Staffing, Selection And Recruiting Free Essay

Staffing is filling positions in an organization’s structure by selecting qualified and competent people for the job position. The staffing process comprises planning workforce need, selection, recruitment, hiring and training. Workforce planning can also be called Human Resource Preparation by putting the required number of people at the right time and place and doing excellent work to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization (Heneman et al., 2004). Planning the workforce is to evaluate and analyze the available social resources in an organization and how to get the person wanted for the positions vacillating chief executives to assembly line workers.

On the other hand, recruitment is the procedure of finding suitable candidates to fill job vacancies in an organization effectively. The recruitment process involves the following steps: identification of job vacancies, job descriptions and specifications, selection of sources, advertising the vacancy, and managing the response. The identification of vacancies starts with the department of human resources receiving a demand for recruitment in any department (Abbas et al., 2021). The department requisition contains the post to be filled, the number of persons, duties that will be performed, and required qualifications.

There are two types of recruitment which are internal and external recruitment. Internal recruitment is the process of hiring a workforce from within the organization. Internal sources of employment sources that are readily available are three, re-employment: re-employment departments and promotion. The processes of internal recruitment lead to employee motivation increase and thus increase productivity. The process of internal recruitment saves time, effort, and money. The down back of internal recruitment is that only some of the job and workforce requirements will be met through internal recruitment.

The other mode of recruitment is called external recruitment. The process which recruitment sources must be from outside the company or organization. The process of recruitment involves a lot of money and time. This recruitment process involves recommendations, labour contractors, educational institutes, employment agencies, advertisements, employment exchanges, and employment at the factory gate. Advertisement is one of the external sources of recruitment (Heneman et al., 2004). The process of the advertisement has one significant advantage of covering a wide area of the market and that candidates can acquire information from the standard of advertisement used, for example, television and newspaper.

Job analysis involves recording and describing the aspects of jobs and skills required to perform a particular task. There are two outputs of the job analysis: job specification and job description. The job description is the statement of what the job holder will be expected to do, how he/she will do it, the conditions under which the job is done, and why the job is done. Job specification reviews the characteristics need for job completion (Raghavan et al., 2020). The process describes the qualifications that someone needs to perform the job effectively. The process tells out the essential attributes of the person in terms of abilities, knowledge, skills, education, and experience.

The selection process is the other staffing process that can be challenging for the organization. Though the process has yet to complete impervious procedures to ensure high profits and low turnover, the following procedure makes up the selection process. The process involves the initial screening, preliminary interviews, filling of the application form, personal interview, references check, background check, final interview and physical examination (Abbas et al., 2021). The job offer is presented to qualified candidates who clear all the stages. Candidates can be dropped at any stage if considered unfit to fill the job.

Ethics and legal sometimes feels like a soft matter that can wait for other demanding issues. However, the process of hiring operational workers and meeting the organization’s goals depended solely on the ethical and legal standards of the employee. In creating a business, the company’s vision, mission, and principles depend on the legal and ethics of the organization. Ethics is more than an employee doing what is required of him at the right place and time (Heneman et al., 2004). Ethics is tangled between legal measures and policies that, if broken, can put the organization in the middle of trouble. Leaders and the department of human resources have developed ethical and legal standards that employees are supposed to follow and observe.

The standards help the use of the model to decide when the employee violates the ethics and law of the organization. These are the five sources of ethical standards; utilitarianism, rights, fairness, common good, and virtue. The empirical approach to the ethical decision-making model sets up the standards for downsizing or adding an employee to the organization. The principles that lead to ethical decision-making and moral process frameworks include self-interest, rationality, honesty, and justice.

Job specifications and descriptions are necessary for the recruitment process since they specify the required qualifications and the nature of the job. It can be very challenging for an organization to select a suitable candidate for an open position. The execution and the achievement of the organization’s goals depend mainly on the staff. The selection of a qualified candidate shapes the organization’s comprehension and decreases turnovers (Zeebaree et al., 2020). Training and development of employees are planned to facilitate learning job-related behaviours and advance employee performance. Training is the process of increasing employees’ skills in current jobs. Development is oriented toward improving relevant skills for future jobs.

Moreover, career development is the process by which performance is improved and also brings out the growth of personality. The primary objectives of the development are practical managerial through a deliberate and planned learning process. The development process provides the growth of managers to meet future job needs. The development process involves the following stages, setting development objectives, ascertaining development needs, determining development needs, conducting development programs, and program evaluation (Zeebaree et al., 2020). Setting development objectives involves developing a framework in which executive necessity can be determined. The process of forecasting and planning for future organizational growth and ascertaining development needs is carried out.

