Strategic Planning And Property Crimes Free Essay

Strategic planning is a critical tool in assessing the efficiency of an organization’s delivery processes. Police departments of various departments regularly develop strategic plans covering a definite period detailing their goals and visions and a roadmap on how these will be attained. This paper analyzes the strategic plans of the policed departments of four cities, Mexico City of Albuquerque, and Plano City, Texas. It looks at the goals set to alleviate property crimes and the methods put in place to ensure the attainment of such goals. It also analyzes the latest crime data statistics to gauge whether there is progress based on the implementation of the strategic plans.

Albuquerque, New Mexico

The Albuquerque Police Department strategy plan covering 2013 to 2017 is detailed in a lengthy document containing 178 pages but elaborately drafted. The plan has a table of contents that breaks its contents into five main goals; the plan then lays out different specific objectives to achieve each goal and lists several sections detailing how the objectives are to be achieved. The plan also entails ways in which the success of each goal and objective will be assessed. The thorough outline makes it easy for readers to pinpoint the specific information they want on the document and access it efficiently without having to rummage through the whole document. As detailed in the plan, communication with the stakeholders is very effective.

Plano, Texas

The Plano Police Department Strategic Plan is intended to cover 2022 to 2026. Unlike Albuquerque’s detailed plan, Plano’s plan is shallow and vague in detailing the department’s goals and how to achieve them. The plan has five strategic goals similar to Albuquerque’s, but they are squeezed into an 11-page document covering almost half images. The plan just lists the goals, the objectives under each goal, and actionable terms to achieve the objectives and the goals but fails to explain how to achieve these goals. Even though the plan emphasizes the critical role played by the community members in achieving its goals, plans should entail more detail discussing the processes and measures to ensure these goals are achieved. Plano’s plan does not communicate effectively to the stakeholders.

Oakland, California

Similar to Plano, Oakland’s strategic plan is not very detailed. The plan runs for three years, covering 2021 through 2024. It outlines five goals, lays out objectives for each goal, and actionable plans for the objectives, just like Plano’s plan. The key notable features in the plan are the engagement of the community as a key stakeholder in the city’s security. The department is eager to recruit officers from the community and even includes a phone number where interested individuals can apply through a text message. Overall, Oakland’s strategic plan clearly communicates its goals to the stakeholders, but it could be more effective with more details.

Salt Lake City, Utah

Salt Lake City’s police department strategic plan was for 2018 to 2022. Like Plano’s, Salt Lake City’s plan has a detailed contents page that makes it easy to navigate the document. The plan is detailed in 35 pages, but only ten pages are dedicated to the actual strategies majority talk about the department’s values and the working environment of the department’s staff. The strategic plan entails three goals, and only one discusses crime and how the community can be engaged to reduce it. Overall, the plan seems to concentrate more on the police department and downplay the community’s role in averting crime. The general organization of the plan and the many abbreviations used throughout the paper makes its communication to the stakeholder less efficient.

Best Practices in Reducing Property Crime

One example of an evidence-based method of reducing property crime is encouraging community-police engagement (Peak & Glensor, 2012). This strategy entails growing interpersonal relationships between the police and community members. Close ties and interaction between police and the community helps the communities build trust in the police and engage with them fully in investigations, thus facilitating crime reduction. For instance, strengthening the relationship between police and the community is the second goal in the Plano and Oakland plans and the third in the Albuquerque and Salt Lake City plans. One of the primary methods used to reduce property crimes pegged on community-police engagement s neighborhood watch, which is included in the plans for the four cities. However, Plano has an outstanding emphasis on neighborhood watch as a crime reduction strategy.

Another critical practice for reducing personal property crimes is implementing innovative technologies. This entails increasing closed-circuit television cameras (CCTV) and improving street lighting in areas prone to property crimes (Byrne & Marx, 2011). The deployment of technology as a plan to reduce property crimes and other crimes, in general, is contained as a goal in the Albuquerque and Plano strategic plans. Oakland and Salt Lake City plans do not entail the use of technology as a strategy to reduce property crimes.

FBI’s Uniform Crime Report on Personal Property Crimes

Based on the FBI’s Uniform Crime Report data, the number of reported property crimes in Oakland City, with a population of 434,036, was 27,868 in 2019. In Plano, Texas, with a population of 291,611, there were 4,908 reported cases of property crimes in 2019. The FBI UCR website does not give the number of property crimes reported in 2019 in Albuquerque because the data was overreported hence its exclusion. In Salt Lake City, Utah, with a population of 202,426, there were 11,452 reported personal property crimes in 2019. From the above data Plano, Texas, has a relatively lower rate of personal property crimes than the other two cities. Unfortunately, Albuquerque’s data was excluded, but compared to the other three cities, it had the most well-detailed plan, with the roles of every stakeholder laid down. After Albuquerque, Plano also had a relatively detailed strategic plan and emphasized using technology and engaging the community through neighborhood watch to reduce property crimes. The efficiency of Plano’s plan can be seen in the pretty low reports on property crime rates compared to the other cities.


