SQL (Structured Query Language) Injection: Attack Against Databases Essay Example

An SQL injection is one of the most common, but simultaneously dangerous, attack vectors against SQL databases. The general principle is manipulating user input in such a way that a legitimate SQL request is followed by a malevolent one, hence, injection. Any database that responds to user input (even if the user makes his or her request through a website) is potentially vulnerable to an injection attack. Any SQL request can be injected this way, making this attack potentially incredibly destructive; for instance, an injected DROP TABLE request can delete an entire database. If manipulating or retrieving data directly is impossible, the attacker can still obtain useful information by observing the database’s error messages, or even the delay between submitting a request and receiving a response.

Two principal methods of countering an SQL injection attack are input validation (also called sanitization) and employing a web application firewall (WAF). Sanitization is subjecting user input to additional code that filters out illegitimate inputs, such as empty strings or special characters, before forwarding the request to the database. User input should always undergo sanitization; however, covering all possible inconsistencies can be unfeasible, necessitating the use of a WAF. A WAF is a network security system that inspects the HTTP traffic to and from a web service to detect and block a variety of potential attacks, including SQL injection. Both of these approaches should be used in combination to achieve the best possible protection against this type of attack.

The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory Description


Organizational leadership is the most fundamental factor that influences all aspects of companies. Leadership is a managerial function instrumental in directing resources for organizations to enhance efficiency and accomplishment of set goals and objectives. Therefore, leaders strive to provide their followers with clarity of purpose, guide, and motivate them to realize particular missions. Various leadership theories explain why and how some people become leaders and the approaches they adopt to establish interactions with their juniors. The leader-member exchange (LMX) theory is one of the perspectives that address specific aspects of the leadership process. LMX focuses on the association between leaders and very subordinates in the pursuit of organizational goals. Although leaders provide particular benefits, such as rewards, followers reciprocate through commitment, cooperation, good performance, respect, and others. Organizations’ managers apply the LMX perspective of leadership to ensure productive interaction with their subordinates. Evaluating the way LMX theory develops and its social-emotional and economic relationship aspects is vital in understanding how it impacts individual and organizational performance.

The LMX theory of leadership is a relationship-based approach to the management of organizations. According to Martin, Thomas, Legood, and Dello Russo (2017), LMX develops through four evolutionary stages that influence the level and quality of leader-member interaction. The first stage of LMX involves vertical dyad linkage and work socialization. The organizations’ managerial processes transpire on a dyadic basis, where leaders establish segregated interactions with their subordinates. Therefore, the working relations’ inputs, processes, and output can result in high-quality (in-group) or low-quality (out-group) exchanges (Howell & Wanasika, 2019). While the former is characterized by intensified respect, mutual trust, and obligation, the features are significantly low in the latter. Notably, the limited social resources and time managers have allowed them to develop only a few high-quality exchange interactions.

The second stage of LMX theory is referred to as the leader-member exchange. This phase of LMX development explains the differentiated relationships that develop and their consequences on organizational functioning. Like any other form of interaction between individuals, the LMX relationships’ growth is impacted by impacted my leaders’ and members’ behaviors and characteristics (Martin et al., 2017). For instance, an ambitious leader is more likely to establish a high-quality exchange with creative and conscientious workers. This stage also acknowledges that the rule-making process contributes considerably to LMX development. Additionally, leaders, followers, departments, and companies benefit from high-quality LMX interactions.

The third stage is about leadership-making, which emphasizes going beyond the formation of differentiated working relationships within organizations. The fundamental focus is to produce an effective leadership process by establishing productive associations. The phase adopts a leadership-making model to offer a practically imperative approach to leadership development (Martin et al., 2017). The model accentuates the importance of creating and maintaining high-quality relationships within organizations. The performance of individual followers or members who seize the opportunity of forming a high-quality LMX improves significantly. Such an interaction goes through a stranger, acquaintance, and mature partnership exchange levels.

The last stage of LMX development is about team-making within companies. The phase explains how the differentiated dyadic relations come together to create large network systems. The latter defines the leadership structure or leadership relationship pattern among employees throughout organizations. The mutual dependencies among individuals and the network of relationships that develop as members execute their roles and responsibilities play a significant role in the emergence of the leadership structure (Martin et al., 2017). Therefore, the differentiated connections between leaders and their juniors can impact the parties and the entire organizational leadership structure.

