Numerous entities compete for supremacy in the real estate sector, each with its own identities, methods, and goals, to offset the market towards their side and colonize the real estate market. However, a handful stands out for their unique traits and achievements or a track record of past works and accolades in the real estate industry. Notably, the industry has recently evolved in leaps and bounds, making it one of the most dynamic ventures in the commerce and entrepreneurship landscape (Eibel, 2021). Ideally, real estate is volatile, with cyclical expansion and fall that may quickly change market dynamics. Property prices, loan rates, and customer behavior fluctuate, making managing difficult for firms. Companies may fail to foresee trends and manage risk, resulting in severe financial and operational consequences. Inflation, unemployment, and recessions exacerbate these instabilities. Thus, real estate success requires resilience, strategic planning, and market indicators, and only a few serious and exceptional firms can put up with such market doldrums and crosswinds (Parlasca & Tronet, 2021). One such firm is the Morel Family Group, a family-owned real estate company that blends innovation with excellent service.
The Morel Family Group’s high-quality, cost-effective services throughout the property market have earned them a place in the real estate sector for decades. The corporation manages residential and commercial real estate, invests, and develops. Their dedication to constant education and cutting-edge technology keeps them ahead of industry trends and allows them to quickly anticipate and react to market movements. The Morel Family Group’s main business structure is unique. It is a family-owned enterprise that thrives on unity. The team, a varied group of experts with specific talents and experience, is united by their last name and dedication to providing superior real estate services. Their family relationship drives them, creating a unique work culture that values unity, cooperation, and excellence. The Group is not simply another real estate firm, but a family-owned company recognized for its excellent service, unique real estate strategy, and cohesive workforce. They provide efficient, professional real estate services with a personal touch.
Two goals drive this paper to its entirety. The Morel Family Group’s vision, purpose, and basic principles are first covered explicitly in an elaborate discussion to help paint a perfect operational picture of the company throughout its endeavors. This explorative trajectory is essential because the company’s culture and operations are shaped by these ideas, including service delivery, staff relationships, and customer connections that uniquely position the company at the apex of the real estate industry (Groysberg et al., 2018). Additionally, this paper will also analyze how the above concepts shape the company’s operations, culture, and superior service delivery while touching on the critical aspects of its internal environments, its competitive advantages and limitations, financial analysis, and outcomes together with their measurements as well as the internal controls. The paper will also examine how these components portray it as a corporation that values enduring partnerships, empowerment, and establishing industry standards and property transactions. These aspects have propelled it high into the property markets.
Mission, Vision and Core Values
Any company relies on its goal, vision, and basic principles for direction and tactical road map. They set the organization’s identity, culture, and behaviors. The organization’s mission statement explains its purpose, clarifies everyday operations, informs choices, and keeps the business focused on its core objectives (David & David, 2018). Conversely, a vision statement expresses the organization’s goals and future conditions. It inspires employees to work toward a shared objective. An organization’s core values shape its members’ behavior and thinking. These core values support ethical conduct, a healthy culture, and organizational identity. Clear purpose, vision, and fundamental values are important for many reasons. They provide direction, establish a consistent identity, simplify decision-making, and align stakeholders’ interests. Without them, a business might become vulnerable to changing market factors, internal strife, and a lack of strategic focus.
Vision is more than words for the Morel Family Group. It guides the company’s operations internally and internationally. The company’s overarching is to “be the first positive image of anyone who wants to do a real estate business in all of Illinois.” “As a company, we are committed to creating and maintaining a culture, and we understand that this culture can affect our team’s actions.” The Group’s vision is aligned with its goals and strategy. Being the ‘first positive image’ in Illinois real estate is a lofty ambition. It represents the Group’s goal to be Illinois’ top real estate company by establishing high standards for service, professionalism, and industry experience. This goal is not simply about being the most famous or lucrative business but building pleasant connections with future clientele. It is about becoming the real estate firm people think of when they want outstanding service, dependability, and value.
Organizational culture is equally important to the Morel Family Group’s goal. The organization realizes that its culture, based on its fundamental principles, impacts its team’s behaviors and choices. Business operations are affected by this devotion to corporate culture. An engaging, supportive culture boosts employee morale, creativity, and productivity, which impacts service quality. Its excellent organizational culture strengthens the company’s market position, which attracts and retains top personnel. The vision statement also shows the company’s commitment to its organizational culture and how it affects team behavior. More than merely a workplace, the Morel Family Group’s culture reflects its executives’ basic beliefs. The company’s strategic choices, policies, and customer service techniques are shaped by its culture. It shows the Group’s recognition of culture’s influence on its success.
Morel Family Group’s vision is interconnected. Every approach, interaction, and choice is influenced by it. According to Grünig et al. (2022), strategic visions define a company’s purpose, values, and goals, ensuring its long-term success. By regularly reflecting on this vision, the Morel Family Group keeps on track, making strategic choices that support its overall aim and sustaining a strong corporate culture. This vision allows the firm to expand and stay a top real estate company in Illinois.
The Morel Family Group’s mission statement clearly states its objectives. “Build lifelong relationships with all clients and people who interact with the Morel Family Group through impeccable service through a trained, committed, and in love with real estate activities.” The company’s purpose and values provide a path for service delivery and customer involvement. The Morel Family Group’s mission statement emphasizes its commitment to long-term partnerships and high-quality service from a motivated staff. The Group’s focus on ‘lifelong partnerships’ shows its client-centricity. The organization sees each customer engagement as a chance to build trust, respect, and mutual gain.
