Student Guide To Success Through Essentials Of Nursing Essay Example For College


The nursing profession is one of the greatest services to humanity that is associated with selflessness and a desire to serve others (Araki, 2019). Nurses are devoted to helping people who are in critical condition that makes it difficult for them to take care of themselves. Usually, nurses are driven by the desire to help and are not so much attached to material rewards for their work. However, the nursing field is very crucial since it involves saving lives and taking care of the sick. Therefore, the field needs to be regulated and monitored to ensure that nurses offer services in the right way while observing high levels of professionalism. Initially, the nursing field was in a bad state associated with poor services until the American Association of Colleges of Nursing developed guidelines to regulate and guide the nursing practice. The association endorsed the following nine essentials;

  1. Liberal Education for Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice
  2. Basic Organizational and Systems Leadership for Quality Care and Patient Safety
  3. Scholarship for Evidence-Based Practice
  4. Information Management and Application of Patient Care Technology
  5. Healthcare Policy, Finance, and Regulatory Environments
  6. Interprofessional Communication and Collaboration for Improving Patient Health Outcomes
  7. Clinical Prevention and Population Health
  8. Professionalism and Professional Values
  9. Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice


The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice were imposed by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) in 1998. Notably, the creation of the essentials was necessitated by the need to improve healthcare standards and embrace professionalism in the nursing practice. Before the creation of the guidelines, service delivery in healthcare was full of confusion because different medics in different parts of the world worked independently without a common goal (Burton et al., 2019). This made it difficult for them to achieve targets and deliver quality services due to challenges such as relating to patients. In addition, the creation of essentials was propelled by several socioeconomic factors, including the increase in the ageing population and the demand for professional care. According to Araki (2019), nurses also lacked enough skills to build healthy relationships with their patients. Besides, nurses had a poor attitude toward their patients which affected the quality of service delivery in hospitals. Therefore, the creation of the guidelines laid a good foundation in nursing by improving the performance of medical practitioners and enhancing patient welfare. The essentials have also enhanced better nursing practices in all health facilities globally.

Purpose and the Overview of the Essentials

The Relationship between the AACN Essentials and Baccalaureate Nursing Education

The main correlation between the AACN essentials and baccalaureate education is that both try to improve safety in nursing care by offering essential skills and knowledge to them (Burton et al., 2019). In addition, both essentials and baccalaureate education work together to ensure that medics and nurses are well-versed with the healthcare environment in its broad context. However, all this can only be achieved by adopting changes that are brought about by technology in healthcare.

Applying the Essentials on Nursing Practice

The AACN essentials are very critical and applicable in the nursing practice. Notably, the essentials are so vital in designing the nursing curriculum for both undergraduate and postgraduate nursing students (Burton et al., 2019). AACN is committed to ensuring that nursing education improves by adopting a teaching approach that equips the learners with the required practical skills and competencies to transform healthcare. They achieve this by providing resourceful materials and guidelines necessary for the current needs in nursing care and the broad field of health.

Roles of the Baccalaureate Generalist Nurse.

Primarily, baccalaureate generalist nurses take care of patients either directly or indirectly by educating them. Often, nurses have been seen as partners to patients who help them and support them in making decisions in matters regarding their health (Araki, 2019). Additionally, generalist nurses act as managers and coordinators of other minor healthcare personnel to ensure they conduct themselves professionally and perform their duties as expected. Furthermore, they ensure a proper mix of expertise and periodically evaluate the performance of healthcare personnel. Apart from evaluation, they also strive to create a good relationship between healthcare personnel and the patients.

Overview of the AACN Essentials

Description of each essential.

The first AACN essential emphasizes the need for liberal education in the Baccalaureate nursing practice. This essential is meant to develop and foster advanced skills and knowledge in nursing as well as society and culture. Notably, liberal education improves the capacity of nurses in decision-making and problem-solving, making them fit to work in healthcare and handle their tasks with professionalism (Burton et al., 2019). According to AACN, the second essential discusses the basic organizational and systems leadership for quality care and safety of patients. The essential is key to developing required leadership values in the nursing profession to streamline decision-making in ethical cases, develop better conflict resolution procedures and create better working relationships in healthcare. The third essential emphasize embracing an evidence-based approach in nursing practice. It aims at advocating for the use of scientific evidence in the experimentation of the issues affecting the nursing practice in order to evaluate the possible effects they could have on the practice. Fourthly, AACN highlights the essential of managing information and applying patient care technology which discusses the need for having information regarding patients to improve service delivery. Besides, the essential emphasizes the need to adopt new technology in nursing to improve the quality of nursing care.