Socioemotional and Economic Relationship Aspects of LMX Theory

The relations formed between leaders and members can be categorized into two: socioemotional and economic relationships. Most people measure the LMX along the high-to-low-quality continuum, capturing only socioemotional potentials. Each level of LMX evaluated reflects the absence of characteristics that are features of the other, overlooking the role of economic qualities in LMX relationships. According to Andersen, Buch, and Kuvaas (2020), the key characteristics that define the socioemotional LMX relationships include high-degree of trust and long-term investment. The former and the latter create diffuse responsibilities, a sense of one individual being cared for by another, and anticipated mutual exchanges. This aspect is about how much every involved party benefits from the interaction.

Trust is one of the most imperative elements that affect relationships between employees and managers and among workers. The leaders do all that they can within their capacity to gain the trust of the workers. They focus on ensuring that their subordinates have adequate confidence in their capability to lead them toward accomplishing personal and organizational goals. Thus, leaders strive to understand and meet the social needs of their followers. For instance, managers provide training, emotional support, and other benefits to employees. As a result, they create mutual trust, respect, and commitment. However, the level of socioemotional LMX interaction varies from one individual to another depending on various factors, such as personal characteristics (Andersen et al., 2020). The relationships that employees have with their leaders involve exchanging multiple types of resources necessary for the achievement of set goals and objectives.

The LMX relationships between supervisors or managers and workers can be defined by workflow and friendship ties, which significantly impact performance. While workflow relations encompass specified interdependencies between employees that are vital to completing tasks, attitude similarity, mutual liking, and personal choice lead to friendship networks within organizations (Regts, Molleman & van de Brake, 2018). The level of LMX relationships influences job performance through resources exchanged between leaders and their followers. Examples of resources that leaders can provide to their followers are training opportunities, incentives, rewards, empowerment, participation in the decision-making process, and social support (Andersen et al., 2020). These resources have a direct positive impact that enhances employees’ performance since they gain knowledge and become more committed to their work. Andersen et al. (2020) add that workers who perceive strong social exchange feel a more significant obligation to reciprocate the support and benefits through engagement that sometimes exceeds minimum employment requirements. Therefore, a high-quality socioemotional LMX interaction is instrumental in improving individual and organizational performance.

Unlike the socioemotional LMX, economic LMX relationships in organizations are more formal and instrumental. Consequently, there is little interpersonal trust that guarantees future reciprocation of obligations. Andersen et al. (2020) note that workers with strong economic LMX perceptions consider their relationships with their leaders as encompassing a set of tangible and financial obligations in exchange for the execution of duties and responsibilities. This type of interaction between leaders and their subordinates is not long-term and is characterized by minimal involvement. Andersen et al. (2020) add that the economic LMX relationship is consistently related to unfavorable follower outcomes. They note that economic LMX has a moderately negative association with intrinsic motivation, affective commitment, and the need for competence, relatedness, and autonomy. These aspects have an undesirable influence on employees’ or followers’ performance. Thus, leaders must pursue both social and economic LMX to ensure enhanced performance at individual, departmental, and organizational levels. The level of LMX relationships affects the way employees, both managers and subordinates, share work-related knowledge.

LMX Influences Knowledge Sharing

The leadership within organizations influences the interaction between management and the workers and among the employees. The relationships are vital since they determine how well people can share knowledge to enhance productivity. Hao, Shi, and Yang (2019) indicate that LMX theory can explain organizational members’ behavior of sharing knowledge. The different levels of LMX can influence the way employees to share information and knowledge. For instance, if a leader establishes a relationship that focuses on empowering workers, it can effectively facilitate and promote knowledge-sharing behavior. This can happen because the approach has a positive impact on the employees’ attitude towards sharing information that is instrumental in enhancing one’s expertise. As a result, the workers become more committed toward perceived team goals, enhancing individual, departmental, and organizational productivity. Conversely, abusive managers and supervisors contribute to negative relationships, hurting the employees’ ability and willingness to share knowledge. Therefore, the establishment and maintenance of high-quality LMX or in-group relationships between organizational leaders and employees are important in promoting companies’ growth.

Although it is evident that high-quality LMX is beneficial at individual and organizational levels, LMX theory does not address the ambiguity related to the nature of relationships. According to Hao et al. (2019), the theory does not explain the in-between psychological processes fundamental to the interactions. For example, psychological processes such as learning, perception, motivation, and emotion can determine the level of association between frontrunners and their followers. Motivated employees who are willing to learn from their leaders are more likely to establish and maintain a high-quality LMX than those who do not. Although high-quality LMX promotes encouraging social context for the workers, diverse individuals can assess the situation differently due to contextual factors and personal characteristics that influence behaviors (Hao et al., 2019). Further, some approaches adopted by leaders to develop and maintain high-quality LMX may not work equally across cultures. For instance, the Chinese culture has workplace guanxi, defining specific duties and expectations and impacting the exchange of information and personal resources (Hao et al., 2019). Thus, personal and cultural factors can determine the level of effects LMX has on knowledge sharing among employees.