Strategic plans are crucial in any police department in curbing property crimes. They detail their goals, the means to achieve them, and measures to assess the implementation process. Making the strategic plans available and accessible publicly helps to inform the public and makes the police departments accountable at the end of the strategic period. The strategic plans should also be more detailed to offer more insight to the stakeholders and enhance their efficiency in implementation.


Albuquerque Police Department. (2012). Strategic plan 2013-2017.

Byrne, J., & Marx, G. (2011). Technological innovations in crime prevention and policing. A review of the research on implementation and impact. Journal of Police Studies, 20(3), 17–40.

Oakland Police Department. (2020). Strategic Plan 2021 -2024.

Peak, K., & Glensor, R. (2012). Community policing and problem-solving: Strategies and practices (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Plano Police Department. (2021). Strategic plan 2022-2026.

Salt Lake City Police Department. (2017) Strategic plan 2018-2022

The Global Impact Of Infectious Diseases: The Crucial Role Of Healthcare Personnel In Measles Containment Free Sample

Brief History

Measles, an infectious disease with a deep-rooted history, has significantly impacted human societies over the ages. Tracing its origin to the 7th or 8th century, Persian physician Rhazes first differentiated measles from smallpox. Since then, innumerable outbreaks have swept across the world, profoundly affecting public health and propelling medical advancements. This virulent ailment, marked by high fever, cough, runny nose, and a unique rash, has taken numerous lives and burdened healthcare systems throughout history. Nonetheless, the development of a groundbreaking vaccine in the 1960s revolutionized measles management, bringing renewed optimism in the fight against the disease. Although the vaccine has proven effective, measles outbreaks persist, fueled by low vaccination rates and insufficient hygiene practices. In the present day, the enduring impact of measles highlights the continuous struggles healthcare professionals, governments, and communities face in controlling infectious diseases and protecting public health for future generations. Measles has been seen to surge in the last few decades.



The swift proliferation of infectious diseases presents a considerable risk to global public health, often putting immense pressure on healthcare systems. Meаsles, in particular, has become a worldwide concern due to its highly infectiоus nаture аnd рotential for severe health complications. Although аn effective vaссine exists, mеaslеs outbreaks persist, fuеlеd by insufficient vaссination rates аnd subоptimal infection control praсtiсes. Healthcare personnel are indispensable in curbing the spread of measles, as they not only provide direct patient care but also engage in vital public education initiatives. Аs such, addressing thе challenges associated with measles demands a multifаceted аpproаch thаt encоmpasses improved vаccinаtion cоverage, enhаnced infection сontrol meаsures, and continuous suррort fоr heаlthcаre рrofessionals. Тhis report eхamines thе fаctоrs contributing tо thе sрread of measles and thе impaсt of outbreaks on heаlthcаre рrofessionals, as well as thе role of gоvernment respоnse and recommendаtions fоr prеvеnting furthеr outbreaks. The surge of Measles has been experienced in many regions, especially in the United States.

Measles CASES

Factors Contributing to the Spread of Measles

Low Vaccination Rates

A significant factor cоntributing to the sprеad of meаsles is the inadеquatе vaccination ratеs among suscеptiblе groups, including infants, childrеn under five years оld, and healthcare workers (Genovese еt al., 44). Тhe insufficient vaccination ratеs leаve a larger pоrtiоn of the population vulnerable to diseases suсh аs meаsles, аs they lack the necessary immunity to combat the illness. Research demonstrates that vaccine exemptions in 2018 contributed to substantial exposure to extensive measles outbreaks in Texas (Sinclair et al., p. 76). JAMA’s article reveals that impeding healthcare professionals’ ability to vaccinate through exemptions may have facilitated the spread of measles by turning schools into fertile environments for the disease’s transmission (Sinclair et al., p. 68).

Enduring vaccine hesitancy has led to diminished vaccine coverage for healthcare workers concerning measles compared to other immunizations, such as polio and tetanus (Genovese et al., p. 12). Research by Genovese et al. (2019, p. 12) emphasizes that this coverage gap contributes to the perpetuation of measles through vaccine-preventable infections among medical staff. Moreover, these infections prompt measles outbreaks within healthcare facilities, which in turn disseminate the disease into the neighboring communities where these professionals reside. Tackling this challenge requires a unified effort to bolster vaccination coverage and curtail exemptions, ultimately safeguarding healthcare workers and the wider community from the potentially disastrous consequences of measles epidemics.

