St. Tammany Parish’s Work Release Program Sample College Essay


A type of alternatіve sentеncіng known as work rеlеase programs еnables offеndеrs to work outsidе of a corrеctіonal facilіty whіlе sеrving thеir sеntencе. These initіatіvеs are designed to gіvе offеnders access to employment opportunities and other tools that will enable them to successfully reіntеgrate into socіety once thеy arе rеlеasеd. Since the еarly 20th century, work rеlеasе programs have been used in the Unіted Statеs and have been put into place іn numеrous statеs. Whіlе advocates of work rеlеasе programs claim that thеse programs have many posіtіve еffects on offеndеrs and socіеty at large, dеtractors exprеss concerns about public safety and moral issues. The case of St. is one іllustration of thе debate over work rеleasе programs. Tammany Parish, іn Louіsіana. After an іnmatе еasily еscapеd from thе facіlіty a few years ago, the program came undеr fіre. The program was tеrmіnatеd as a result, and this incident brought attention to any dangеrs that might be present with work relеase programs. In this еssay, we wіll look at thе arguments for and against work rеlеasе programs, as well as casе studies of successful and іneffectіve programs (Uhl and Andrzеj, 129-151). Aftеrwards, wе wіll look at altеrnatіvеs to work release programs and talk about thе futurе of thеsе programs in thе Unіtеd Statеs.

Arguments for work release programs

Programs that offеr work rеlease, in thе opіnіon of theіr proponents, offer several benefits to socіеty as a wholе as well as to partіcipants. Reducеd rates of subsequent crimіnal behaviour arе one of the thе significant work bеnеfіts releasе programs. Particіpation in work releasе programs was linked to a reduction in rеcіdivіsm ratеs of up to 25%, according to research by the Urban Instіtute (Gіfford, 2017, n. p. ). This is because participants іn work rеlеase programs rеceіve traіnіng in job skіlls and accеss to a variety of tools that can hеlp them rеіntegrate into their communіtiеs wіthout any dіfficulty.

Cost savіngs caused by work rеlеase programs are also advantagеous to taxpayers. Position relеase programs can help reduce the cost of incarcеrating crimіnals in traditional jaіls, which places a heavy financial burdеn on taxpayers. According to the Vera Instіtute of Justіce (2016), the average annual cost of work rеlease programs is $22,000 per participant, compared to up to $31,000 for an іnmate іn a traditional jaіl. Thе Vеra Instіtutе of Justіce’s study, which yielded thіs data, was usеd to compіlе іt.

Thе benefit of work rеlеase programs to offеnders’ attempts at rehabilіtation іs thе final justification offеred in favour of thеm. Career relеase programs allow prisoners to work and earn money, enabling them to support their families and pay restitution. Additionally, offenders who take part in work rеlease programs can acquire resources and job skills that will help them successfully reіntegrate into society after they are released from custody.

Arguments against work release programs

According to critics, the public is put in danger by work releasе programs, and there is a good chance that inmates will escape. Particіpating іn work rеlease programs nеcessіtatеs leaving the facіlіty to travеl to and from work, іncrеasing thе rіsk of еscape for offеnders. Many pеoplе also think that criminals can use the frееdoms provіded by thеіr work release programs to еngage in іllеgal actіvity or contact vіctims or wіtnessеs (Capone and Thomas, 331-338). Work rеlеase programs raise еthіcal іssuеs, which is another reason why they are not a good idea. Accordіng to somе, allowing crіminals to lеave thе facіlity іn sеarch of work constіtutes a privіlеgе that othеr prisonеrs arе not еntіtled to. Additionally, a lot of people thіnk that taking part in work rеlеase programs could be seen as a form of lenіency, which would be bad for thе publіc’s confіdеnce іn thе criminal justice systеm.

Case studies of successful work release programs

Despitе the fact that work rеlease programs havе bеen the subject of much dеbate, numеrous еffеctivе programs havе beеn іmplemеntеd all across thе Unitеd Statеs. The “Reentry Into Socіety Effort” (R.) exemplifies this. I. S. E. ) schemе in the state of Calіfornіa. Partіcipants in this program recеivе work relеase and еmployment traіning, and if theіr rеlеasе datе is wіthin sіx months, they are eligible for the program. The Calіfornіa Dеpartment of Corrеctions and Rеhabіlіtatіon (2018) rеports that the program has beеn effectivе іn lowering recidivіsm ratеs, with only 4% of particіpants committing a nеw offеnsе wіthіn a yеar of theіr relеase from prison.

The Florida Second Chancе Act Reеntry Program, which offеrs non-violеnt offеndеrs the chancе to partake in work rеleasе and rеcеivе еmployment traіnіng, sеrves as another еxample of this (Harvell et al., n. p. ). The Florіda Department of Corrеctіons claims (n. d. ) the program has been successful in lowеring rеcіdіvism rates, wіth only 9% of particіpants commіttіng nеw crimеs wіthin a year of thеir facility rеlеase. These highly effective programs share many traits that set them apart from other programs. Focus іs placеd on provіdіng resources and teaching work skіlls to offеndеrs so that, oncе thеy are rеlеasеd from prison, they can successfully rеіntegratе back іnto socіety. Thеy was also еmploy rigorous screеning procеdures to еnsure that only non-vіolent offеndеrs arе admitted to thе program, and participants arе closеly monitorеd at all tіmes to prеvent escapе or othеr crіmіnal actіvity. This guarantеes that thе program іs only opеn to non-violеnt offendеrs.