The Morel Family Group’s purpose is outstanding service from a qualified, devoted, and enthusiastic real estate staff. Continuous training and development keep the staff current on market trends, legislation changes, and industry best practices. This continual learning culture promotes quality and professionalism, enhancing the Group’s market position. More significantly, it shows the team’s passion for real estate, which drives their devotion, ingenuity, and tenacity in this competitive industry. The mission is the strategic engine that drives the Group’s activities, delimitating its tactical, marketing and internal operations. It helps the team treat customers with empathy, honesty, and respect. It drives service delivery to excellence and customer pleasure. It also shapes the Group’s team growth and development approach, emphasizing continuous learning and a love for real estate.
Core values drive an organization’s behavior and decisions. They shape the company’s culture, operations, and employee behavior. Core values define a firm and guide its activities. The Morel Family Group lives its principles of transparency and dedication to service, innovation and creativity in the real estate sector. These basic principles guide the company’s and its workers’ everyday activities. They establish team behavior guidelines and a framework for performance and conduct evaluation.
- Honesty: The Morel Family Group prioritizes honesty. The company values honesty and ethics. They are upfront with clients and do the right thing even when no one is looking. Integrity builds trust with customers and partners and a reputation for honesty in the business.
- Resilience: The Group’s second fundamental principle emphasizes flexibility and perseverance. Morel is handy, seamlessly negotiating market swings, legal changes, and other real estate business challenges and remaining at the top of the game. Such resilience helps them survive and thrive.
- Proactivity: The third fundamental characteristic is proactivity, energy and being overly outgoing, which shows the Group’s willingness to anticipate customer demands. The Morel Family Group goes beyond market fluctuations and customer requirements. They foresee them and capitalize before the competitor does. This proactive approach improves service and consumer happiness.
- Teamwork: Collaboration and integration have pushed Morel to its current position. Teamwork is the fourth key value that promotes organizational cooperation and success. The Morel Family Group relies on teamwork to accomplish objectives as cooperation fosters open communication, respect, and responsibility, which improves performance and client results.
- Loyalty: Morel always has the interest of its customers at heart all the time. Loyalty shows the Group’s commitment to customers and each other. This devotion and allegiance shows in their dedication to customer pleasure, desire to go above and beyond, satisfaction and teamwork. This commitment builds team unity and customer loyalty.
Environmental Scan Analysis
The Morel Family Group excels in real estate due to its many capabilities. These skills have helped the organization become an Illinois powerhouse and have set it apart from the rest of the companies and firms in the same landscape. First, the Group communicates well throughout the company. Real estate requires ongoing contact with customers, stakeholders, and industry experts. The Morel Family Group keeps all parties informed, resulting in seamless and efficient transactions. Clear communication promotes client confidence and helps real estate deals.
Apart from eloquent and strategic communication, the Group encompasses exemplary financial and analytical skills. Market trends, investment possibilities, and financial tactics are well-known to the Group. Consultants, think tanks, and technical managers use their analytical skills to evaluate assets, find profitable investment opportunities, and advise customers. Clients trust the Group’s competence and ability to achieve good results because of their financial acumen.
Real estate experts also excel in networking and linkage. The organization values industry partnerships. Their vast network connects them to buyers, sellers, investors, and industry experts. This network gives them access to off-market agreements and strategic relationships, giving them a market advantage. The Morel Family Group’s network boosts its market presence and success.
Additionally, the Group is meticulous and pays attention to detail, even the little nitty gritty they believe makes a difference. Real estate deals need complex paperwork, legalities, and finances. The Group’s thoroughness reduces mistakes and problems. Property appraisals, contract negotiations, and regulatory compliance need meticulousness. Clients trust the Morel Family Group’s accuracy and high-quality services.
Sales and negotiating are other areas of excellence that make the real estate giant an outstanding corporation even in the turbulent landscape. The organization can promote properties, attract buyers, and arrange attractive agreements with its expert personnel. Their effective communication, market dynamics knowledge, and strategic negotiating strategy make them competitive in achieving client goals. These talents and their real estate market expertise help the Morel Family Group manage difficult situations and succeed.
Like every company, the Morel Family Group has flaws that might affect its real estate operations and competitiveness. While the organization has tried to address some of these shortcomings, lagging areas still have affected the company’s running. The Group recognizes their industrial inexperience in some niches. The Group has much real estate experience, although certain niches or trends may be new. The company invests in ongoing education and professional development to address this issue. Employees attend industry conferences, seminars, and workshops to keep current on market trends, regulatory changes, and best practices. The Morel Family Group seeks to fill gaps in its industry expertise and deliver complete services to its customers by improving their knowledge base and talents.
Technical challenges have also limited the company’s growth in terms of fieldwork associated with real estate, such as lot surveys, subdivision and amalgamation of properties. The insufficiency in technological competency has hurt efficiency and competitiveness. Technology streamlines real estate procedures, data analysis, and communication in the digital age (Scardovi, 2019). Technology helps the business improve operations and customer service. The Morel Family Group purchased innovative real estate software, CRM systems, and internet marketing platforms to solve this shortcoming. They also taught their staff how to utilize technology to expedite operations, improve data management, and increase client communication. The organization prioritizes technical expertise to remain ahead and use technology as a competitive advantage.