Inadequate Education on Hygiene and Infection Control Practices

A deficiency in thorough nurse-patient instruction concerning appropriate hygiene, hand washing, and infection control practices can substantially contribute to the proliferation of measles (Torner et al., p. 288). It is еssеntial for nurses to eduсate patients, their families, and other hеalthcarе colleagues on the significance of upholding prоper hygiеnе, engaging in consistent hаnd washing, and comрlying with infection control guidelines. Тhe importance of these practices cаnnоt be overstated, as measles transmission cаn occur through vаrious methods, such as coughing, snееzing, or even oссupying the same environment as an infеctеd person.

During a measles outbreak within a hospital environment, nurses have a crucial responsibility to actively disseminate information regarding proper hygiene, hand washing, and infection control practices to patients, families, and fellow healthcare workers (Torner et al., p. 290). This duty encompasses educating patients about potential health risks related to measles, such as an increased probability of contracting pneumonia and encephalitis. Аdditionally, those with weаkened immune systems аre especiаlly vulnerable to additional comрlications. Consequently, adhering to rigorous hygiene standards is vital in reducing the frеquеncy аnd impaсt of these comрlications, ultimately safеguarding the well-being of рatients аnd healthcаre рrofessionals alikе.

Impact of a Measles Outbreak on Healthcare Professionals

Increased Workload and Stress

A measles outbreak can result in a heightened workload for nurses and other healthcare professionals, which may be demanding, exhausting, and time-intensive, leading to increased stress within the healthcare system. During such an outbreak, healthcare personnel might need to devote extra time to patient care, as those afflicted with measles often require individualized attention due to symptoms like high fevers and rashes (Torner et al.,223). Healthcare professionals must balance these responsibilities alongside their personal lives. Furthermore, during a measles outbreak, healthcare personnel might need to assume additional roles as educators to help contain the outbreak. Nurses may be tasked with instructing patients on how to prevent disease transmission and ensuring families stay informed about immunizations. Consequently, healthcare personnel may need to dedicate additional time at work or beyond working hours until the outbreak is under control (Torner et al., 296).

To boost the success of educational endeavors, healthcare institutions should devise and execute tailor-made training programs addressing the distinct challenges tied to containing and preventing measles transmission. These programs ought to encompass a diverse array of instructional techniques, including in-person seminars, e-learning modules, and engaging simulations. Moreover, periodic evaluations should be undertaken to gauge the efficacy of these educational interventions and pinpoint areas warranting enhancement. By cultivating a culture of continuous learning and championing adherence to best practices in hygiene and infection control, healthcare professionals can assume a pivotal role in restraining the spread of measles and diminishing its impact on patients and communities (Torner et al., p. 314). This holistic approach not only ensures healthcare workers stay informed and equipped to confront infectious diseases but also stimulates broader public awareness and participation in advancing overall health and well-being.

Increased Infection Risk and Complications

A measles outbreak can significantly affect healthcare professionals by elevating the risk of infection and complicating their health status. Healthcare workers attending to measles patients must exercise heightened vigilance to safeguard themselves from contracting the disease, employing measures such as donning protective equipment and utilizing barrier methods like masks, gloves, and gowns (Torner et al., 168). Failing to take these precautions could result in healthcare professionals inadvertently contracting the illness themselves and subsequently transmitting it to others. This heightened risk underscores the importance of rigorous adherence to infection control practices and reinforces the necessity for healthcare workers to remain vigilant in protecting themselves and their patients during a measles outbreak, ultimately ensuring a safer and healthier environment for all involved.

Healthcare Professionals’ Perspective on Government Response

A measles outbreak can profoundly impact healthcare professionals by escalating the likelihood of infection and exacerbating their health conditions. Those attending to measles patients must adopt stringent safety measures to shield themselves from the disease, including the use of personal protective equipment and barrier methods such as masks, gloves, and gowns (Torner et al., 212). Neglecting these precautions might lead to healthcare professionals unintentionally catching the illness and subsequently spreading it further. This amplified risk highlights the imperative nature of strict adherence to infection control practices and emphasizes the need for healthcare workers to remain vigilant in safeguarding themselves and their patients during a measles outbreak. By diligently maintaining these safety standards, healthcare professionals contribute to a secure and healthier environment for everyone involved.