The fifth essential discusses the health care policies, finance as well as regulation in the nursing practice. According to AACN, all baccalaureate graduates should be in a position to understand the broader context of the nursing practice, including the policies that govern the practice. In addition, they should also be knowledgeable on the financing of healthcare services and the different regulations imposed to govern the nursing practice. Furthermore, the sixth essential is calls for communication and collaboration among health professionals to improve healthcare. The essentials highlight the need for knowledge sharing and proper communication among health practitioners. The seventh AACN essential discusses the clinical prevention of diseases and the need to promote population health. It emphasizes the need to embrace interventions that can aid disease prevention to realize a healthy population. The eighth essential highlights the need to uphold professionalism and professional values in the nursing practice, including observing values of integrity and ethics in the nursing practice. Lastly, the ninth essential is the baccalaureate generalist nursing practice which integrates all the other essentials to improve healthcare.

Purpose and Value of Critical Competencies in the Essentials

Basically, all the essentials revolve around creating a good patient-nurse relationship and developing patient-centred care. To promote patient-centred healthcare, nurses and other health practitioner are expected to respect the preferences of patients and ensure that they involve them in every decision-making regarding their health (Araki, 2019). This creates a good patient-nurse relationship that ensures the patient is satisfied with the services. Additionally, the essentials emphasize the need to develop skills and professionalism among nurses. These skills are developed through the essentials of teamwork and collaboration, leading to improved nursing care. Besides, the essentials play a big role in promoting research on new technology and approaches to the nursing practice.

Discussion and Conclusion.


There exists a strong relationship between historical nursing practices and current nursing practices. Notably, in both historical and current nursing, the nurse-patient relationship is considered an important practice that helps to deliver quality services to patients. This practice is still practised nowadays, where nurses are urged to strive to create good relationships with their patients so that they serve them in the best way possible. This idea has also been emphasized in professional nursing because it is the foundation of improving hospital services. Creating these relationships is fundamental to understanding the patients better and gaining their trust so they can disclose all information needed to treat them (Araki, 2019). Failure to disclose information s a major issue in nursing practice and a hindrance to quality service. Therefore, open communication and disclosure of information between the nurse and the patient set make it easy to treat them with precision. However, it should be noted that nurses must uphold professionalism and guarantee confidentiality with any information disclosed to them by the patients.

Moreover, evidence-based practice is so crucial in decision-making as stipulated by professional nursing practice. This practice is key in helping nurses and other health practitioners to carry out research to understand different phenomena in their field of work. Through evidence-based nursing practice, nurses have been able to engage their patients in their care plans making every patient responsible for their health (Yancey, 2019). Therefore, patients can participate by sharing their opinions, preferences, and suggestions on how they want procedures conducted. The practice is also important to nurses; through the research, they are able to learn new trends and practices which they have not discovered before. Besides, the nursing practice has improved significantly due to the adoption of new technologies that have improved patient safety and outcomes. These technologies, such as medication alerts and trackers, have improved communication among nurses hence, increasing efficiency n healthcare. Developing these systems has also eased health data collection and analysis, making it possible to analyze trends and predict outcomes in healthcare. By adopting all these practices, nurses are able to perform better and offer quality services to their patients.


Since the endorsement of the AACN Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing in 1998, the field of nursing has seen significant improvements in the quality of nursing care, better patient-nursing relationships, and enhanced professionalism. These essentials have impacted the world in a positive way through the creation of advanced healthcare systems across the globe. This can be seen as a great step compared to the state of healthcare before the creation of the essentials, when the field was short of knowledgeable and skilled practitioners and was associated with poor patient-nurse relationships. However, the essentials changed healthcare in all dimensions and made it more reliable and efficient, which has improved people’s lifestyles through the possibility of leading healthy lives. Therefore, all stakeholders in healthcare institutions should strictly follow the AACN essentials to ensure that patients receive the best quality services. In addition, all institutions of learning offering nursing and other health-related courses should incorporate all the essentials in their curriculums to ensure nursing graduates leave colleges well-equipped with the skills and knowledge to transform healthcare.