The Group also has a weak point in time management. Managing many customers, properties, and deadlines needs good time management. The organization uses efficient work allocation, prioritizing, and scheduling methods to address this problem. The company project management tools, timeframes, and resource allocation to maximize efficiency and satisfy clients. The Morel Family Group stresses team communication and cooperation to guarantee work coordination and completion. The Group strives to improve time management to boost operational efficiency and customer satisfaction.
The competitive real estate market offers the Morel Family Group many growth and development prospects. The organization may develop its company, improve its skills and marketability, and use new technology by strategically capitalizing on these possibilities. The Group needs market growth. After establishing a solid position in their existing market, businesses might seek growth opportunities to attract new customers. This may mean targeting nearby areas or entering new cities or states. The firm may strategically manage resources and engage in marketing to enter new markets by researching high-demand real estate service sectors. Market growth helps the firm expand its clientele, improve income, and become a major market real estate player.
Continuing education boosts Morel Family Group’s talents and marketability. The Group stays competitive and provides excellent service by aggressively seeking professional development and keeping up with industry developments, legislation, and best practices. Attending industry conferences, seminars, and training programs helps team members learn new skills and remain current. The firm can recruit and retain top people, boost its expertise, and preserve its image as a trusted real estate service provider by cultivating a learning culture and investing in employee development.
Economic instability threatens Morel Family Group businesses. Economic volatility, which is the sudden, unanticipated changes in market circumstances and macroeconomic indicators, can greatly impact consumer buying power. This impacts the Group product and service demand. Economic downturns or crises may interrupt supply networks, resulting in financial losses or decreased profitability. The company mitigates these hazards by diversifying its investment portfolio and keeping strong financial reserves. The Group maintains financial resilience by changing its business strategy to the economic situation. Regular economic forecasting and risk management can prevent economic shocks.
Regulatory developments also confront the firm, including tax, commerce, labor, and environmental regulations that may affect the Group’s operations and finances. To comply and adapt, the Group must keep informed regarding these requirements to avoid problems with authorities. The firm’s regulatory monitoring system tracks law changes to keep abreast of new developments and adjust its operations accordingly.
Also, the company must constantly differentiate and innovate to remain ahead in a competitive business. The Group struggles to stand out from competitors and retain customers. Unique product creation, excellent customer service, and intelligent marketing help the Group overcome these hurdles. It overcomes industry competition by knowing its target market and using cutting-edge technology like Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to automate tasks and procedures.
Competitive Advantage Analysis
A real estate firm needs a competitive edge, market segmentation, and focus. These techniques boost market penetration and client retention. Morel’s Family’s competitive edge comes from a strong industry network, excellent customer service, and new technological platforms. The competitive strategy begins with a thorough research of the Chicago real estate market, which helps the company to understand trends, demand-supply relations, and competition hence detecting market gaps or unmet requirements.
After market analysis, rivals are assessed. Knowing their strengths, shortcomings, and unique selling factors helps the firm stand out in the congested Chicago real estate market. Understanding target market preferences wants, and pain areas is crucial. Proactive market research, customer involvement, and comprehensive feedback analysis help adjust services to clients’ needs. The competitive advantage comes from the unique experience, extensive Chicago contacts, and a reputation as a dependable local expert (DeCenzo et al., 2016). Technology and innovation skills boost corporate status by integrating virtual tours, 3D imagery, smart home integration, and sophisticated data analytics to enhance customer experiences.
Customer service is another competitive advantage. Effective communication and a tailored approach provide customers with unique and seamless experiences. Strong contacts with bankers, contractors, lawyers, and inspectors enhance the service. Customer feedback and recommendations help demonstrate value in that satisfied customers boost their reputation and create a great USP.
The strategic plan’s value proposition supports corporate initiatives and shows a competitive advantage. This statement explains why consumers should pick these services over rivals, supporting the focus strategy and market segment demands. The real estate service helps customers locate their desired Chicago house with individualized, experienced counseling. Thorough market knowledge, a vast network, and great customer service guarantee a smooth and pleasant home-buying experience. This team offers trustworthy counsel, negotiates on customers’ behalf, and leads them through property selection to closing. This statement encapsulates Morel’s Family’s dedication to superior service and Chicago real estate experience.
The firm relies on market segmentation to better serve its broad consumer base by segmenting the market. Geographic, demographic, psychographic, and behavioral segmentation implements this technique.
The Group relies on geographic segmentation, which has helped it to dominate certain Illinois areas. It has tailored its real estate offers and marketing methods to various regions by understanding their requirements and peculiarities. The firm focuses on high-demand areas to obtain a competitive advantage. This method has helped develop strong, individualized connections with local communities. However, it is carefully expanding into new markets, and to penetrate these markets, the Group prioritizes knowing local needs.
The Morel Family Group segments its customers by age, income, and home type, among other factors. This lets the Group provide more tailored services. First-time homebuyers in their 30s may have different marketing needs than seniors looking for smaller houses. The Group provides a diversified portfolio to meet the demands of various income categories and family types through customized services for its broad customer groups.