Advice to Stop the Spread of the Disease Outbreak

Prioritize Universal Vaccination

Prioritize vaccination for all individuals, with a particular focus on children, and discourage the exemption of school-going learners from receiving the vaccine (Pager, para2). A single unvaccinated student in New York jeopardized the well-being of 21 others by inadvertently exposing them to measles (Pager, para5). Governments must work to ensure local healthcare facilities maintain an ample supply of vaccines, enabling widespread vaccination coverage.

Heighten Awareness in Outbreak-Susceptible Areas

Emphasize the importance of patient education on hygiene and conduct extensive health campaigns to raise awareness about measles, its symptoms, and preventive strategies (Torner et al., 115). Encourage community members to remain vigilant and promptly report any suspected measles cases to facilitate rapid response and containment efforts. By fostering a proactive attitude toward disease prevention and health education, communities can work collectively to minimize the risk of measles outbreaks and protect public health.


In summary, the proliferation of measles presents formidable obstacles for healthcare personnel and the entire healthcare infrastructure. Contributing factors such as insufficient vaccination rates and a lack of proper education on hygiene and infection control practices exacerbate the transmission of this contagious disease. The ramifications of measles outbreaks on healthcare professionals encompass an augmented workload, heightened stress levels, and an increased risk of infection. Healthcare experts advocate for more proactive governmental involvement to curtail the outbreak, including the enforcement of rigorous vaccination regulations and bolstered support for healthcare workers. To halt the progression of measles, it is imperative to prioritize vaccination for all individuals and sustain heightened awareness in areas susceptible to outbreaks. By fostering a proactive and collaborative approach among healthcare professionals, government agencies, and communities, we can collectively work towards mitigating the impact of measles outbreaks and safeguarding public health in the long run.

Works Cited

Genovese, C., Picerno, I. A. M., Trimarchi, G., Cannavò, G., Egitto, G., Cosenza, B., … & Squeri, R. (2019). Vaccination coverage in healthcare workers: A multicenter cross- sectional study in Italy. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene, 60(1), E12.

Sinclair, D. R., Grefenstette, J. J., Krauland, M. G., Galloway, D. D., Frankeny, R. J., Travis, C., & Roberts, M. S. (2019). Forecasted size of measles outbreaks associated with vaccination exemptions for schoolchildren. JAMA network open, 2(8), e199768- e199768.

Torner, N., Solano, R., Rius, C., Domínguez, A., & Surveillance Network of Catalonia, Spain, T. M. E. P. (2015). The implication of health care personnel in measles transmission: The need for updated immunization status in the move towards eradication of measles in Catalonia. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 11(1), 288-292.

Pager T. (2019, March 7). The New York Times – Breaking News, US News, World News, and Videos. outbreak-vaccine-nyc.html

Understanding Climate Change And Its Impacts Free Essay


One of the gravest challenges facing humanity today is climate change – an existential threat that could cause disastrous impacts across the globe for decades to come. This phenomenon poses various concerns ranging from rising ocean levels to inclement weather patterns; food insecurity, among others, may cripple sustainable human existence. Human-induced activities such as deforestation or burning nonrenewable energy sources affect our planet’s long-term weather and warmth fluctuations. Greenhouse gas accumulation due to such practices can result in extreme climatic events, including scorching temperatures worldwide and drying up wells around communities, devastatingly affecting agriculture (Adedeji et al.). Although it is easy to dismiss climate change as a speculative concept, people worldwide are already feeling its consequences. Immediate action is required to lessen these hazards, which range from melting polar ice caps to catastrophic natural disasters caused by extreme weather conditions. We may start working toward sustainable practices that will benefit the present generation and future generations by examining both broad-scale governmental reforms and specific individual acts locally.


Climate change has become a major concern due to increased greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide released into our atmosphere. Fossil fuel combustion from industrial processes and transportation is responsible for this massive discharge contributing significantly to global warming. In line with scrutinized research panels like IPCC, we’ve witnessed how carbon dioxide levels have skyrocketed almost fourfold since pre-industrial times, increasing the worldwide average temperature (IPCC). Undoubtedly, the empirical data substantiates that climate change has a strong association with the utilization of fossil fuels. The urgency of this matter necessitates us to take prompt steps, such as transitioning towards green energy alternatives and lessening our carbon emissions. Exploring another significant factor affecting global warming highlights how deforestation impacts our planet.