Furthermore, training is the learning sequence of programmed behaviour. This process improves the employee’s performance and prepares the employee for the intended job. The purpose of training is to increase productivity by increasing operational productivity. Training also plays a significant role in improving quality. Employees trained better can easily avoid operational mistakes (Raghavan et al., 2020). The training process involves the following stages and steps, identifying training needs, getting ready for the job, preparation of learner, presentation of operation and knowledge, performance try out and follow up and evaluation.

In conclusion, the overall processes of staffing, recruitment, and selection are aimed at improving the employee’s performance and the quality of the product or service offered by the organization. There are processes and stages of staffing that decide who, how, when and where an employee will work in an organization. Staffing decides how effectively and efficiently the organization will deliver the desired objectives and goals.


Abbas, S. I., Shah, M. H., & Othman, Y. H. (2021). Critical Review of Recruitment and Selection Methods: Understanding the Current Practices. Annals of Contemporary Developments in Management & HR (ACDMHR)3(3), 46-52.

Heneman, H. G., Judge, T., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D. (2004). Staffing organizations. Middleton, WI: Mendota House.

Raghavan, M., Barocas, S., Kleinberg, J., & Levy, K. (2020, January). Mitigating bias in algorithmic hiring: Evaluating claims and practices. In Proceedings of the 2020 conference on fairness, accountability, and transparency (pp. 469–481).

Zeebaree, S. R., Shukur, H. M., & Hussan, B. K. (2019). Human resource management systems for enterprise organizations: A review. Periodicals of Engineering and Natural Sciences7(2), 660-669.

Cross-Cultural Conflict Resolution In Teams Essay Sample For College

A Workplace Conflict I Have Observed

Workplace conflicts are inevitable and often occur because a team environment is essentially multicultural. Background aspects such as race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, and nationality play a critical role in influencing the conduct and behaviors of employees in an ideal working environment (Mahan & Mahuna, 2017). These aspects often contrast among individuals, increasing the likelihood of disagreements. I recall volunteering at a non-profit organization concerned with humanitarian activities; I observed a conflict between a colleague and our supervisor about his dress code at the organization. My colleague was a sigh man who always wore a turban as part of his religious commitment, a dress code that the supervisor found inappropriate. The two were constantly in disagreement because my colleague felt dress code restrictions infringed his right to religious expression. It resulted in work disruptions, absenteeism, and decreased productivity.

Lessons Mentioned In the Article That Would Have Helped In Conflict Resolution

One of the lessons mentioned in the article that would have helped resolve workplace conflict is the appreciation of one’s culture and the uniqueness of others’ cultural backgrounds. Knowing yourself, what you believe in, and your interests and respecting the cultural settings of others is one of the ways to reduce the possibilities of multicultural conflicts in the workplace (Ford, 2001). It would have the supervisors be open to different ideas, limiting the chances of prejudice.

Another lesson that can apply in that context is checking individuals’ assumptions. Many people make assumptions about others once they see, interact with, or hear about them. Checking one’s assumptions about others, especially those tied to religious, racial, ethnic, and gender constructs help develop an acceptable communication protocol to check out the basis of differences in perceptions (Ford, 2001). It discourages stereotyping, a major contributor to negative feelings of hostility.

Furthermore, the article also discusses the lesson of learning others’ expectations as a way of reducing the likelihood of workplace conflicts. Knowing and understanding the expectations of others in the workplace requires an explicit conversation about the nature of possible conflicts and preferable ways to deal with them in case they arise (Ford, 2001). The approach helps bridge understanding leading to a more general conversation addressing how a team intends to work together.

Additionally, practicing the listening skill is a lesson discussed in the article that applies to the context. Listening is internationally acknowledged as a core conflict prevention and resolution skill (Ford, 2001). Active listening gives one the patience to hear and understand what someone else has to say while giving the other conflicting party an opportunity for self-expression for clarity purposes. Listening involves focusing on feelings and facts, reducing tension, and allowing conflicts to be resolved effectively.

What I Would Have Done Differently

I would have approached the situation differently to limit the possibilities of a conflict. One of the aspects I would have done differently is to ensure effective communication. As a supervisor, I would have ensured that the colleague was heard and respected. Prioritizing effective communication in the workplace improves the understanding of individual differences. I would practice listening skills as it would allow me to hear and understand what the colleague had to say about his dress code. Explanations will help justify the need to impose dress code restrictions or allow freedom of expression. Also, I would have considered the platinum rule, which requires one to treat others how they would like to be treated. Instead of forcing the colleague not to dress in his turban, I would allow him to express his religion through his preferred dress code.