Araki, M. (2019) Patient-centred care and professional nursing practices. Journal of biomedical research and clinical investigation, 1, article No. 1004. – References – Scientific research publishing.

Burton, C. W., Williams, J. R., & Anderson, J. (2019). Trauma-informed care education in baccalaureate nursing curricula in the United States: Applying the American Association of Colleges of Nursing Essentials. Journal of forensic nursing15(4), 214-221.

Yancey, N. R. (2019). Evidence-based practice in nursing for teaching-learning: But is it really nursing?. Nursing science quarterly32(1), 25-28.

The Impact Of Technology On Sports Performance Sample Paper

The Impact of Technology On Sports Performance: Should Performance-Enhancing Technologies Be Allowed in Competitive Sports?

According to Ratten (2020), the use of technical tools and equipment in sports to increase athletic performance, facilitate coaching and training, and facilitate decision-making during sporting competitions is referred to as sporting technology, according to Ratten (2020). How does technology improve sports? Should we stop using these technologies? Or, as Frevel, N., Beiderbeck, D., and Schmidt, S. L. (2022) argue, can they advance sports?

The contentious claim that technology makes sports unfair and dull has been made in recent conversations regarding how technology is used in sports. Some contend that using technology in some sports makes them unfair and less fun for the athlete because these tools simplify accomplishing athletic feats (Yang & Wu, 2021). However, according to Monteiro-Guerra et al. (2020), others counter that technology in sports has many positive effects, including eliminating bias and blunders, improving strategies, supporting spectators, and developing inventive ads. From this vantage point, technology has more positive effects on sports than negative ones. In sum, the issue is whether technology makes sports unfair or makes them less biased and more attractive.

Technology may be pretty helpful when engaging in sports. It makes it much easier to understand a person’s limitations and see their progress. Technology can also assist sports in becoming more pleasurable and fun by eliminating bias and blunders. Using video-assisted referees (VAR) in football is one example of how technology may help sports become more exciting and engaging by removing bias and mistakes. The number of erroneous decisions made by referees during football games has dramatically decreased due to VAR technology, according to Spitz et al. (2021). This has increased the confidence of the players and spectators in the choices made by the referee since it has increased the accuracy of the decisions. Because supporters can anticipate and enjoy goals with more assurance knowing that they have been scored thanks legitimately to the deployment of VAR, the intensity of games has also increased.

Technology might make sports unfair, and it can result in incorrect judgments. As mentioned above, using video-assisted referees (VAR) in football shows how technology can be unjust and lead to wrong judgments in sports. Although VAR was introduced to help referees make more accurate judgments throughout a game, there have been times when its use led to contentious and wrong decisions. Human decision-making during a match, for instance, could be faulty if the VAR system is malfunctioning or if the referee relies too heavily on technology without taking into account other aspects, like the speed of the game. While humans run VAR, and various people may view the film differently, there is also a chance for bias in interpreting the technology (Spitz et al., 2021). However, it is still superior to humans in providing accurate results and enhancing the fun and fairness of the game. For instance, in football, the line-goal technology shows whether the ball went in or not, and occasionally it makes a mistake. Nevertheless, without VAR, a tool that aids the referee in reviewing the tape, some of the decisions could be incorrect.

Some, however, worry that sports will lose some of their appeal if they become too dependent on technology. Some spectators find that mistakes and disputes add to the excitement of a game or competition even after it has ended. Some spectators may also find it annoying since technological innovations occasionally cause delays in the action or otherwise interrupt the flow of play.

Mistakes made by humans sometimes lead to unethical results in sports, and technological advancements could help level the playing field. Using goal-line technology or hawk-eye technology in sports like soccer or tennis, for instance, helps ensure that goals or shots are precisely judged, decreasing the likelihood of a team losing due to a poorly called decision by a referee or umpire (Spitz et al., 2021). There are valid reasons for and against the use of technology in sports. Even though it is obvious that technology can enhance the precision and fairness of certain facets of sports, it is also essential to weigh the potential drawbacks and ensure that implementing new technologies does not diminish fans’ experiences.

