful in enabling health workers to remember the directions provided before commencing their duties.

Mentoring Ability

Like any other worker, health professionals require strong mentorship to enable them to overcome challenges they face in the work setting. I have the ability to connect and advise members on different problems they are encountering, which can hinder their productivity (Brumm & Drury, 2013). The guidance is helpful, especially for the new staff that joins the team to adapt to the environment quickly and at ease without taking a long duration.

Situation Awareness

I have the capability of understanding the happenings within the environment. This aspect is significant in comprehending what is going on amongst members that can affect or improve the delivery of services in the facility (West et al., 2014). Situational awareness prepares leaders to react if things are not in order, and immediate intervention is needed to improve the condition. The ability enables one to anticipate the actions of the physician; thus, immediate counter-measure is taken.

Areas that need Improvement in Leadership

Self-Reflection

Self-reflection is significant for an individual to have an insight into oneself. As a leader, it’s appropriate to have the ability to evaluate and recognize patterns of events. Reflecting allows for connecting areas that performed well and those that require improvement, thus making it easier to develop ways of overcoming the challenges. Reviewing personal behavior is critical in enhancing interpersonal development.

Inability to Delegate Duty

In a healthcare facility, there are various tasks that should be performed within the stipulated time frame. Sometimes it is not easy to trust team members with some technical duties. Doing things alone may be cumbersome; thus, a leader should understand when to allow followers to manage other work (De Brún et al., 2019). Improving this aspect would allow all members to feel a sense of belonging and boost their trust. It also helps others to develop and become good leaders in the future.

Followership and Leadership Development Plan

Methods of Cultivating Followership Strengths

Evaluation of Performance and Feedback

Just like leaders evaluate themselves best on their performance, followers should also take the same approach to understand their effectiveness. When cohorts comprehend their abilities in terms of self-management, credibility, and shifting between different responsibilities with ease, they will know their strengths and areas that require adjustments based on the Feedback they would likely obtain from the supervisor. Understanding themselves would prompt them to acquire the necessary skills to perfect their roles.

Honing Followership Abilities

This method allows followers to build on their skills which are important in developing followership strengths. Having adequate knowledge is essential because a follower can easily improve the actions by being able to disagree in an agreeable manner with the leader. The approach would reduce the notion that followership entails following directions and create a different perspective about cohorts based on their roles.

Methods of Cultivating Leadership Strengths

Self-directed Learning

Engaging in self-directed learning is an effective mechanism to establish and cultivate relevant strengths necessary for leadership growth. Through this approach, I will focus on new areas that I have limited knowledge and skills. It will also make it easier to identify necessary resources to enhance my development. Being that I would undergo the learning on my own, I will gain a wider perspective of leadership.

360-Degree Feedback

Feedback is an essential tool that enables leaders to utilize learning opportunities from the assignments. 360-degree Feedback allows an individual to have views from different people within the healthcare facility. Various messages can be used to inform the manager about the abilities and areas that require adjustment (Welch et al., 2014). All-round information would produce a clear picture of the leadership competencies, which is significant in identifying the needed skills to advance the strengths.

Five-Year Plan for Continuous Development of Followership Abilities

Period Plan Strengths Areas for improvement
Year 1 Developing work ethics to ensure I act in accordance with the healthcare moral behaviours Good judgement ability

Effective listening

Independent thinking
Year 2 Courage and effective communication that would allow me to express personal concerns that are necessary to achieve the work objectives Self-awareness

Clear communication

Developing courage
Year 3 learning from other leaders so that I can acquire relevant skills and knowledge to improve my competency Commitment

Influencing

Building trust
Year 4 assessing my performance abilities through evaluating feedbacks from the colleagues and supervisor Self-management Embracing servant leadership
Year 5 self-learning to improve on the areas of weaknesses identified through the assessments Taking initiatives Distraction from objectives

Five-Year Plan for Continuous Development of leadership Abilities

Period Development plan Strengths Areas for Improvement
Year 1 Self-paced learning to understand key attributes of leadership Creativity Inconsistency
Year 2 Mentorship program to ensure I acquire relevant knowledge and experience about managing people Communication Excessive critical
Year 3 Job rotation to ensure I have the ability to manage at different level of management Strategy Lack of integrity
Year 4 Job shadowing to gather more required skills to enhance leadership competency Relationships Micromanaging workers
Year 5 Professional Certification to indicate the leadership qualification Visioning Unclear goals

Conclusion

The present-day operating environment constantly evolves, requiring people to adjust to the speed. Therefore, organizations need to cultivate appropriate followership and leadership cultures to survive and be successful in the current difficult times. Even as followership has not been widely studied due to its inferiority to leadership, it is required that organizations have the best followers who will be instrumental in driving success. Different models of followership can be adopted, particularly the “alienated,” “passive,” “conformist,” and “exemplary” followers. Leadership has attracted wide admiration because it carries the prospect of driving an organization to the ultimate success in achieving the outlined goals and objectives. Alienated follower and servant leadership are preferred in healthcare administration. The respective followership and leadership styles are critical in healthcare administration in ensuring that the many followers and the intricate systems and processes are effectively managed for the ultimate goal of providing quality and safe care for patients. Practicing successful healthcare administration requires a good balance between followers and leaders in enabling better healthcare in the social order.