Summary and Conclusion

Organizational leadership is a fundamental factor that influences all aspects of companies. Leaders strive to provide their followers with clarity of purpose and guide and motivate them to realize particular missions. LMX theory is one of the perspectives that address specific aspects of the leadership process, focusing on the relationship between leaders and their followers. LMX develops through four evolutionary stages that influence the level and quality of leader-member interaction. The first stage of LMX involves vertical dyad linkage and work socialization. Although the second phase of LMX theory is about leader-member exchange, the third one focuses on leadership-making, emphasizing going beyond the formation of differentiated working relationships within firms. The last stage of LMX development explains team-making within companies. The socio-emotional and economic relationship aspects of LMX influence knowledge sharing among employees and performance. Indeed, LMX theory helps in understanding the interactions that exist between leaders and their followers. Organizational leaders need to capitalize on ensuring high-quality LMX to ensure enhanced productivity and all levels. Therefore, they need to devise strategies to overcome factors, such as attitudes, that may hinder the establishment and maintenance of in-group interactions.


Andersen, I., Buch, R., & Kuvaas, B. (2020). A literature review of social and economic leader–member exchange. Frontiers in Psychology, 11(1474), 1-12.

Hao, Q., Shi, Y., & Yang, W. (2019). How leader-member exchange affects knowledge sharing behavior: Understanding the effects of commitment and employee characteristics. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(2768), 1-13.

Howell, J., & Wanasika, I. (2019). Snapshots of great leadership (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Martin, R., Thomas, G., Legood, A., & Dello Russo, S. (2017). Leader–member exchange (LMX) differentiation and work outcomes: Conceptual clarification and critical review. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39(2), 151-168.

Regts, G., Molleman, E., & van de Brake, H. (2018). The impact of leader‒member exchange on follower performance in light of the larger social network. Human Relations, 72(8), 1265-1291.

Pressure Ulcers Prevention Strategies


Pressure ulcers often affect patients who sit in wheelchairs or are confined in beds for prolonged periods of time. Researchers point out that while multiple people can be affected by this issue, it is preventable if the necessary measures are applied to the treatment (Mitchell, 2018). The purpose of implementing a checklist is to prevent and minimize the risks by ensuring a high level of knowledge, skills, and efficiency that medical professionals need to mitigate such conditions.

By following certain guidelines and advancing in the domain of care for patients prone to developing pressure ulcers, nurses are to control the possible negative outcome that correlates with this condition. Moreover, the positive results of the strategy applied in a nursing home setting illustrate that the proposed measures are proficient in mitigating bedsores and further complications linked to them.


Several measures are included in the plan of action to mitigate pressure ulcers in the nursing home setting. First, an assessment tool needs to be put in place to examine the current knowledge healthcare providers have in regard to treating pressure injuries. Moreover, in-service training for staff members will contribute to practical and in-detail information that nurses will be able to apply when treating patients.

Another important step is to include an evidence-based checklist that will help the staff practice all the necessary practices towards mitigating and preventing pressure injuries. Last but not least, all the implementations will be assessed in terms of the actual knowledge the staff has as a result of the previous training for treating such injuries. Similarly, there will be an examination of how the staff discusses further care with patients and family members in regards to the assistance provided outside the nursing home setting.

The plan of action has several advantages that benefit patients, healthcare providers, and the institution as a whole. According to researchers, daily activities centered around the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers result in positive long-term effects for people suffering from such conditions (Barrois et al., 2017). Furthermore, since the action plan involves the inclusion of patients and family members, the strategies will lead to the minimization of pressure injuries even after the patient leaves the nursing home. Hence, fewer people will need further medical assistance due to inadequate measures for dealing with bedsores at home. Such beneficial outcomes will be illustrated in the overall risk mitigation and the decrease in cases related to complications from untreated or inefficiently treated pressure injuries.

While there are multiple advantages to the plan of action, there are certain limitations that need to be addressed. First, it is crucial to address the cost of the implementation. Researchers point out that while maintaining tissue integrity is an essential measure, it is more costly compared to other medical procedures (Avşar & Karadağ, 2017). Moreover, due to the relatively dynamic nursing home environment, staff members may meet the new plan with rigidity and inflexibility. It is also essential to mention that medical professionals may find the in-service training time-consuming or correlating with pressure and reduced creativity.