Case studies of unsuccessful work release programs

Unfortunately, not every work relеase program has been an enormous success. The work rеlease program іn St. Louіs is one іllustration of thіs. Tammany Parish, Louisіana, which came under fire in 2018 after a prіsonеr was ablе to quickly leave thе facіlіty (Kіrk and David, n. p. ). Thе offender’s abіlity to lеavе so quіckly lеd to critіcіsm of thе program. As proof that work release programs еndanger publіc safety, crіtics poіntеd to this іncіdеnt. After that, the program was cancelled, which was a point raised by detractors.

Sadly, not all work rеlеase programs have been an enormous success. The St. Louіs work release program is an іllustratіon of thіs. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, attracted attention in 2018 after a prisoner could easily escape the facility (Kіrk and Davіd, n. p. )—the offеndеr’s quіck dеparturе from the program drеw criticism. Critics used this incident as proof that work rеlease programs еndanger public safety. The Bridge Cіty Center for Youth іn Louisіana, which assіsts young offеnders by gіving thеm work releasе and other resources, would be another example of this. Subsеquеntly, this program was termіnated. Thе facilіty was found to bе fail to provіde its rеsidents wіth adequatе instructіon, mеdіcal attеntion, or mеntal hеalth sеrvіces, accordіng to a study that was relеasеd by thе Department of Justіce іn 2016 (U. S. (Department of Justіce, 2016). According to thе study’s conclusions, thе prіson’s lack of adequate surveіllance allowed several іnmates to escape from theіr cells. These unsuccеssful programs highlight how important it is to carefully screеn and monitor participants, as well as to make sure that facilіtiеs are adеquately staffed and furnishеd to providе servicеs to offеnders. Additionally, rigorous screеning and monitoring of participants іs essential to еnsure that facіlіtіеs are adеquatеly staffеd and critіcs made this point.

Alternatives to work release programs

Thеre arе a numbеr of optіons to thіnk about for thosе who are agaіnst work rеlease programs. An alternativе іs elеctronіc monitorіng, which еntails attaching a devіce to thе offеndеr to track their movemеnts and confіrm that they are abidіng by thе conditions of thеіr relеasе. Work rеleasе programs may bе morе affordablе and lеss dangеrous than electronіc monіtoring. Community sеrvicе is another optіon, which entails requіring offenders to complеte a predetеrmined numbеr of hours of community sеrvicе instead of servіng jail time. This can be a valuable strategy for fostеring a sense of accountabilіty and rеsponsіbilіty іn offenders who also help the neighbourhood.

The future of work release programs in the United States

Even though work rеlease programs havе come under fіrе, there іs еvidence that suggests thеy can be a practical alternative to morе tradіtional typеs of dеtеntіon. To ensure that the general public’s safety is not compromised, these inіtіativеs must be carefully plannеd out and propеrly monitorеd іn ordеr for thеm to be successful. There is a good chance that work relеasе programs will continue to be a crucial part of the American judicial system in the future. Work rеleasе programs are lіkely to bеcomе morе crucial as states look for ways to reduce recidіvіsm ratеs and provide fewer expensive alternatіves to traditional prіson.


Work rеlеase programs arе a hotly debated subjеct іn thе Unitеd Statеs, wіth supporters claimіng that thеy provіdе numerous bеnеfіts to offеndеrs and socіety at largе, whіle dеtractors raisе іssues with publіc safеty and morality. Despіtе thіs dеbatе, therе have bееn numerous еffectіvе work releasе programs put in placе across thе natіon that have reducеd recіdivism ratеs and given offenders thе tools thеy nеed to successfully rеintеgratе into socіety. To ensure that the public’s safety is not jеopardized, work releasе programs must be monitorеd and carefully designed in the future. To offer offеndеrs alternatives to traditional incarceratіon, it is also essential to take into account work relеasе program alternatіvеs likе electronіc monіtoring and communіty servіce.

Works Cited

Capone, Thomas. “Antagonist Inmate Work-Release Program Behavioral Research Design.” Journal of Drug Education, vol. 3, no. 4, 2019, pp. 331–338.,

Gifford. “According to a study by the Urban Institute, Work Release Programs Can Reduce Recidivism Rates by up to 25%.” 2017. np.

Harvell, Samantha, and Robin Olsen. “Promoting Justice for Youth in Louisiana.” (2022).

Kirk, David S. Home free: Prisoner reentry and residential change after Hurricane Katrina. Oxford University Press, USA, 2020.

Uhl, Andrzej. “Carceral experiences of white-collar offenders: Qualitative research design utilizing the offender-based definition and Pierre Bourdieu’s capital theory.” Crime, Law and Social Change 79.2 (2023): 129-151.

Strategic Management Project Sample College Essay

Blue-Collar Pet store is experiencing growth and development. As the CEO, I have consulted with other shareholders in light of expanding internationally. They have provided a way forward by deciding we expand through quantitative and qualitative research of entry strategy to international markets. In this report, we will explore and research strategic options and alternatives for our business, the implications of alternatives, and the proposed strategy in light of Venezuela and Japan. Secondly, it will recommend and highlight the action needed to succeed.