This type of segmentation is equally important. The firm’s marketing approach emphasizes customers’ attitudes, interests, and lifestyles via psychographic segmentation to understand their real estate selections, whether they seek luxury or eco-friendly residences. Psychographic segmentation helps the firm tailor its marketing to target consumers, boosting brand loyalty and retention by highlighting features and perks that match their consumers’ beliefs and lifestyles in their marketing materials.
It entails classifying customers by behavior, use, and loyalty to the Group’s products. This involves knowing how customers utilize their services, reactions to marketing and sales initiatives, and brand loyalty. This study helps the Group meet customer demands, modify marketing messages, and create goods and services that match client behavior. This method improves service performance, customer retention, and Group expansion and profitability.
Understanding and managing the Morel Family Group’s finances is essential for development and sustainability. This requires extensive cost structure analysis and proactive financial planning.
The Morel Family Group’s cost structure has numerous crucial components. Startup fees, including license and education, in accordance with Texas Real Estate Commission (TREC) criteria for 2023, ensure the Group fulfills professional and legal standards (Texas Real Estate Commission, 2023). Association memberships and MLS fees boost the Group’s industry reputation and reach. Computers, software, and customer relationship management systems are essential for corporate operations. The Group also spends a lot building a professional office that clients may visit. The Group spends much on marketing and advertising. Marketing materials, website creation, social media advertising, and other promotional activities are needed to build the brand. For cost-effectiveness, the Group allocates funding among advertising campaigns.
Estimating beginning expenses for the Morel Family Group starts with all the factors considered. This assessment helps the Group choose financing and sources. The Group’s financial strategy requires a contingency reserve. The cash cushion helps the Group handle unexpected costs and economic downturns. It also creates a thorough budget, classifying spending as fixed or variable. Financial gurus like Hayes in 2023 recommend this budgeting method to balance the company’s costs and revenues and ensure profitability (Hayes, 2023. Financial planning for the Group also involves assessing personal financial needs. This approach ensures that the owners’ financial requirements do not hurt the firm. It may also seek bank loans, investors, or government grants. When finances are insufficient to meet initial expenditures and sustain cash flow, this is done. The Group also targets to reduce costs using a variety of tactics. These tactics discover cost-controlling opportunities without sacrificing service quality, improving operational efficiency and eliminating waste.
Organizational internal controls are important to the firm. An organization’s internal controls protect financial and accounting data, improve accountability, and combat fraud. Several researchers agree that internal control is essential for operational efficiency, risk management, and legal compliance (Cheng et al., 2018). The Group focuses on transaction management to serve customers. Maintaining consumer confidence requires authorizing, recording, and executing transactions effectively.
Financial management is another vital internal control that keeps an organization in check (Descanso, 2016). From budgeting to financial reporting, the company ensures financial objectives are met, and stability is maintained. These controls avoid financial malfeasance and promote financial openness and responsibility. Internal control is crucial for data privacy. The Group safeguards consumer data, maintaining confidentiality and compliance with data protection laws. Data encryption, robust user authentication, and frequent audits help prevent security breaches.
Marketing and advertising also need internal controls to control the media outlets for publicity. The Morel Family Group controls marketing to meet corporate goals, regulatory obligations, and ethical standards. This involves overseeing marketing programs to guarantee success and ROI. Another critical form of control is risk and client money management. As a fiduciary, the company manages clients’ assets carefully and honestly. The Group handles fraud, market volatility, and operational risks, which helps it protect its reputation and builds client and stakeholder confidence.
The Morel Family Group is a leader in real estate service and innovation that strives to build lasting connections with customers and the community to become Illinois’ top real estate option. Integrity, resilience, proactivity, collaboration, and loyalty underpin their operations and steer the Group toward its vision. Strategic management helps the Group balance its strengths and limitations. Their strengths include experienced staff, solid client connections, and market knowledge, which can be used to alleviate their drawbacks. The approach by the company relies on market segmentation. This includes catering to diverse client groups by segmenting their market by geographic, demographic, psychographic, and behavioral factors. This tailored strategy improves customer satisfaction, the Group’s competence, and market share. The Group also prioritizes financial planning by carefully estimating the beginning expenses, researching financing possibilities, and applying cost-control techniques, attaining their financial objectives with this rigorous financial planning. The Group also stresses the essence of internal controls for efficiency in operations and risk management, and this is achieved by handling transactions and finances well. The company also protects data, governs advertising and marketing, and manages risk and client finances. Ideally, the Group strategically manages a real estate firm, ensuring service quality, customer connections, fundamental beliefs, market segmentation, financial planning, and internal controls, distinguishing their priorities in this sector.
David, F. R., & David, F. R. (2018). Strategic management: A competitive advantage approach. Pearson.
DeCenzo, D. A., Robbins, S. P., & Verhulst, S. L. (2016). Fundamentals of human resource management. John Wiley & Sons.
Eibel, J. (2021). Correction to: Real estate investment trusts and joint ventures. Essays in Real Estate Research, C1-C1. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-31977-9_7
Groysberg, B., Lee, J., Price, J., & Cheng, J. (2018). The leader’s guide to corporate culture. Harvard business review, 96(1), 44-52.