Risks and ethical issues can also occur, which is why it is vital to address them in order for such problems to be mitigated early on. The current knowledge in regards to the prevention of pressure injuries may differ from person to person. According to Lavallée et al. (2018), research shows that certain medical professionals have not shown satisfactory results when assessed based on their knowledge in the field of maintaining tissue integrity. In this case, there are risks that some staff members will be more efficient during the in-service training. In terms of ethical problems, the implementation involves giving recommendations to family members and patients themselves, which can be viewed as intrusive. This is why such factors have to be approached professionally and objectively.


The results show a positive change in the domain of measures applied to maintain tissue integrity and mitigate risks for patients developing skin conditions from being bed/wheelchair-bound. The expected outcomes have been assessed and achieved, which is highlighted through the scoring on the tests given to staff members, questioners, and show-me methods. The compared data showed the knowledge before and after the training examined through practical activities and the tests given to staff members. The results show that pre-test scores illustrated a 60% passing rate among 80% of the participants. The post-test measures show a 90% passing rate among 80% of participants. The percentage of improvement is 20%, which is an excellent number based on the initial aim to increase the number to 80%.

Another expected outcome was successful show-me procedures where participants were putting their knowledge into practice. The results show that most of the participants were successful during this examination and showed an understanding of all the pressure ulcer prevention measures (90%). The primary goal was achieving 80% compliance, which means that the objective was met more efficiently than expected. Moreover, the questioners illustrated a satisfactory result in terms of training satisfaction and improvement in current knowledge. 85% compliance noted in the self-assessment questionnaire was evident in 100 % of participants by the end of the training, which is higher than the initially planned 80%.

The next improvement resulting from the implementation was the communication with the patient and family members regarding preventative measures. The verbal teach-back method showed 100% compliance with the checklist, a number more satisfactory than the planned 80%. Every participant was efficient in providing individuals with the necessary tools to perform preventative actions towards the mitigation of risks correlating with pressure ulcers.

According to researchers, involving families in such procedures effectively minimize risks for future problems related to tissue damage (Schoeps et al., 2016). The overall results are satisfactory, which illustrates that the plan of action was effectively implemented. The strategies were practically applied by most healthcare providers who participated in the training and will continue to use the new risk prevention methods.


Risk prevention in nursing homes and hospitals is the primary concern of medical professionals. According to researchers, pressure ulcers remain a significant public health problem that needs to be considered and mitigated through various strategies aimed at maintaining tissue health (Hernández-Martínez-Esparza et al., 2021). The action plan aimed to minimize such conditions includes a checklist of preventative measures, including in-service training, evaluation through tests, and communication with patients and family members in regard to this issue. The implementations have been practical based on the results of the testing, questioners, and show-me method.

The outcomes show that healthcare providers have more knowledge and skills to deal with bedsores compared to the initial results. Considering the improvements, it is to be expected that pressure ulcers will be avoided in the future through the use of the checklist by nursing home staff members.


Avşar, P., & Karadağ, A. (2017). Efficacy and cost-effectiveness analysis of evidence-based nursing interventions to maintain tissue integrity to prevent pressure ulcers and incontinence-associated dermatitis. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 15(1), 54–61. Web.

Barrois, B., Colin, D., & Allaert, F.-A. (2017). Prevalence, characteristics and risk factors of pressure ulcers in public and private hospitals care units and nursing homes in France. Hospital Practice, 46(1), 30–36. Web.

Hernández-Martínez-Esparza, E., Santesmases-Masana, R., Román, E., Abades Porcel, M., Torner Busquet, A., Berenguer Pérez, M., & Verdú-Soriano, J. (2021). Prevalence and characteristics of older people with pressure ulcers and legs ulcers, in nursing homes in Barcelona. Journal of Tissue Viability, 30(1), 108–115. Web.

Lavallée, J. F., Gray, T. A., Dumville, J., & Cullum, N. (2018). Barriers and facilitators to preventing pressure ulcers in nursing home residents: A qualitative analysis informed by the theoretical domains framework. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 82, 79–89. Web.

Mitchell, A. (2018). Adult pressure area care: Preventing pressure ulcers. British Journal of Nursing, 27(18), 1050–1052. Web.

Schoeps, L. N., Tallberg, A.-B., & Gunningberg, L. (2016). Patients’ knowledge of and participation in preventing pressure ulcers- an intervention study. International Wound Journal, 14(2), 344–348. Web.

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