Strategic Options, Advantages and Disadvantages

Entering a new international market can be a complex process that requires careful planning and strategic decision-making. Here are some detailed strategic options and alternatives for entering a new international market as a pet store.

Exporting: Exporting involves shipping goods or services to an international market. This low-risk strategy allows us to test the waters of the new market without investing heavily. To export, we must identify the target market and establish relationships with distributors or agents who can help us navigate the regulatory environment. The advantages include; low risk because a business can test the market with less investment. It is time conscious because products enter the market quickly, and finally, it is flexible because it is easy to adjust the export strategy by observing the market demand. However, the disadvantages include; limited control over the distribution and marketing of the products to the target market. Secondly, competition is paramount because of already-established local brands. Finally, it would limit growth potential because scaling down the target market is difficult.

Franchising: Franchising is a popular strategy for expanding internationally as it allows us to leverage the knowledge and expertise of local entrepreneurs familiar with the local market. In a franchise model, we grant a license to a local entrepreneur to use our brand name, products, and services in exchange for a fee or percentage of the profits.

The advantages include low risk because it is possible to leverage the knowledge and expertise of local entrepreneurs without making a significant investment. Secondly, local knowledge aid in understanding the local market and culture. Thirdly, it is easy to scale by leveraging the resources and expertise of local franchisees.

The disadvantages include limited control because they operate independently, and their actions can affect the brand’s reputation. Secondly, cultural difference usually impedes establishment a successful franchise system. Finally, legal and regulatory challenges because it involves complex requirements based on the specific countries

Joint Ventures: A joint venture involves partnering with a local company to enter a new market. This strategy can help us overcome barriers to entry, such as cultural differences, legal regulations, and language barriers. A joint venture allows us to share costs, risks, and knowledge with a local partner.

The advantages include the availability of local knowledge because Joint venture partners deeply understand the local market, culture and regulatory environment. Secondly, risks and costs are shared with the local partner. Thirdly, Joint ventures allow the business to allow us to access local resources like, capital, technology, and expertise.

The disadvantages include, Joint ventures require collaboration and compromise, which can, in turn, result in losing control of the business. Secondly, cultural differences can challenge establishing a successful joint venture. Finally, Divergent interests and goals can lead to conflict between partners.

Licensing is a contractual agreement allowing another company to use our intellectual property, such as trademarks, patents, or copyrights, in exchange for royalties. This strategy is useful if we have a strong brand or product that is in demand in the target market.

The advantages include the license fee requirement is low. Secondly, it increases revenue by allowing ownership of intellectual property without owning a physical infrastructure. Finally, it increases access to new markets with high demand for a brand/product.

The disadvantages include, it can limit the control of the use of intellectual property depending on the licensing agreement. Secondly, the company’s quality and reputation depend on the license. Finally, it increases competitors from other licensees in the same market.

Direct investment involves establishing a subsidiary or acquiring an existing company in the target market. This strategy gives us complete control over our operations and allows us to tailor our products or services to the local market. Direct investment requires significant capital investment and carries a high level of risk (Glowik, 2020).

The advantages include it provides complete control over the operations in the target market. Secondly, provides flexibility because it is possible to tailor the business products and services to the local market. Finally, it is possible to increase significant revenue and profit growth.

The disadvantages include it is high risk because of the significant investment. For example, physical infrastructure. Secondly, it faces regulatory challenges because of the nature of the business. Finally, cultural differences may be witnessed during the company’s establishment.

E-commerce: E-commerce is an increasingly popular strategy for entering international markets, especially for pet stores. It involves selling products or services online to customers in the target market. E-commerce allows us to reach a global audience without physical infrastructure or a local presence (Glowik, 2020).

The advantages include low investment because of the capital required. Secondly, it is easy to access the global market. Finally, it is flexible in terms of product pricing and offers.

The disadvantages include cultural differences because of the global market available. Legal and regulatory challenges are the second difficulty because they vary from country. Finally, it highly depends on technology, a challenge (Skabelund, 2019).

Japan and Venezuela markets

As of 2022, Japan is ranked third largest GDP in the world. This means Japanese citizens have a very high consumer power compared to other countries. Japan boasts of having lost major industries in the world. Secondly, it has stability in the political world. The rules, regulations and compliance are highly observed in this country. Investing in physical infrastructure is relatively affordable, owing to the fact that of locally available raw materials. The demographics of this country are aging (Skabelund, 2019). Therefore, according to recent reports, the pet industry is growing due to a high level of dependency. Finally, Japan is leading in terms of research and innovation.

However, the challenges of entering Japan market include the relatively small size of the country. Secondly, the country is highly competitive, and because of its uniqueness, they prefer their local brands. Due to their higher consumer power, they prefer value for money and high-quality products. Besides, they possess a strong network of rules and regulations, given that they are under a bureaucratic authority. Finally, they have a different management style of human resources and management.

It has been over a decade since Venezuela experienced a stable government that caters for the need of its citizens. Owed to these facts, political instability has caused the economic collapse in the country. The high cost of living embodied with inflation has led most citizens to revert to being content with being able to access basic needs. In this case, the government has imposed trade restrictions on investors willing to enter their market. Secondly, the high cost of labour and the inconsistencies of legal and political areas has caused the country’s business investors to decline (Skabelund, 2019). Finally, the country has a different cultural preference from the United States.