Hayes, A. (2023, May 24). What is Revenue? Definition, Formula, Calculation, and Example. Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/r/revenue.asp#:~:text=Intermsofrealestate,netoperatingincome(NOI)
Parlasca, P., & Tronet, V. (2021). House sales indicators – A new dataset able to capture housing market developments in Europe. 28th Annual European Real Estate Society Conference. https://doi.org/10.15396/eres2021_38
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Enhancing English Speaking Confidence And Fluency Among TESOL Learners In China
The study aims to investigate the factors that impact confidence and fluency in English speaking among TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) in China. The research seeks to find the chief issues these learners encounter besides exploring likely plans to stress their confidence and oral influence (Cheung, 2023).
The study uses a mixed-tactic approach, incorporating interviews and surveys, to gather data from TESOL learners at diverse stages of English proficiency. The outcomes of this research will give precious insights to TESOL educators and learners, contributing to improving English language teaching and learning in China.
Practical communication skills and English fluency are increasingly significant in a globalized world. With the increasing demand for English language proficiency in China, TESOL programs have attained noticeable popularity among learners ambitious to become English language educators or improve their English proficiency (Lei & Lei, 2023).
Although, despite the exposure given and extensive training in these programs, numerous TESOL learners in China still need help developing their confidence and oral fluency in English speaking. The ability to speak confidently and fluently is critical to language learning as it permits persons to engage in meaningful conversation and express themselves efficiently.
Although many factors impact confidence and oral fluency, specifically in the context of TESOL learners in China, comprehending these factors is necessary for designing efficient interventions and strategies to enhance their speaking skills. This research aims to interrogate the factors affecting confidence in English speaking and fluency among TESOL learners in China. This study seeks to contribute to English language learning and teaching in China by finding the chief issues in improving confidence and oral fluency.
The importance of the research lingers on its likelihood to shed light on the unique matters faced by TESOL learners in China, as well as factors that obstruct the growth of confidence and oral fluency in English speaking. By gaining a more profound comprehension of these issues, curriculum designers and educators can tailor their interventions and approaches to better meet the needs of TESOL learners, ultimately improving language learning outcomes (Liu et al., 2023).
A mixed-methods tactic will be deployed to attain the research aims, combining interviews and surveys to gather data from TESOL learners at various proficiency levels. The study will give quantitative data on the participants, confidence levels, and self-perceived oral fluency. At the same time, the interview will offer valuable qualitative insights into their strategies, challenges, and encounters.
Description of fluency
There are numerous definitions of fluency in English. Fluency is the know-how to have the intent to pass the message without much hesitation and numerous pauses to cause incidence or barriers in communication; fluency is the character that gives speeches quality of being normal and natural. Incorporating native-like use of the rate of speaking, stress, intonation, rhythm, pausing, and use of interruptions and interjections.
In Hedge’s scope (1993), fluency is linked to linking speech units together without strain with facility or undue hesitation. These descriptions chiefly focus on the confidence and fluidness of producing speech without too much pause and hesitations. In this study, the author reveals that fluency is vital to learners’. Skill is likened to preciseness in the manner that concentrates learners on less hesitation, speed increase in speaking, and fewer pauses to stress learners’ confidence in speaking.
Conferring to Bailey (2003), fluency-grounded activities incorporate simulation, role-plays, jigsaw activities, and information gaps. According to other research, fluency-based acts incorporate communicative free-protection acts, repetition or rehearsal tasks, formulaic sequence use, discourse markers and lexical fillers, and consciousness-raising tasks.
Accuracy and fluency in speaking class
Various lesson stages in speaking classes stress both accuracy and fluency, fluency than accuracy and vice versa. The most significant thing is that the teachers must clearly focus on accuracy-based or fluency-based work to promote learners.
Conferring to the figure above, fluency/accuracy switch, it is correct that it will be a chief skill if every language teacher can regulate accuracy and fluency-based activities in speaking class. Fluency-grounded activities should represent one-quarter of class time to develop fluency in English speaking. Brumfit (1985) proposes a third of the total time for fluency activities from the start of the course, which should be raised during the course.
Issues manipulating fluency speaking skill
Concerning Ryan and Donyei (2015), their practical part is the noticeable impact on students’ language learning procedure. The affective factors link to attitudes, moods, and feeling to language learning, particularly to learning speaking, which this research assesses. In this article, the affective factors are seen as fear of making mistakes, self-confidence, shyness, and anxiety which are key impacts on fluency in speaking.
These affective influences are closely linked as aspects of opposing sides in speaking skills. Anxiety pervasively hinders the learning procedure as they worry about being stupid, wrong, or incomprehensible, which diminishes their speaking performance. Also, low willingness to communicate emanates from too much anxiety. Ultimately, it will have an undesirable impact on learners’ achievement in second-language classrooms.
The performance environment in speaking class also impacts the fluency degree of learners. Conferring to various researchers, diverse performance factors incorporate time pressure, planning time, and the support amount. It has been proposed that giving students more planning time before the task aids learners in producing more complex and fluent language.
Planning time also aids students in increasing grammatical complexity and fluency. Contrary to this, time pressure is the urgency of the speaking role that students ought to complete their performance which could raise the difficulty for it. Tran and Nguyen (2015) state that time pressure leads to undesirable performance in speaking. Also, teacher support and peer numbers make things less demanding, as presenting a subject with others is more straightforward than doing it alone.