Ford, J. (2001). Cross-cultural conflict resolution in teams. Available from

Mahan, L. N., & Mahuna, J. M. (2017). Bridging the Divide: Cross-Cultural Mediation. International Research and Review7(1), 11-22. Available from

Culturally Competent Nursing Essay Example


Complete cultural assessment is essential in healthcare as it helps assess patients, individuals or family members on various cultural competencies that can help improve health. It is essential to provide culturally sensitive and competent healthcare to patients to improve patient outcomes and meet the multicultural community’s health needs (Purnell, 2021). Purnell supports the need to support culturally sensitive healthcare by insisting on cultural assessment competencies. He developed a model to prepare a cultural competence assessment with 12 domains to ensure all essential cultural information is captured during a cultural assessment. According to the Purnell model, the 12 domains for assessment include; Overview, Communication, Family roles and organization, Workforce issues, Biocultural ecology, High-risk behaviors, Nutrition, Pregnancy, Death rituals, Spirituality, Healthcare practices and Healthcare practitioners (Purnell, 2021). The paper will focus on an interview with a Mexican American patient, D.S. living in the U.S using the above 12 domains; it will also highlight the health implication of culturally competent healthcare.


D.S. is a patient who is a Mexican American; he is 20 years old and living in the United States. He was born in the United States and has lived in the same city his entire life. The patient is Hispanic; his parents are also of Mexican descent. He is a college student studying to become a teacher. The patient earns a living from selling clothes though he is undertaking an education course. He is not politically active though he wishes to join politics once he attains the age of 35 years.


The patient is bilingual, speaking both English and Spanish. He is more comfortable speaking English and prefers to communicate in that language when possible. Mr. D.S. notes that he also has some knowledge of traditional Mexican slang, which they use when speaking with other Mexican Americans. He Speaks in a low tone and volume; He maintains eye contact when communicating and uses facial expressions to indicate some information. The patient says he starts by greeting before talking to anyone. He is always ready to engage in lengthy communication and does not feel shy when communicating with strangers. He notes he starts with an introduction when communicating on various critical issues.

Family Roles and Organization

D.S. is the oldest of three children and is the only one to have attended college. He notes that their parents have emphasized the importance of education and encouraged all their children to pursue higher education. D.S.’s parents are traditional because the father is the head of the household and is expected to provide for the family. The mother is expected to take care of the home and the children. The girls engage in home chores and taking lighter chores, while the boys protect the homestead and engage in more energy-consuming tasks (Gramann et al., 2019). The family is a nuclear family with high social status; it practices lifestyles such as regular physical exercises.

Workforce Issues

The patient indicates that their parents have always worked hard to provide for the family and that their experiences in the workforce have been positive. He also notes that there is a strong emphasis on respect for authority in the Mexican American community, which is reflected in the workplace. He reports acculturations issues in the workplace; he also notes that sometimes the principle of autonomy does not perfectly work at the workplace as the manager sometimes limits people from making their own decisions. The patient also indicates that they sometimes experience language barriers at the workplace when they encounter new clients.

Biocultural Ecology

D.S. says that their family is closely connected to their Mexican heritage and culture and that they often celebrate traditional Mexican holidays and attend festivals to celebrate Mexican culture. The patient also says that their cultural community has biological variations where some people have different physical characteristics, such as skin color and other traits, despite belonging to one community and culture. The patient also indicates that different individuals in their culture and community have different heredity and genetics and live in different ecological identities (Gramann et al., 2019). He reports that some people may have various drug resistance while others may not have problems with drug metabolism of the same drugs indicating variation in drug metabolism.

High-Risk Behaviors

D.S. notes that their family is not involved in high-risk behaviors like drug or alcohol abuse. He says that their parents have always stressed the importance of good decision-making and have emphasized the importance of staying away from risky behaviors. He confirms that no member of their family is involved in drugs or any health-risk behaviors, he denies any of their families using recreational drugs or engaging in high-risk physical activities, and therefore there is safety in their family.


D.S. notes that their family has a traditional Mexican diet, which includes a lot of beans, tortillas, and other traditional Mexican dishes. The patient indicates that their family also consumes a lot of fresh fruits and vegetables but tends to consume more processed foods than fresh produce. He says there are some special foods with different meanings, and they are used on special occasions and events (Gramann et al., 2019). Some foods are used to make rituals for healing and other purposes. The patients also state that nutrition is emphasized in their culture to ensure a healthy life free of diseases and complications that can arise from deficiencies.