Proposed Strategy and Action needed

Given the disparity in economic levels of Japan and Venezuela, and the objective of our company, which includes the home market, local employment, local tax revenue, and conservancy of the natural environment, it is fundamental to choose the best strategy. In this case, the e-commerce strategy would benefit our company. Japan and Venezuela would benefit the company by using an e-commerce strategy (Chhatwal, 2023).

Entering the pet e-commerce market in Japan and Venezuela will be a challenging but rewarding opportunity. Below are some of the actions that will be needed to ensure a successful business.

Researching the Market. Conduct thorough research on the pet e-commerce market in Japan and Venezuela. We will understand the existing players in the market, their product offerings, pricing strategies, and their customer base. We will analyze the market trends and identify potential gaps or opportunities to tap into.

We will define our value proposition. Based on our research, we will define our unique selling proposition by identifying what sets our e-commerce platform apart from the existing players in the market. It could be our product range, pricing, customer service, delivery speed, or any other aspect that appeals to Japanese/Venezuelan pet owners.

Choosing our products. Deciding on the types of products we want to offer. It could be anything from pet food, toys, accessories, grooming products, and more. Researching the most popular pet products in Japan and what pet owners are looking for.

Setting up our website. BCreatinga is a user-friendly and visually appealing e-commerce website showcasing our products and value propositions. Ensure that our website is optimized for the Japanese/Venezuelan language and culture, with appropriate payment and delivery options (Chhatwal, 2023).

Building relationships with suppliers. By establishing relationships with suppliers who can provide high-quality products at competitive prices. We will ensure that the suppliers are reliable and can deliver products promptly.

Developing marketing strategies. Developing marketing strategies to reach out to potential customers. It could include social media marketing, email campaigns, influencer partnerships, and other digital marketing tactics. We will tailor our marketing efforts to the preferences of the Japanese/Venezuelan audience.

Providing excellent customer service. Ensuring that we provide excellent customer service to build customer loyalty. It could include offering prompt replies to queries, quick delivery, easy returns, and other measures that enhance the customer experience.

In summary, entering the pet e-commerce market in Japan/Venezuelan requires thorough research, a unique value proposition, a user-friendly website, reliable suppliers, effective marketing strategies, and excellent customer service. With a clear understanding of the market and a solid business plan, we can successfully establish our e-commerce platform and tap into the lucrative Japanese/Venezuelan pet market.

In doing so, local employment is one of the objectives. As United States business owners, entering the pet e-commerce market in Japan may not directly impact local employment. However, our business may need more employees to manage operations, marketing, and customer service if our business grows. It could create job opportunities in our local community (Glowik, 2020).

In terms of local tax revenue. The impact on local tax revenue will depend on the size and profitability of our business. If our business grows and generates significant revenue, we will likely pay more in taxes, which could contribute to local tax revenue. However, the impact on local tax revenue may be minimal if our business is small or not very profitable.

In light of the natural environment. The impact on the natural environment will depend on our business practices. IWe can minimize our environmental impact if we are mindful of environmental concerns and adopt sustainable practices, such as reducing waste and using eco-friendly packaging. However, if our business operations involve significant use of resources or contribute to environmental pollution, it could hurt the natural environment.


Chhatwal, G. (2023, February 23). How to develop a market entry strategy in Japan. Kadence. Retrieved April 24, 2023, from

Glowik, M. (2020). Market entry strategies: Internationalization theories, concepts and cases. De Gruyter Oldenbourg.

Skabelund, A. H. (2019). Empire of dogs: Canines, Japan, and the making of the modern Imperial World. Cornell University Press.

(Skabelund, 2019).

Strategic Organizational Planning Writing Sample


Strategic planning is the art or science that involves formulation, implementation, evaluation and assessment of decisions within an organization to enable it to achieve its objectives. It can also be defined as the organizational management activity utilized in the setting of priorities to consolidate energy and resources within an organization to ensure that everyone is working towards achieving common goals. It’s a company’s way or plans to get an edge over its competitors in the market (Kabeyi, 2019). The United Nations Strategic Planning Guide for Managers defines strategic planning as looking into the future to identify the trends and issues a company or organization needs to set priorities on. The term strategic planning is believed to have originated in the 1950s and was believed to be the answer to many of the problems that organizations were facing at that time. Strategic organizational planning is set to effectively prioritize a company’s efforts and also align the organization between the employees and stakeholders to ensure that the company’s goals are based on data and sound reasoning (Kabeyi, 2019). Strategic planning has levels based on leadership and organization within a company. Since strategy is mainly about successfully competing within a competitive environment, offering different competitive products and services against other players in the same niche is important. Levels of the strategy include (Bryson, Edward & Van Slyke, 2018);

  • Corporate level strategy, which is focused on the selection of markets, products and business.
  • Business unit strategy, which is involved with this position a business holds within a competitive niche and its rivals and the accommodation of new technology that influence competition and enable networking.
  • Operational and strategic levels are concerned with the organization of each part of the business in the delivery and achievement of the already set goals.
  • Functional strategic levels are mainly related to the value chain and the processes of a business.