Followership and leadership require a thorough individual assessment to determine the strengths and possible areas for improvement. Different methods such as 360-degree feedback and honing followership are significant in enabling a follower or a leader to understand the abilities. Developing a continuous development plan that contains all the aspects of management and servant leadership makes it easier to adjust and perfect each role. Comprehending and reflecting on practices facilitate the growth of a follower and a manager, which is essential for improving the operations within the healthcare facility.

References

Allen, J., Jones, D., & Currey, J. (2018). Clinician and manager perceptions of factors leading to ward patient clinical deterioration. Australian Critical Care, 31(6), 369–375. Web.

Bjugstad, K., Thach, E. C., Thompson, K. J., & Morris, A. (2006). A fresh look at followership: A model for matching followership and leadership styles. Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management. Web.

Blanken, R. F. (2021). Board management style: What’s your leadership type? Associations Now. Web.

Brumm, C. A., & Drury, S. (2013). Leadership that empowers: How strategic planning relates to followership. Engineering Management Journal, 25(4), 17-32. Web.

De Brún, A., O’Donovan, R., & McAuliffe, E. (2019). Interventions to develop collectivistic leadership in healthcare settings: A systematic review. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1), 1-22. Web.

De Zilwa, D. (2016). The strengths and capacities of authentic followership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal. Web.

Garcia, M. (2017). Followers’ perspective does matter! (follow up to you have what? Personality! Traits that predict leadership styles for elementary principals). Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy, 07(04). Web.

Gardam, M. (2020). Physician experience at the leading edge of the digital healthcare transformation. Healthcare Quarterly, 23(SP), 4–7. Web.

Gnambs, T. (2017). Opinion leadership types or continuous opinion leadership traits? International Journal of Psychology, 54(1), 88–92. Web.

Gobble, M. M. (2017). The value of followership. Research-Technology Management, 60(4), 59-63. Web.

Kumar, R. D. (2013). Leadership in healthcare. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine, 14(1), 39-41. Web.

Malakyan, P. G. (2014). Followership in leadership studies: A case of leader–follower trade approach. Journal of Leadership Studies, 7(4), 6-22. Web.

Schattke, K., & Marion-Jetten, A. S. (2021). Distinguishing the explicit power motives. Zeitschrift Für Psychologie. Web.

Stewart, C. (2019). Coexisting values in healthcare and the leadership practices that were found to inspire followership among healthcare practitioners. Journal of Values-Based Leadership. Web.

Thornton, P.B. (2013). Four types of leaders. Training. Web.

Varpio, L., & Teunissen, P. (2020). Leadership in interprofessional healthcare teams: Empowering knotworking with followership. Medical Teacher, 43(1), 32–37. Web.

Welch, D., Grossaint, K., Reid, K., & Walker, C. (2014). Strengths-based leadership development: Insights from expert coaches. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 66(1), 20. Web.

West, M. A., Lyubovnikova, J., Eckert, R., & Denis, J. L. (2014). Collective leadership for cultures of high quality health care. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance. Web.

Love In Austen’s “Pride And Prejudice” And Fitzgerald’s “The Great Gatsby”

Love in literature

Love is an obsession: everyone wants it, everyone is looking for it, but few will ever achieve it. True love is hard to find and hard to keep; many spend their lives looking for that one person who makes their life worth living. Novels were the basis of most libraries for people of any income because it is human nature to empathize, regret, and rejoice with others. Tragic and happy relationship stories have made millions of readers around the world cry or smile. The theme of love and its influence on the fate of both one person and humanity did not cease to interest writers throughout the development of fiction as art.

Every Love Story Has Its Scenario

Jane Austen’s most famous novel, Pride and Prejudice, changes the motive of love at first sight. Charles Darcy sees Elizabeth Bennett at a ball and is only moderately impressed at first – while she cannot stand him at all. Only after countless misunderstandings and victory over pride and prejudice do they find each other. In his novel, Austin describes a society in the early 19th century, a little world of landlords and the commercial bourgeoisie, with a rational approach to the issue of marriage and love.

In the works of Jane Austen, the love of the heroes is always hindered by something, but they find the strength to overcome obstacles and find their happiness. As expected from a romantic comedy, love and marriage are the central themes of pride and prejudice. K. Alquraidhy claims that the novel, in particular, focuses on the different ways that love comes and goes and whether there is room in society for romantic love and marriage (111). The reader sees love at first sight (Jane and Bingley), love that grows (Elizabeth and Darcy), and an infatuation that has faded (Lydia and Wickham).