History of Technological Advancements in Sports

The progressive integration of technology into sports has been an evolutionary journey that can be traced back to the dawn of the 20th century. One of the first forays into technological advancements in sports was witnessed with the advent and incorporation of stopwatches, which augmented and revolutionized time-keeping methodologies at athletic events such as track and field competitions (Frevel et al., 2022). As we moved into the epochal decade of the 1960s, video cameras were introduced, which enabled sophisticated analysis of athlete performance and technique.

As we delved deeper into subsequent decades, like the 1970s, the standard scoreboards got a massive makeover as electronic versions debuted. At the same time, instant replay technologies took center stage amongst football enthusiasts in the ensuing decade (that is, the 1980s). It is noteworthy that over the years, modern-day technology has infiltrated nearly every aspect, whether it be athlete training sessions or fan experiences during live sporting action within stadiums. The metamorphosis breathed by sports technology inadvertently paved the way for incredible human performances by surpassing previous world records and thereby catalyzing numerous breakthroughs within this sphere (Perkey, 2012).

Technology in Football

Football, often known as soccer, has developed from its humble beginnings to become one of the world’s most popular sports, largely thanks to astonishing technological breakthroughs. Video assistant referees (VAR) are a game-changing innovation that has completely altered the norm for sports law enforcement. The Video Assistant Referee (VAR) system is used to assess contentious decisions, including goals, penalties, and red card events, on replay with the highest level of scrutiny to guarantee fair findings. The use of video analysis and review (VAR) technology allows for more accurate adjudicating measures and exemplifies a fair basis for ethical play. Wearable technology, such as GPS trackers and heart rate monitors, gives coaches access to players’ real-time performance data, allowing them to create more individualized training plans. A recent meta-analytical study by Spitz et al. (2021) found that using VAR significantly influenced the decision-making processes of association football referees and similarly led to negating errors within the field of play, improving overall representations displayed by sportsmen under scrutiny during gameplay proceedings.

The Revolution of Sporting Technology in Training and Competition

The unprecedented expansion and maturing of athletic technology have resulted in a significant paradigm shift in the global sports arena. This advancement is supported by Ratten’s (2020) research findings, which examine several facets of athletic technology in his discursive work “Sports Technology: A Commentary.” As Ratten points out, cutting-edge technological improvements have resulted in considerable changes in the athletic business, notably wearable technology that measures performance and video analytic tools for technical amplification. These profound technological changes give sportspeople unique options to obtain previously inaccessible data sets and insights into their gameplay. As a result, this transition has significantly altered both athlete training tactics and on-field results.

The evidence adduced by Ratten incontrovertibly supports claims surrounding sports technology’s massive impact on contemporaneous sporting incentives, further cementing its pivotal significance towards greater advancement within future realms yet unexplored. With groundbreaking strides being made every day via technological advancements at an unprecedented rate, it is without uncertainty that the sports world will continue experiencing momentous shifts- providing exceptional opportunities for aspiring athletes aiming to claim more distinguished accolades consecutively (Ratten, 2020).

Sporting Technology For Coaches and Tactics

Sport has experienced a considerable transformation due to the introduction of cutting-edge technology innovations, allowing athletes to achieve unparalleled brilliance. Innovative technologies like virtual reality (VR) and simulation software have allowed athletes to train in surreal environments in their replication of real-world surroundings. Such a pioneering idea has enabled professional athletes from many sports to effectively enhance their cognitive complexity, providing them with appropriate decision-making abilities. Furthermore, Monteiro-Guerra et al.’s comprehensive 2020 study concluded that personalized mobile applications facilitating real-time physical activity coaching could significantly improve physiological behaviors encompassing fitness and overall health-related outcomes. Far more than exercise or training regimens, technology’s multifaceted integration into modern athletics includes nutritional augmentations and recovery mechanisms via sophisticated wearable gadgets investigating sleep patterns alongside hydration cycles while rigorously tracking nutritional intake habits. Indeed, great technological utilization undeniably empowers athletic performances, fully realizing athletic potentialities and, as a result, unequivocally improving holistic well-being indices.