Strategic planning can also be classified into two levels, based on the duration the goal set can be achieved. Long- and short-range planning, where the organizations can determine what to achieve in a short period and what goals are achievable in the long run. Long-range planning covers a projection of many years and, therefore, is usually not specific. In contrast, short-term planning involves planning what is achievable over a short period of time, for example, annually and quarterly. The short-term plans are usually specific (Kabeyi, 2019). Strategic planning places emphasis on an organization to achieve its vision. Long-range panning only defines what vision a company has. Strategic planning is concerned with the development of an organization’s vision by determining the necessary priorities that need to be focused on to achieve the stated vision.

In strategic planning, SWOT analysis is essential before the plan is formulated. This is a technique to find out why the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to a business. Once all these are known, the company or organization can then go ahead and formulate a strategic plan to counter this and, therefore, effectively remain in business and make profits in the competitive environment. SWOT analysis represents the actual matters in the business environment, whether internal or external that affect the business(Miles et al., 2008). The strategic plan should also have objectives that should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and programmable.

Stages of strategic planning

Strategic planning stages are divided into three basic stages;

  • Formulation of the strategy

The first stage in the business strategic planning process is formulating the strategy itself. This process involves the formulation of the vision of the organization. Then the external factors are considered, including the threats and competition that is expected in the environment and market the business is operating in. The internal factors can also be considered, including strengths and weaknesses (Williams, 2002). Long-term objectives of the organization can also be formulated at this stage. Strategy formulation involves decisions on what to invest in, where to invest, resources for the business, expansion opportunities, venturing into other locations like internationally and looking at other organizations in the same business environment (Kabeyi, 2019). The formulation stage of strategic planning involves multiple organization members, including the employees, executives, shareholders and sometimes the customers. At this stage, the organization can determine unfavourable internal and external factors that can affect the company in terms of reaching its objectives and goals.

  • Strategy implementation

This is the second stage of strategic planning. Implementing the strategy that has been formulated is done by following the long-range and shoer range goals. Sometimes the implementation of the business strategy fails. This can be due to the organizations not linking the strategies that they come up with, with the budget that they operate on. Political interferences, situations in the global economy and limited resources, all of which are factors beyond the control of the organization, also affect the formulation and success of a strategic plan (Kabeyi, 2019). Failed business strategic plans are costly to the organization. Therefore formulation can be done carefully with full participation and projections of the expected hardships, both internal and external in achieving the set goals.

  • Strategy evaluation

Evaluation of the already formulated strategy is the third stage. As time passes and the strategy is being implemented, it is important to evaluate it after a period to determine if it will be a success or a failure in the long run. Evaluation can be done by examining the bases of the organization’s strategy, comparisons between the expectations in terms of results and the actual results and corrective actions taken to ensure that the performance conforms to the plans (Kabeyi, 2019). Strategy evaluation makes it easy for the organization to adjust the strategy due to the changing situations. The business strategy should have the characteristics that ensure it is successful, including consistency, consonance, competitive advantage, and feasibility.

Challenges in implementing strategic planning

Some of the challenges that organizations face in formulating and implementing a strategic plan include the failure of the managers to link the process to other decision-making processes within the organization that might also be critical. Poor strategy monitoring and evaluation of the strategic plan can also happen, which is the process of measuring performance (Greenley, 2016). The lack of a proper organizational structure is also a hurdle in implementing a strategic plan. An organizational structure that corresponds to the identified weaknesses and strengths, and challenges is needed to ensure the achievement of a set strategic plan. Lack of financial resources, human resources, motivation and failure to identify and develop the appropriate strategies are other challenges that face implementing a business strategy (Kabeyi, 2019). SWOT analysis looks at the organization’s ability to deliver its intended services, competencies, staffing, assets and financial resources. Vision and mission setting is also an important part of the business strategic planning. In business management, vision can be defined as the future oriented concept of the business (Greenley, 2016). Once the external factors have been evaluated, the management can set a vision of the company, which overall; has direction and goals for the organization. Vision statements always provide the organization with focus and long-term alignment; therefore the vision statement

Benefits of strategic organizational planning

Since the 1950s, when strategic planning was first introduced, the benefits witnessed have ensured that businesses have remained relevant and responsive in the business environments. There are numerous benefits to strategic business planning in businesses, for example enabling the firm or organization to predict the future and therefore be prepared, making the organization more adaptive (Kabeyi, 2019). Adaptability allows a business to remain in competition and make profits while also being able to measure its achievements in the short and long run as laid out in the strategic plan. Another benefit is that a strategic plan gives a firm or organization a tool to define the direction that is to be followed (Miles et al., 2008). The direction to be followed, in turn gives a realistic path for the company to attain its objects and goals. Successful business strategic plans also give a firm or organization a larger market share and increased profits as the firm can get information on the market trends and the available products and services so that they can become better (Kabeyi, 2019). The efficiency of the operations is increased when a strategic plan is formulated, and it’s a means to provide a clear roadmap to aid in the facilitation of aligning the available resources to raise the efficiency of business operations. Another benefit of strategic organizational planning is the fact that it facilitates new programs, products, services and business operations in line with the ever-dynamic competition and consumer or customer needs (Miles et al., 2008). The organization is able to investigate the future in a clear and systematic way when they have a well formulated strategic plan. Also, the management is able to set policies and goals to guide the organization and provide a clear focus on the management. Organizations also need creditors and donors. These will require the organization to set up clear strategic plans to benefit from the financial services offered (Kabeyi, 2019). Strategic planning is a tool that can promote motivation and innovation in an organization since everyone in the organization is involved, from the managers to shareholders and the employees.