As the plot progresses, it becomes clear that the novel argues that love based on true compatibility is the ideal. The marriage of sanity is portrayed negatively: those who only strive for material well-being in marriage will never be completely happy, as Charlotte’s example shows (Sha’bäni 38). And Lady Catherine’s authoritative attempts to get her nephew Darcy to marry her daughter in order to unify the estates are portrayed as outdated and unfair.

The author tried to convey to the reader that all human prejudices do not matter when it comes to love. Using the example of the main characters, she shows that if you throw away pride and prejudices, emotions and feelings will prevail, and people can be delighted. According to M. Sha’bäni, Austin points out that the most severe kind of love is the love experienced by a hero with virtue and intelligence for a worthy purpose (38). Darcy and Elizabeth’s union is less joyful in a romantic relationship but establishes a new society that assures Elizabeth of long happiness.

Pride and prejudice show the kind of love that comes with the difficulty of being compatible with the conventions of a decent society. At the same time, M. Sha’bäni asserts that the Darcy-Elizabeth couple corresponds to a successful type of love because it is based on a fundamental understanding of oneself and each other (42). They are happy together because they are interested in improving their pride and instilling self-esteem. Through couple of these two heroes, Jane Austen shows the harmony of mind and feelings in a relationship.

Not Every Relationship Tells True Feelings

F. S. Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby was first published in 1925 and is now considered one of the most important American novels of the 20th century. The elegant New York jazz-era society is portrayed masterly and entertainingly: the lavish festivities of the roaring twenties and the inner emptiness of those who have achieved everything. Against the background of all this, the romance of two once separated lovers unfolds.

As in Jane Austen’s novel, the themes of love and class inequality are inextricably linked. James Gatz descended from the most ordinary people, turned into a multimillionaire, renamed himself Gatsby, and invented an elegant lineage. He yearns for his ex-lover Daisy, who married the wealthy Tom Buchanan. The work is both a romantic and tragic love story. The protagonist, Jay Gatsby, who came to West Egg to meet his former lover, Daisy Buchanan, is the most devoted to his affection. Despite the fact that she eventually betrays her loyal hero, he still loves her and loves his American dream, which Gatsby, in a sense, Gatsby still fulfills.

Unfortunately, the protagonist also quickly loses everything as he takes responsibility for the death of Myrtle Wilson to save Daisy, which leads to his tragic death. M. B. Chowdhury contends that readers love and sympathize with him after he dies; they make him a real hero (3). In this sense, one can understand that the love of the protagonist is genuine. True happiness doesn’t depend on a show; it is about understanding each other, sacrificing one dear for the sake of another, and respecting your feelings or opinions. Although the heroine is already married in the text, the main characters’ feelings have not diminished, which proves their unconditional love.

On the other hand, the central romance between Daisy and Gatsby, while a true love story, is equally a depiction of Gatsby’s obsessive desire to be in the past. As maintained by B. M. Bani-Khair, the character’s love for Daisy and his closeness and admiration for her seems overly idealized and, therefore, useless and unreal (169). Daisy’s inability to express her love for Gatsby was not because she was afraid of Tom. She never saw Gatsby as the love she wanted until he returned with a new form, with a richer fortune. But she also finds the materialistic side of life in Tom – a sparkling shell that she could not find in Gatsby.

Love According to the Authors of Different Eras

Unlike the same 19th century, to say nothing of earlier works, the theme of love in the works of modern authors is leaving the foreground, hiding behind social problems. Although this, in turn, can be considered as a similarity in the literature of traditional and modern since art has always been aimed at discussing the pressing problems of society. As it can be seen, the theme of social status, money, and marriage go hand in hand with the theme of love in the works of both traditional and contemporary authors.

The central theme of the works is love, which can radically change the views and behavior of any person. Through the prism of the main characters’ stories, the authors show how important it is to choose love over financial well-being. The main characters of both modern and traditional works openly say that a human cannot hide her feelings. Even though he or she is afraid of being misunderstood or abandoned, and even more so, none can give up love because of pride.

Works Cited

Alquraidhy, Khalil. “Evolutionary Love and Companionate Marriage in Jane Austen’s Novel Pride and Prejudice.” International Journal of Language and Literary Studies, vol. 3, no. 1, 2021, pp. 105–121. Web.

Bani-Khair, Baker M., et al. “The Death of the Idealized Romantic Love Dream in the Great Gatsby: A Synchronized Image with the Funeral Scene.International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, vol. 6, no. 10. 2016. Web.

Chowdhury, Maria Boshra, and Md. Ziaul Haque. “The Nature of Love: Sydney Carton in Dickens’ a Tale of Two Cities and Jay Gatsby in Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby.” World Journal of Education and Humanities, vol. 3, no. 3, 2021. Web.

Sha’bäni, Maryam, et al. “A Comparative Study of Plato’s and Jane Austen’s Concept of Love in Pride and Prejudice.” International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, vol. 8, no. 3, 2019, p. 37. Web.

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