The speaker’s automatic procedural skill is what is termed oral fluency. It is similar to a speed procedure. If it is recurrent in English learned, their fluency in speaking will be attained. Levelt (1989) explains a speech procedure that forms speech n daily life incorporating three phases: articulation, formulation, and conceptualization.
This procedural, psychological process implies that every vague notion is concise or conceptualized. The orator selects the relayed information grounded on their background information in the formulation phase, where lexis and grammar are arranged in correct syntax order along with chunk language and formulaic sequence, to the end phase- articulation, where speech organs come into play to produce sound.
However, speech fluency is triumphant; this process largely relies on articulation and, to a noticeable degree, on formulation and, to some extent, on conceptualization. If language starters need more automation, it will be problematic for them to produce fluent speech and pay attention. Nguyen (2015) states that fluency is a product of automation. Suppose learners are exposed to an English environment, such as teachers speaking English every time, English newspapers, English tapes, and English books for them to use. In that case, they can pick up the language unconsciously and naturally.
The suitable surroundings and a good atmosphere can also well-support learners to speak fluently, correctly, and actively. Learners can automatize to gain fluency in speaking if teachers continuously put learners under increased time pressure.
The study participants were 98 learners, 66 females and 32 males, haphazardly chosen from second-year non-majored learners of a University in China. Many of them have been learning English for close to 10 years. They are undertaking English courses in the first semester of the academic year.
This course involves a combined learning procedure whereby learners follow 40 periods of offline lessons and 35 periods of online. In the course’s units, they self-learn online five sections, writing skills, reading, listening, grammar, and vocabulary. In offline subjects, they typically concentrate on fluency-based and accuracy-grounded activities.
Before every offline lesson with their tutor in class, the learners must finish their online lesson at home. Besides, thirteen tutors mentoring English for first-year learners were also invited to undertake interviews in the study. There are 12 females and two males in this team of tutors, and they have 5 to 10 years of experience in tutoring English at the university.
Research procedures and instruments.
The research used a combined tactic design, which gathers both qualitative and quantitative data to explain and understand the research matter. The researchers selected a survey questionnaire as the chief instrument to collect quantitative data and then performed interviews to get in-depth qualitative data. Survey questionnaires by Nguyen and Tran, Marriam, Muhammad, and Ashiq 2011, were the source of adaptation for the survey questionnaire, mainly comprising eight questions. Also, some queries in this survey were formed grounded on theoretical know-how linked to the research topic analyzed in the literature review.
Initially, the questionnaire was piloted and administered to ten first-year, non-primary English learners of the university, who needed to be incorporated into the research to gain feedback on whether the research participants could comprehend the wording or instructions. After piloting and tryout, the questionnaire was reviewed by two experts in research (Musa, 2023).
The experts gave Oral explanations and instructions in detail to the learners face-to-face before they answered the question to stop any misunderstanding. Then, semi-structured one on one interrogations for teachers and learners were conducted by the researchers haphazardly to 15 out of 98 learners to carry out personal interviews comprising two questions.
The interview questions’ objective was to gain detailed information on respondents’ feelings on some strategies and speaking classes used to improve oral fluency in English speaking. To gain reliable data, the experts transcribed the replies to the interviews as quickly as possible, a maximum of a day after the interrogations.
Discussion and Findings
From the above figure, many learners (89%) felt hesitant to speak English in their classes. They were still determining whether they used English appropriately or vice versa; thus, they vacillated to speak. 65.3% implied they needed to be made aware if pauses in their speaking volumes were appropriate. Whereas 49% revealed that they could not think of anything to say or could not actualize the ideas in their mind in English-speaking lessons, a negligible number of 15.3% chose the matter emanating from their partner’s reaction.
As described earlier, the learners must finish their online lesson before each offline lesson to prepare input knowledge for their speaking actions in class. Although, the outcome gathered in Fig 2 made the experts desire to get the causes of the learner’s issuers. Thus, they asked the learners in their first interview questions.
12 out of 15 shared that they had organized their online teachings before attending offline lessons with their teachers. It is visible that a significant number of students fell into the squad of affective factors, comprising 82 % for confidence, 85.1 % for fear of making mistakes, and 61.8 for anxiety.
In summary, the info from Fig 2 reveals that hesitation is the most concerning issue among the five listed issues to the learners. In the research on learners speaking issues, Tran and Nguyen (2015) confirm that learners are sometimes hindered as they aspire to say something in English. They become fearful of criticism and anxious about making blunders.
Rivers (1968) thinks students typically have little to discuss since their tutors pick a topic they need more info about or is inappropriate. Westrup and Baker (2003) also back up the outcome revealed in Fig 1, stating that it is pretty tough for learners to speak something confidently in English when they have various ideas about what to speak about, how to use grammar precisely, and which vocabulary to apply.
The outcome in the table above shows the factors resulting in the referred issues the learners encountered in their oral fluency above. The queries were raised in the learner’s interview to clear the air on affective factors. Many learners 13 of 15 stated that they were nervous in many of their English-speaking classes, which confirmed and supported the gathered outcomes in Table 1. Thus, now hidden reasons for the learned huge matter could be revealed.
The fear of making errors as one of the affective factors was the chief cause of making learners hesitate to produce language in conversations. Likewise, Nan and Yurong confirmed that the four affective factors ascertained the formation of oral English in their research about affective factors.