To reduce risks in an organization, strategic planning can be implemented. Risk, a factor that all organizations face, should be expected, and one way to deal with it or prepare for risk-related occurrences is to set up a strategic plan. The information that is used to come up with a strategic plan is essential in the assessment of risks. Financially, strategic planning has been shown to bring about more profit, and this can be attributed to better sales, lowered costs of production and high profits (Greenley, 2016). The clear specifications that are provided by strategic planning provide a framework for proper administration and division of resources and hence better planning by an organization.

Limitations of strategic organizational planning

The dynamic business environment sometimes makes it hard for a business strategic plan to be implemented and actually work. Long-range plans are the most affected due to the changing business environment. Since a strategic plan is an organization’s way to compete in an environment successfully, many factors, especially external can determine the success or failure of a business strategy (Kabeyi, 2019). Some of the limitations of strategic business planning include the failure of the people involved in formulating the strategic plan to be involved in implementing and evaluating the plan as time goes by (Bryson et al., 2018). A sharp increase in mistakes due to short-term planning and new products, in a case where the investment plans can change because there are new products, meaning new business opportunities and change of plans in the investment plans. Strategic management does not provide a clear and detailed picture of the future. It only provides situations in that the organization wants to be in the future and the position it wants to be in the market (Miles et al., 2008). Strategic management has another limitation in that it is only a theory on how an organization wants to solve problems or situations and, therefore cannot be limited to routine rules or procedures or even schedules. Strategic planning is costly to perform for small and medium businesses because they need to hire managers and planners. In addition, to implement and evaluate the strategic plan would need additional resources or more people to be hired to do all the procedures. The many steps involved in the process means that the process is costly as it needs to be adjusted from time to time (Bryson et al., 2018). This can be seen in the implementation and evaluation steps. Professional training is also required to set up a strategic plan, as it requires knowledge and experience in the field. Managers should have these skills and abilities to formulate, implement and evaluate a strategic plan. Some organizations might not have the right people with the required skill and experience to formulate, implement and evaluate the strategic plan to get the desired results.

Literature review

Studies have been done on Strategic organizational planning based on different cases like coordination, failures and other case studies featuring real organizations. An example of such a case study was published by Spee & Jarzabkowski (2011). This research focused on the strategic planning and business performance of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises. The authors dealt with strategic management issues, particularly strategic planning and its benefits to business performance. The study was based on another study that was done previously. It’s the big companies that create enormous output in the economy. According to this research, small business equally plays a role in the growth of the economies and bring about the competition (Spee & Jarzabkowski, 2011). The economic importance of SMEs is stated in the paper in that they are the driving force of innovations, competition and business growth. They create jobs and economic stability; therefore, they can also benefit from strategic business planning like big organizations. In the Czech Republic, it was shown that SMEs create employment in 69.9% and 49.5% of the total outputs in businesses. In Europe, SMEs are a backbone economy, employing more than 87 million citizens. Research has shown that only 50% of businesses survive the past five years of existence, as noted by the authors o this article (Spee & Jarzabkowski, 2011). For SMEs, strategic planning and management is the sole role of the owner, and management has the sole responsibility of the management or the owner. In other companies, that is large companies, an entire department should ideally run the responsibility of strategic business management and analysts who are trained and experienced in strategic business management. In the Czech Republic, where the research of this article was carried out, the authors noted that the strategic management still takes on a very low uptake (Spee & Jarzabkowski, 2011). As strategic management is used to forecast and help SMEs anticipate future opportunities and challenges, it’s then essential for any business to have a strategic plan. At the organizational level, an organization should document how it wants its goals to be achieved (Spee & Jarzabkowski, 2011). The research concluded that the more prominent companies pay more attention to the strategic business management, unlike the small companies or the SMEs.

A company can also be reviewed in real life regarding organizational strategic planning. Wells Fargo is a company that has been in operation in the United States for a long time. It is one of the leading financial services companies in the country. The success of the company can be attributed to its strategic business plan. The organization’s strategic plan and principles are well documented on its website. Their vision is to satisfy the customers’ financial needs and to help them succeed. Their values include doing what is right for the customers, taking people as a competitive advantage, ethics, leadership, diversity and inclusion (Stumpf, n.d). From their strategic plan, the organisation’s goals include innovation, shareholder values, risk management, corporate citizenship, engaging team members, and customer service and advice. The company also aims to deliver excellent customer service through collaboration across business lines, being more customer centric, simplifying the business and offerings and improving the organisation’s excellence (Ward, 2021). Strengthening the risk oversight and controls. In the organizations documented strategic plan, they note that their ability to sustain solid financial performance in times of challenges is a testament to the financial durability provided by their business. In 2013, the company faced a scandal which involved its employees. The employees were opening accounts for the customers without their consent (Ward, 2021). This was attributed to the pressure that the management was putting on these employees to make more sales. Also, the employees were being compensated for the number of services they successfully sold to the customers (Williams, 2002). This was a fraudulent activity as the customers were even issued credit cards they did not seek from the company (Stumpf, n.d). This scenario has been related to a failed strategic plan, whereby the management set goals, that is strategic plan and had ways in which to achieve the goals. One of the ways was incentive-based compensation, which features more pay or commission depending on the sales made by an individual (Spee & Jarzabkowski, 2011). The plan was to target more customers, but it failed as the employees did not stick to that plan. Also, the company’s management is said to have known about the fraudulent activities that were happening, but they did little to solve the issue.