As trees are cleared for human activities like agriculture and mining in a process called deforestation, they release copious amounts of carbon dioxide into the air and compromise their ability to sequester carbon through photosynthesis. Data from WWF indicates that an estimated percentage, up to fifteen percent, amounting to worldwide greenhouse gas emissions, resulting from this activity known as deforestation. As climate change continues to pose a threat, we must recognize how much deforestation contributes to it. By removing trees, we’ve lost an essential natural resource that significantly reduces carbon emissions through absorption (Ritchie et al.). Moreover, alarming amounts of fossil fuel use accompany current practices and diminish atmospheric quality even more so with decreased evapotranspiration rates causing global temperatures to become more unstable. Deforestation’s contribution to climate change extends beyond its well-known impact on carbon emissions. The reduction of evapotranspiration can also alter regional and global weather patterns significantly. Rationally tackling this problem entails initiating measures like forest conservation/restoration efforts and minimizing reliance on products linked to deforestation while promoting more sustainable land-use practices.

The effects of climate change pose a serious threat to our planet and continue to make themselves known through progressively disastrous impacts on multiple fronts. Among these challenges is the rise in sea levels that intensify each year, along with the onset of more frequent outbreaks of devastating heat waves accompanied by outbreaks or flood cycles following bouts or dry spells tied directly into the heating phenomenon at hand. Peculiarly powerful episodes such as Category Five hurricanes continue long after they seem like remote events when observed up close domestically but remain commonplace throughout today’s world, given modern communication technology these days. Countless sources report staggering results, including data from extensive research sessions involving agencies like NASA, wherein historical averages show steady growth. For instance, in recent times, there was almost an eight-inch rise recorded officially, specifically nineteen eighty onwards, within official record-keeping parameters since the start of civilization (Céline et al.). Glaciers and ice sheets continue to melt at an unprecedented rate due to increased global temperatures caused by climate change, resulting in a major rise in sea levels. Furthermore, extreme weather events such as hurricanes and wildfires have increased in frequency and destructiveness, causing widespread devastation on multiple levels, including ecological imbalances and structural damage. Climate change impacts reverberate widely across nations necessitating timely action that addresses mitigation efforts through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions coupled with implementing adaptive measures designed towards facilitating adjustment among societies over time.

There remains a vocal minority who contest the view that humans bear significant responsibility towards global warming. However, scientific findings show beyond reasonable doubt that anthropogenic activities – from biodiversity loss to burning fossils – contribute to unprecedented temperature changes (IPCC). By refusing to acknowledge factual evidence related to climate change’s attributable factors, we are jeopardizing our planet and future generations prosperity & environmental security. Human-caused climate change has been overwhelmingly supported by a wealth of data gathered over time, analyzed, and studied by countless experts worldwide to establish an unparalleled scientific consensus. While natural factors can influence the Earth’s climate, it is impossible to deny that our excessive reliance on fossil fuels and continuous deforestation have resulted in unprecedented global warming trends. To overcome this problem, we must recognize this undeniable fact and work toward thoroughly resolving these environmental challenges.


Human activities, fueled mainly by burning fossil fuels like coal and oil products, are responsible for climate change. Analysis shows that these actions have led to increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, which trap solar energy near the Earth’s surface, causing the planet’s temperature to rise unnaturally. Climate change has enormous impacts on natural systems, including exacerbating extreme weather events like hurricanes and heatwaves and damaging infrastructure and ecosystems via coastal erosion due to rising sea levels. To reduce these effects by controlling Global Warming below two degrees Celsius, this century calls for urgent intervention through emission reduction measures and adaptation-focused investment (Fakana). It has been established beyond doubt that the planet is experiencing warming due mainly to human activity, such as the combustion of fossil fuels. This temperature rise is profoundly affecting our world and shall continue worsening unless urgent action is taken to lessen emissions and tackle unforeseen repercussions. I therefore strongly conclude from my research that knowing about climate change and its perils is critical for dealing with this worldwide challenge which needs quick response at varied levels, including social, political & commercial. What initiatives can individuals and communities take to lower their carbon footprint and contribute to the battle against climate change?

Works Cited

Adedeji, O. B., et al. “Global Climate Change.” Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, vol. 02, no. 02, Scientific Research Publishing, Jan. 2014, pp. 114–22.

Bellard, Céline, et al. “Impacts of Climate Change on the Future of Biodiversity.” Ecology Letters, vol. 15, no. 4, Wiley-Blackwell, Apr. 2012, pp. 365–77.

Change, IPCC Climate. “Mitigation of climate change.” Contribution of working group III to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change 1454 (2014): 147.

Fakana, Selemon Thomas. “Causes of Climate Change.” Glob J Sci Front Res: H Environ Earth Sci 20.2 (2020): 7-12.

Ritchie, Hannah, Max Roser, and Pablo Rosado. “CO₂ and greenhouse gas emissions.” Our World in Data (2020).