Tanveer (2007) also discovered that anxious learners may hinder their performance abilities and language learning. Also, Lin and Wu agreed that much anxiety resulted in a low willingness to converse. In the long while, it could have an undesirable impact on students’ achievement in a trailing language in the classroom.
Close to 75% of the learners saw automation factor-lack of communication practice- as an impactful factor to their oral fluency. These factors can be leisurely seen to be the leading cause of a second matter the students underwent. Schmidt (1992) stated that if the speed procedure were recalled automatically by English students daily, their fluency in speaking would achieve.
Nguyen (2015, p.52)also fortified that automation conceives fluency.
The probability of speaking English and the English surrounding were presented as the chief matter impacting the Chinese learner’s oral fluency in research conducted by Zhang et al. (2004). Thus, learners will only express themselves fluently if they practice speaking. They might have chunks of language or pause inappropriately as they converse.
Also, Bohlke (2014) stated that automation determined to a greater extent whether the learner could produce language fluently, and so did their exposure to the English environment. Learners could eventually use language unconsciously and naturally thanks to diving into English-speaking surrounding regularly.
The table shows learners’ exposure to English-speaking surrounding (Richards, 2023). Initially, the info in Table 2 shows that the learner’s frequency response in English was not top with the percentage of 1.2%, 23.3%, 32.5%, and 43%for the choices of always, usually, rarely, and sometimes, respectively. Also, in line with giving directions in class, 28.2 selected the option of usually, 66.7 5 of the learners revealed that their tutors occasionally used English to give instructions in class, and a tiny number 4.6 and 0.5 % selected the rank of always and rarely respectively.
Thirdly, it can be viewed from Table 2 that a vast number of learners, 88.7%, agreed on the teacher’s high frequency of translating instruction from English to Chinese in speaking class. In the initial interrogation query for tutors, the experts inquired about the reason for the dominant numbers. They elaborated that most of the time, the learners inquired for an explanation as they could not wholly comprehend the instructions in English.
Also, to grasp whether the time span in English classes backs the learner’s oral fluency, the tutors were interrogated on fluency percentage activities in every lesson in the second question. To ensure that all the teachers were certain of the characteristics of accuracy-based and fluency-based activities, the experts explained them prior to the activities.
Every tutor agreed that 50-75%of the speaking program in the books were fluency-grounded activities. Also, these activities were always frequent in each lesson in their textbook. Also, they shared that every textbook used in their English course was structured for their own learner’s majors and internal circulation particularly (Nam et al., 2023).
Grounded on their learner need assessment, the board of qualified English designed the textbooks based on these needs. The information showed that the present distribution of speaking acts in the English lesson is advantageous for promoting learners or appropriate as it is much beyond the whole time for fluency-grounded activities proposed by Brumfit, as mentioned earlier in the research.
Finally, conferring participation in various English activities outside the classroom, it is significant that the number of learners frequent was low, with 15.3% usually and 8.1% always. Meanwhile, many (55.6%) rarely and sometimes joined some outside English class, as eleven percent have not attended any tutorial group or English clubs.
Table 2 data revealed that learners were presented in a limited English-speaking environment outside the classroom. This fact could elaborate the learner’s problems in willingness to express themself in English without inappropriate pauses or hesitation. Also, as can be deduced from Table 1, almost 75% of learners thought it was an error factor of correction leading to fluency problems (Vu, 2023).
This matter was closely linked to some influential factors presented beforehand. This implied that learners could feel shy if the tutors mentioned their speaking mistakes; they feared making mistakes or anxiety in speaking class. Tran and Nguyen (2015) also reported that tutor feedback influenced learners speaking performance in their study.
Conclusion and recommendation
For any English language learner, attaining fluency in speaking is critical. Accordingly, understanding the issues linked to fluency and the factors leading to these issues would contribute to aiding tutors in reaching their goals. In order to attain the objective of the research, the experts carried out interviews and questionnaires to reply to the research query.
The outcome of the study question displayed the learner’s five issues in oral fluency: nothing to say, inappropriate pauses, difficulty in replying, and limited expressions, ranging from the biggest to the smallest. More critically, grounded on the outcome of data analysis, the factors resulting from these issues were also seen. The group affective factor, particularly the fear of making mistakes, was vital among the participants.
The tutors should aid their learners in overcoming shyness and inhibition by giving optimistic and gainful feedback. The tutors must carefully choose how and when to rectify the learner’s mistakes so that the learners are not fearful of making mistakes and student conversation is not harmed.
Tutors’ cooperative and friendly conduct can aid in making the learners feel comfortable and willing to speak in class. It is critical to nurture a surrounding where students and teachers habitually use English, mostly outside and inside the class. If the tutors give, sufficient guidance and explicit instruction can gradually get acclimatized to understanding instruction in English without translating into Vietnamese.
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The Evolving Landscape Of Agenda Setting: Assessing Effectiveness In The Age Of Twitter, SEO, AI, And Social Media
Agenda setting, the process by which the media determines which issues are important and good for public attention, has recently experienced significant transformations due to the emergence of various digital platforms and technologies. This essay examines the effectiveness of agenda-setting in the moment’s media landscape, specifically considering the impact of Twitter, search engine optimisation (SEO), artificial intelligence (AI), and social media (Aldaihani & Shin, 2022). By presenting three arguments, this composition aims to exfoliate light on the evolving nature of agenda setting and its effectiveness in the digital age.