Wearable Technology Can Prevent Injuries and Prolong an Athlete’s Career

Injuries have long been a pressing concern for the athletic community, but fortunately, wearable technology has played an instrumental role in injury prevention and management. In particular, advanced technologies such as smart fabrics, sensors, and cutting-edge biomechanical analysis tools offer an unmatched degree of precision when monitoring athletes’ movement patterns and identifying potential areas of physical vulnerability. This provides early intervention opportunities that can help prevent injuries before they occur and facilitates personalized training regimens designed to minimize future risks (Monteiro-Guerra et al., 2020). Accordingly, recent research by Morrell (2022) suggests that wearables are rapidly gaining credibility among coaches and trainers thanks to their ability to meticulously monitor a wide range of essential metrics. Tracking parameters such as range of motion or joint angles with unparalleled accuracy through wearable devices during practice sessions or games provides valuable insight into the underpinnings behind debilitating injuries before they fester into more significant issues over time.

Wearable technology can help athletes detect potential chronic conditions early, allowing for preventive measures that can prolong their careers. This can reduce the risk of long-term health issues that may develop over multiple seasons of competition. By enabling athletes to maintain their physical resilience, wearable technology can help them compete for more years and improve their longevity in their respective sports (Monteiro-Guerra et al., 2020).

Over-Reliance On Technology Can Hinder Natural Talent and Creativity

The discourse regarding whether an overemphasis on technology may impede natural talent and creativity is a topic that has been greatly scrutinized within the realm of sports. Though it is irrefutable that technology can furnish valuable insights and copious amounts of data, skeptics contend that excessive reliance on such information may stymie an athlete’s innate propensity for innovation and think beyond conventional limits, according to Liu L (2021).

Notwithstanding, this counterargument could be challenged by observing instances whereby athletes use sophisticated technological equipment in conjunction with inherent aptitudes. Consider professional golfers who employ cutting-edge swing analysis devices to dissect their swings meticulously with utmost precision to enhance technique. Still, they have conviction in their intrinsic capability to create and make challenging shots while on the course. Similarly, tennis players utilize advanced video analysis tools as aids to scrutinize opponents and fortify strategic decision-making abilities; nevertheless retain a degree of dependency on instincts immanent within themselves while making decisions instantaneously during a match. These demonstrations highlight how technology could function as an efficacious tool proficient at augmenting rather than thwarting natural gifts for creative expression possessed by athletes.

The Cost of Sports Technology Can Be Prohibitive for Athletes and Teams

The notion that prohibitive costs associated with sports technology may impede athletes and teams from accessing the latest advancements in this field is a valid concern. According to a systematic review by Mazzei and Ravagnani (2019), state-of-the-art sports technologies, such as cutting-edge wearable sensors, high-speed cameras, and sophisticated performance analysis software packages, tend to entail high initial investments regarding procurement and upkeep.

Consequently, it could be challenging for individual athletes or small-scale teams of limited financial means to use these avant-garde technological tools. This creates an environment where cumbersome expenditures become a bottleneck prohibiting fair competition among prominent players of different financial statures. Nevertheless, the foregoing argument can be debunked by referring to critical pieces of evidence showcasing a decrease in the overall cost of sporting tech over time. Significantly advanced pieces of equipment that were once exclusive to elite-level athletes have now come within reach at considerably lower prices, thus enabling amateur sports enthusiasts with meager resources to partake in them in tandem with their more well-funded counterparts. Since rising demand grows in tandem with increasing innovations, it is clear that this discrepancy only lasts for a while. Eventually, economies of scale yield significant savings, distributed to consumers through lower prices, creating a level playing field across all market segments.

The Accuracy And Reliability Of Some Sports Technology Can Be Questionable

Questionable accuracy and reliability in specific sports technology is a pressing concern that many athletes and coaches have prominently raised. Instances have emerged whereby technologies, including extraordinary sensors and advanced cameras alike, have furnished erroneous or untrustworthy data, thus leading to the improper analysis of performance as well as misguided training strategies. This predicament can be rendered highly precarious in high-stakes competitions where athletes undeniably hinge on their success on these technological advancements that mandate instant decisions with fleeting implications (Lord et al., 2020). However, when one carefully examines the medical data supporting cutting-edge technology and quality assurance regulatory requirements, this claim may be refuted.