Another study was published, attempting to find out if strategic planning improves organizational performance. According to this research, the authors found out that strategic planning is a widely used and adopted management approach by organizations (Greenley, 2016). Also, the authors noted that strategic planning has been criticized for being rational and preventing rational thinking. Through performing a random met analysis, the authors attempted to find the strategic planning improves organizational performance. The authors also note that strategic organizational planning is ranked among the top five most popular management approaches globally (Spee & Jarzabkowski, 2011). Strategic planning includes elements like mission, values, vision and analysis of the organization’s mandate. Strategic planning can be attributed to contribute to organizational performance as the strategies can be geared towards finding a balance or fit between a firm and its environment with the strategic decisions being anchored on analysis and decision making, which should also be systematic (Greenley, 2016). The plans should be devised so that they include the goals of the organization that is where it wants to be and how it wants to get there. The authors of the article were looking into three matters on strategic planning, including finding out if strategic planning is merited, to define and address the difference between the private and public organizations whether it’s a relevant management approach for both and give insights for further research. The authors also define goal setting theory, which proposes that organizations with goals perform better as the goals give them a purpose and they focus on achieving them (Steiner, 2010). Also, the employees of such organizations understand the priorities since they are set out in the company’s strategic plan and this applies for both private and public organizations.

Studies have suggested that organizational performance is unidimensional. However, organizational performance includes many different dimensions such as efficiency, financial performance, effectiveness and society outcomes and client responses. Such a study was conducted and gave the difference between the public and private organizations. Pubic organizations are found to be more bureaucratic and the management in such organizations are shown to be less committed (Dutton & Duncan, 2007). This would definitely make it hard for the strategic plan to be formulated, implemented and evaluated. Strategic planning requires the management and employees to put in a lot of commitment for it to work and therefore, this could hinder the process in public organizations. Public employees are also shown to be less motivated by external or extrinsic factors which could make it even harder for the public organization employees to work on the strategic plan. In the private sector, which is mostly profit oriented, the management is more focused on making the organization work and so are the employees (Dutton & Duncan, 2007). The employees can be more motivated that their counterparts in public institutions, by for example incentives and commission son the business, that is earning more on making more sales for example. This would mean that the strategic plan in such cases is more likely to work out than in the public sector. This Meta analytical study showed that it is still important for the private and public sector in ensuring the success of these organizations.

A study was conducted on strategic planning for regulated companies. According to an article published, the firms can be able to achieve alignment with their environment through strategic organizational planning (Mahon & Murray, 2001). Organizations have to adapt to the environment in order to survive and prosper. Since strategic planning involves the firm’s analysis of its environment and proposing ways in which they can fit into the environment, a balance between the two can define the survivability of the organization in its environment. All organizations are regulated or operate in a regulated environment, which means that there are external bodies that are involved in these regulations (Boyne, 2010). Regulations affect the inputs the organization gets from its environment and these are relevant to goal setting in the organization. Otherwise, in a non-regulated environment, there are factors that are to be considered also. There are many players in such an environment, making the external factors more. In a regulated environment, the external factors involved are less and this would limit the organization’s ability to face external factors (Mahon & Murray, 2001). For regulated environment companies, the organizations in it must learn to co-exist according to the authors of is article. The strategic planning process would therefore be a process to manage the existing dynamic relationships between the firm and the external factors that surround it. The regulatory bodies or agencies in such environments serve as buffers and articulators in the industry. They protect the organizations and the industry at large and the competitive forces too. This is a benefit for the regulated organizations as the external factors are already buffered and all they have to deal with would be the internal factors. Many of the traditional market and competitive forces are weakened in such environments, and this makes the strategic planning process for the organization to shift from the customers and consumers to the regulatory bodies (Mahon & Murray, 2001). However, this would require more skills like politics and negotiation skills that go beyond the knowledge of planning in the organization. The regulatory agents serve as arbitrator in cases of controversies and disagreements in these environments, requiring the organizations to find a way to deal with these agencies. This might work out to the advantage of some organizations and some might be disadvantaged as compared to working in an unregulated environment.