The patient says their family is very traditional regarding pregnancy and childbirth. He notes that their family believes that childbirth should be a natural process and that family and friends should surround the mother during labor and delivery. He notes that they believe pregnancy is sacred and should be honored and cared for until delivery. They also practice traditional birth culture, which they believe is shaped by the beliefs of a hot-cold balance within the body. The women don’t eat some foods during pregnancy. They practice the medical birthing process but accept the traditional one (Gramann et al., 2019). They take the postpartum period seriously and care for the mother and their infants with nutrition and family support. They also believe it is essential or postpartum mothers to avoid cold showers and drinking hot soups, and they should abstain from sex; it is also essential to bind the abdomen with a postpartum faja.

Death Rituals

The patient notes that their family observes the traditional Mexican funeral rituals when someone passes away. Their family typically holds a vigil in the deceased’s home for 24- 48 hours. During this time, they eat and drink together, perform special prayers, and friends and guests bring some gist to the bereaved. The family will then accompany the body to a cemetery for burial. According to the D.S, communion and last rites are offered to people when death is near, and a Rosario is performed nine days after the death of a family member; this practice involves flowers, prayers, candles and sharing of memories of the diseased (Gramann et al., 2019). The deceased are buried with their clothing and some important possessions before death.


The patient notes that their family is Catholic and attends church regularly. He also notes that their family practices many spiritual rituals, such as praying the rosary and attending mass. They use prayers for various occasions, including parties, during meals, at the hour of sleep, and for casting out spells and bad omens in the family and the community. They believe in and worship God through Jesus Christ. They also use prayers to exorcist demons and clean their family members. The patient says they believe in life after death, and their meaning of life is anchored in the belief that humans are living on Earth to fulfill the desire of GOD, after which they die and go to live forever in heaven. They believe sin separates man from God and can lead a person to hell when they die.

Healthcare Practices

The patient notes that their family typically seeks traditional medical care when needed, and their family is also open to alternative healthcare practices, such as acupuncture and herbal remedies. They believe in healing the sick using prayers and religious rituals; they practice western medicine practices such as surgery and have accepted transplantation practices in a limited measure. They also practice self-medication, rehabilitation, and physical activities to improve their health.

Healthcare Practitioners

The patient notes that their family typically seeks medical care from physicians they know and trust. He also says they are open to seeking medical care from other healthcare practitioners, such as naturopaths and chiropractors. In their culture, women are preferably handled by female healthcare practitioners, but in forced circumstances, men are also allowed to treat female patients and vice versa.

Implications for Health Practices

From the cultural assessment, it is clear that cultural competency is essential for healthcare providers as it helps them provide quality health to patients.

Based on the cultural assessment of the patient, it is evident that certain cultural considerations need to be taken into account when providing health care to patients from different cultures. First, providers should be aware of the importance of communication and ensure they can communicate effectively with patients. This improves the health process and allows the nurses to provide the required healthcare to patients. It is also essential to consider the importance of a patient’s traditional rituals and practices when caring for such patients. Spirituality and religion also affect the healthcare delivery process; healthcare providers need to screen for spirituals needs in patients and address such needs when caring for them. To provide quality healthcare, it is also essential to consider the patient’s nutrition, health practices and other cultural characteristics when caring for them.


Cultural competency in healthcare is essential for providing high-quality care to all patients. Healthcare professionals must understand their patients’ cultures and health beliefs to provide the best care possible (Sharifi et al., 2019). Cultural competency helps to reduce health disparities, improve communication, and promote respect and understanding. It also helps to ensure that healthcare professionals provide culturally-sensitive care tailored to the patient’s needs. Cultural competency can help healthcare providers understand our society’s cultural and health disparities and how to address them. The healthcare providers should therefore follow the Purnell model when assessing patients’ cultural needs when caring for them.


Gramann, H, J., Floyd, F, M., Saenz, R. (2019). Outdoor recreation an Mexican American ethnicity: A benefits perspective. Culture, Conflicts and communication in the Wildland- urban Interface, 69-84.

Purnell, D, L. (2021). The Purnell model ad theory for cultural competence. Textbook for cultural health care: A population approach, 19-59.

Sharifi, N., Hajbanhery, A & Najafi, M. (2019). Cultural competence in nursing: A concept

analysis. International Journal of Nursing Studies 99.

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