Manufacturers increasingly use strict control methods to ensure unprecedented product precision, making them completely dependable in this constantly expanding field characterized by unceasing innovation (Lai & Qin, 2021). Unprecedentedly sophisticated sensor technology is designed in tandem with multiplex redundancy characteristics that are intended to prevent any unanticipated alterations in relation to malfunctions that could result in aberrant data output. So, before being released, the software intended for careful performance analysis goes through specific screening procedures. Additionally, regulatory bodies that work to standardize sports engineering establish stringent requirements regarding its accuracy and dependability. Overall, it is evident that, despite long-standing worries about the aforementioned issues, outstanding progress is still being made at a constantly astonishing rate to improve both impeccability and functionality. These great technological developments indisputably demonstrate that we are entering an era deserving of idealistic levels of dependability, which translates into unparalleled utility for all parties concerned, from gamers all the way up to chief strategists.

Technology Makes Some Sports Unfair

Many in the fishing industry have voiced worry about the disruptive effects of new technologies in recent years. More and more people are worried that technological advancements facilitate inequality in the industry. Many fishermen feel that people in their industry with access to cutting-edge technology have a significant advantage over others without. Because of this, many small-scale fishermen are worried that technological advancements are creating an unfair playing field. A select group of anglers has been able to locate and capture aquatic species with great facility and efficiency, giving them an unjustifiable edge over those who adhere to conventional techniques. Indeed, advancements such as fish-finding apparatuses, GPS tracking mechanisms, and cutting-edge underwater cameras have come to the forefront of modern-day fishing. This development has unintentionally led some people in this industry to argue that using cutting-edge digital equipment may fundamentally change the fundamental principles governing traditional recreational fishing standards, which previously placed paramount emphasis on skillsets rather than merely having access to instruments or tools. These claims are indisputably supported by academic research presented by Hummel et al. (1986), as well as additional research conducted by The National Recreation and Park Association, which demonstrates that advanced technological applications significantly reduce barriers even for those who are relatively new to remedial angling activities and thus give them better chances. In contrast, experienced counterparts who rigidly adhere to classical inclusionary models stand to lose.


In summation, the gradual infusion of innovative technology within sports has radically transformed how athletes train and compete and how sporting events are supervised. An ongoing discourse persists regarding whether technological advancements promote an inequitable playing field or serve as a catalyst for less prejudiced decision-making processes and more entertaining athletic showcases. Compelling empirical evidence from various academic studies, such as Ratten’s (2020) inquiry and that by Monteiro-Guerra et al. (2020), unequivocally vindicates proponents positing that sophisticated sports technologies have revolutionized game strategies to enable coaches to navigate performance enhancement nuances deftly. This trend is thereby resulting in competitors reaching novel heights hitherto unimaginable, which ultimately leads to advanced training techniques culminating in superior on-field outcomes.

With regards to transparency during matches and unbiased determinations favoring neither team nor athlete, referees equipped with video assistant apparatuses (VARs) have streamlined operational efficiency allowing for increased accuracy during gameplay- affording just calls throughout competitions. Technology’s growing role in sports means that it must be carefully weighed against raw talent. Cost-effective solutions that promote dependability and fairness for all parties involved should be implemented. This method will promote development and expansion in sports while preserving participants’ enthusiasm for these pursuits. The ultimate objective is to encourage people all around the world to appreciate and enjoy sports through the use of cutting-edge technologies.


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The Significance Of Public Participation In Governance And Decision Making Essay Example For College


The lack of public participation has led to an increase in political challenges in many countries. Hong Kong has made significant steps in enhancing public participation in policymaking. During policymaking, the government collects public views on important issues before making decisions (Malek et al., 2021). Public participation in governance and decision-making has led to the growth of Hong Kong and many countries worldwide. For this reason, many countries consider public participation in governance and decision-making an essential aspect of ensuring the country’s economic growth. This paper will investigate the importance of public engagement in governance and decision-making. The research question for this paper is: What is the importance of public engagement in governance and decision-making? The paper will focus on a single case study of Hong Kong to investigate the topic. The paper will have an introduction, literature review, evidence, analysis, and conclusion.