An organization must have a purpose and ways of achieving its goals. The ongoing process of evaluating its purpose is what can be termed as the strategic planning according to the authors of an article published on the organizational stratagem structure and process. Effective organizations are able to maintain a viable market for their goods and services while the ineffective organizations find it hard to do so (Simon, 2003). To be an effective organization, there must be a strategic plan to guide it in achieving its goals. There should also be a constant modifications and redefinitions on how the organizations are planning to achieve their mandate depending on the dynamics of the external environment. The article looks into the adaptive cycle that a business needs to engage in to remain relevant in the environment (Simon, 2003). The organization’s behavior is preordained by the environment and the conditions available in that environment. The choices that are made by the top managers make up the key determinants of the organizational structure and process as well as the success that the organization can achieve. The management must solve the complex choices they need to make and therefore by carrying out strategic planning, they should be able to come up with ways in which they and make better decisions and better survive in the environment. It’s how the organizations move through the adaptive cycle that determines if the strategic planning they did will be a success or not (Simon, 2003). Organizations are also limited to the choices of adaptability and what the management believe work gear the organization towards the success of the organization. This article concludes that it is the mangers’ ability to meet the environmental conditions and requirements that can ensure the success of an organization.

Another article published on the strategy and organizational evolution was in agreement with the other articles that strategic organization planning is essential in ensuring the organization survives in the competitive niche. Strategic planning by the management is the way organizations prepare to sustain and overcome competition in the market (Berry, 2007). The authors of this article also note that the effective strategic planning process should begin with a SWOT analysis to enable the organizations to build in the strengths and to utilize opportunities while also controlling threats and weaknesses. The organizations should do a self-assessment to reorganize themselves to be in a competitive environment (Berry, 2007). The right peole in the organization, starting rom the managers to the employees and shareholders should also be more proactibve in the formulation, implementation and evaluation of a strategic plan to stay in the line and achieve their goals. The authors of this article also not that strategic plan formulation and implementation should be linked to an evaluation strategy to ensure the success of the strategic plan. Without an evaluation strategy, the strategic plan would just remain a strategy, written but not implemented. The organization should also recruit competent employees and retain them so that those who started with the organization as the strategic plan was being formulated are also there as it is being evaluated and implemented (Galbraith, 2013). Investing in market research, adequate budgeting and forecasting also go hand in hand with the recruitment for the success of the strategic plan in achieving the organization’s goals. The authors of the article note that having a strategic plan is not always a guarantee that the company would be successful.


Strategic organizational planning has been shown to be one of the most important steps in the business environment. It helps companies get a glimpse of what the future looks like and therefore plan for any eventualities and changes in the business environment. All the studies that revived in the above literature review section have shown the importance of the strategic plan to businesses and organizations. It has been suggested that the management can set both long- and short-term goals and work towards achieving them (Boyne, 2010). This will be possible only if the engagement and everyone else involved in the formulation of the strategic plan in the organization including the employees and the shareholder all work together to achieve the goals. Another factor that is noted is that in a regulated business environment, the companies or organizations have little to do with the external market factors because the regulators are already acting as a buffer between the organization and the external markets. Also, the private and public organizations have differences in terms of the motivation to make the strategic plans work. This can be attributed to the fact that the private sector is more profit oriented and therefore everyone knows their role in the strategic plan, unlike the public sector where the employees and managers lack such motivation. The main reason to come up with a strategic plan is therefore to make the organization more suited to perform in a competitive environment and have a line to follow so that they can achieve their targets and goals. The strategic plan can also fail, for example, in the case given above that is the Wells Fargo company. It is not a measure of success, but the planning can help companies and organizations to succeed. Swot analysis also needs to be done so that the company can identify the strengths and weaknesses and also threats that are available internally and externally so that they can be able to formulate the strategic plan perfectly. Strategic organizational planning should also be incorporated into SME, however hard it is. A strategic planning team or company can be hired to facilitate the formulation, implementation and evaluation of the strategic plan.

Recommendations for successful strategic management

Various measures can be put in place by organizations to ensure that the strategic plan that they have in place is successful. To do this, the organization can budget in relation to the strategic plan to ensure that there are adequate finances for the strategic plan. The employees that are working in the organization should be made aware of the strategic plans so that they can contribute towards the organizational goals as stipulated by the strategic plan. Understanding the dynamics of the business that the organization is involved in is also important in the success of a strategic business plan. It’s essential for a company to understand the global dynamics of their business so that external factors do not get them by surprise and affect the implementation of their strategic plan. There should be motivation within the organization, adequately to encourage everyone at the organization to work towards achieving the organization’s goals (Steiner, 2010). Organizations should also hire and train qualified staff as well as try to retain those that are competent as this will ensure that the people who started the strategic business plan are the same people working when it’s being implemented and evaluated. Such a move will ensure the success of the strategic plan. Finally, the organizations should identify the strategies that are correct and they should be implemented and executed to avoid mistakes along the way.


Strategic organizational planning forms a basis of survival in a competitive business environment and therefore its important for it to be developed. Unless the plan is specifically implemented, it will always remain a plan, just on paper. After implementation, an evaluation should be done to find out if it is working or if changes need to be don on it. Recruitment of capable and oriented personnel is also essential in the process since it’s the motivation and dedication that would ensure the success of the organizational plan. The managers should also be goal oriented and create a culture that is goal oriented in order to motivate the other employees. The business strategy should be creative and innovative to be efficiently executed. To effectively deal with competition, organizations should be customer oriented and analysis of the environment can be done periodically as it is ever changing. The organizational strategic plan can be built on the organization’s strengths and should be able to mitigate the weaknesses and also the threats that face the organization. A well-crafted and executed strategic plan is what ensures the success of an organization and not just having a strategic plan.


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