Argument 1: The Amplification of Voices and Issues
Topic Sentence: Twitter and social media platforms have transformed agenda-setting by amplifying diverse voices and bringing attention to previously overlooked issues.
In the digital period, Twitter has surfaced as an important tool for agenda setting, thanks to its capability to circulate information and reach a wide audience rapidly. This platform allows individuals and communities to express their opinions, concerns, and experiences, bypassing traditional media gatekeepers. Hashtags and trending topics on Twitter frequently catalyse conversations and debates, ensuring that preliminarily marginalised voices gain prominence (Carazo-Barrantes, 2021). As a result, the agenda-setting process becomes further inclusive, reflecting a broader range of perspectives and social issues.
Likewise, social media platforms like Facebook and Instagram play a significant part in diversifying the media agenda. Users can partake in news articles, videos, and particular stories, further expanding the compass of the agenda. Users actively engage with content through likes, comments, and shares and can impact what others see and discuss (Russell, 2021). This participatory nature of social media empowers individuals to shape the media agenda according to their interests and enterprises, potentially leading to a further popular and responsive agenda-setting process.
Still, it’s important to admit that social media platforms also have limitations. The algorithms and echo chamber effect can contribute to sludge bubbles, where druggies are primarily exposed to content that aligns with their beliefs and perspectives. Also, the spread of misinformation and the lack of fact-checking can undermine the credibility of the media agenda (Guo & Liu, 2022). Thus, while social media platforms have the eventuality to enrich agenda setting, critical thinking and media knowledge are pivotal for navigating vast information and ensuring a well-informed public converse.
Argument 2: SEO and the Manipulation of Information Flow
Topic Sentence: Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) techniques can manipulate agenda setting by prioritising certain topics and sources, affecting the public’s access to information.
Search engines like Google play a crucial role in shaping the media agenda in the digital era. Content creators and news organisations employ SEO techniques to influence search engine rankings, which impacts the visibility and accessibility of certain topics or sources. This manipulation of information flow can distort the media agenda, favouring content that aligns with specific interests or biases. Entities skilled in SEO can strategically optimise their content to appear higher in search results, increasing the chances of their agenda gaining prominence (Russell, 2021). As a result, the effectiveness of agenda setting faces a challenge as the media landscape becomes susceptible to manipulation and biases are driven by algorithms and strategic content optimisation rather than the intrinsic importance or relevance of the issues. This raises concerns about the objectivity and diversity of information available to the public and the potential for certain viewpoints or perspectives to be marginalised or overshadowed.
Argument 3: AI and Personalized News Consumption
Topic Sentence: Artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms in news recommendation systems may limit exposure to diverse viewpoints, potentially narrowing the scope of agenda setting.
The advent of AI-powered news recommendation systems, similar to those seen on platforms like Google News and social media feeds, has led to a substantiated media agenda for individual users. This personalisation offers the advantage of acclimatised content, which can enhance the user experience. Still, it also gives rise to an” echo chamber” effect, where beliefs are corroborated, and exposure to different viewpoints is limited. AI algorithms analyse user preferences and actions to curate news content, frequently prioritising familiar sources, topics, and perspectives that users have preliminarily penetrated (Aldaihani & Shin, 2022). Accordingly, individuals are more likely to encounter content that aligns with their views, potentially strengthening biases and restricting the range of agenda-setting. As a result, the collaborative understanding of important issues and the capability to foster a well-informed public may be compromised. The challenge lies in balancing personalisation and maintaining a different and inclusive media landscape that promotes critical thinking and broadens perspectives.
In conclusion, the evolution of digital platforms and technologies has significantly told the effectiveness of docket setting in the moment’s media landscape. Twitter and social media platforms have played a transformative part by amplifying different voices and bringing attention to preliminarily overlooked issues. The participatory nature of these platforms empowers individuals to shape the media agenda, fostering a more inclusive and popular process. However, manipulating information flow through search engine optimisation techniques poses a challenge to agenda setting, as certain topics and sources can be privileged based on strategic content optimisation rather than intrinsic importance (Carazo-Barrantes, 2021). Additionally, AI-powered news recommendation systems may limit exposure to diverse viewpoints, potentially narrowing the scope of agenda-setting and reinforcing existing biases. As we navigate the digital age, it is crucial to critically examine and address these challenges to ensure a well-informed and inclusive media agenda.
Aldaihani, Y. and Shin, J.-H. (2022) ‘News agenda setting in Social Media Era: Twitter as alternative news source for citizen journalism’, The Emerald Handbook of Computer-Mediated Communication and Social Media, pp. 233–249. doi:10.1108/978-1-80071-597-420221014.
Carazo-Barrantes, C. (2021) ‘Agenda-setting in a social media age’, The Agenda Setting Journal, 5(1), pp. 31–55. doi:10.1075/asj.20006.car.
Guo, J. and Liu, S. (2022) ‘From #BlackLivesMatter to #stopasianhate: Examining network agenda-setting effects of hashtag activism on Twitter’, Social Media + Society, 8(4), p. 205630512211461. doi:10.1177/20563051221146182.
Russell, A. (2021) ‘Prioritisation and representation’, Tweeting is Leading, pp. 207–224. doi:10.1093/oso/9780197582268.003.0009.