Literature review

Previous literature has explored the topic of public participation in governance and decision-making and identified its significance. According to Tsang et al., [[[]] public participation is essential during the process of policy development and implementation. On the other hand, Malek et al. (2021) describe the challenges facing the process of public participation in decision-making. The issues like lack of access to information by the public and political division among citizens have been discussed by Malek et al. Finally, Pierce & Osei-Kojo, (2022) in their work, assert that engaging the public in governance and decision-making will enhance accountability and government responsiveness. Other scholars argue that increased public participation leads to good governance and decision-making. Generally, the literature suggests that public participation has been essential in governance and decision-making in Hong Kong.

The use of the Advocacy Coalition Framework

The Advocacy Coalition Framework is a theoretical approach in which the effects of policy changes in an organization are defined. According to the theory, interested parties in policy formation contribute to policy changes by having different opinions. For this reason, the theory is helpful in policy making process in several areas of governance (Akingbola et al., 2022). The framework also examines how organizational stakeholders interact regarding governance and decision-making. The theory asserts that belief systems, resource accumulation, and policy-oriented learning cause policy changes.

Public participation sometimes involves policy-oriented learning. Policy-oriented learning is how decision-makers and stakeholders learn new information about a problem (Akingbola et al., 2022). There are surveys of general opinion, academic research, and interviews with influential figures on policy-oriented. In most cases, the perspectives of decision-makers and other stakeholders in the decision-making process change due to discoveries. The process of decision-making and implementation involves resource mobilization. During decision-making, policymakers and other stakeholders assemble resources such as money, knowledge, and political support to advance their political goals (Akingbola et al., 2022). These resources help them to make a significant impact on policy changes.

Another factor affecting the policymaking process is a belief system. A belief system is made up of beliefs that a group shares. Different groups of people may interpret the law differently due to differences in factors like ideology, religion, society, and others, which may impact how different communities interpret the law (Akingbola et al., 2022). Certain groups may focus more on economic growth, while others focus on environmental protection. The ACF asserts a greater possibility of a change in pertinent policies when the dominant coalition changes (Akingbola et al., 2022). Changes in any of the three variables mentioned above and external influences like the political environment and public opinion might impact this shift.

The Advocacy Coalition Framework contends that the public’s involvement can significantly influence the outcomes of policy decisions in governance and decision-making. Public members can impact politicians’ ideas and objectives by combining their resources and exchanging new knowledge and opinions (Olsen & Feeney, 2022). This opens the door to changes in policy. However, the Advocacy Coalition Framework does admit that not all stakeholders have an equal impact on the results of final policies. They might be more advantageous in creating policies if they have greater resources or connections to legislators. This might make public involvement less effective, especially for marginalized groups.

The structure of the advocacy coalitions, when viewed as a whole, aids in illuminating the intricate web of connections between those involved in creating public policy (Olsen & Feeney, 2022). By focusing on the roles of policy-oriented learning, resource mobilization, and belief systems, the framework can help policymakers and other stakeholders identify the factors most likely to affect policy outcomes and develop strategies for working with various stakeholders to promote transparency, fairness, and good decision-making.

Application of group theory

The field of group dynamics sheds light on the factors that contribute to and facilitate productive teamwork. Group theory’s explanation of the interplay and influence of diverse stakeholder groups aids public engagement in governance and decision-making (Chong et al., 2020). Within public participation, interest groups coexist with public interest organizations. Organizations fighting for business interests, environmental protection, and worker rights often collaborate on common goals—advocates for the public good work to pass legislation that benefits the most significant possible population.

Strong political or business interest groups can sway the decision-making process and government administration. They can advise legislators and advocate for changes that would better the lives of the people they represent (Chong et al., 2020). However, this could cause them to make decisions not in the public’s best interest but rather their own. Public interest groups can reduce the power of special interests by lobbying for laws that benefit the public. Those who have been overlooked in the governing process can finally have their voices heard, thanks to public interest groups (Chong et al., 2020). They can also ensure that everyone is heard when the policy is being decided.

Public engagement in government and decision-making relies heavily on how individuals act and interact in groups. Group size, cohesion, leadership, and power relations are postulated to impact behavior significantly. The size of the group participating affects the effect of public engagement on policy results. Larger organizations can significantly impact policy results but are more challenging to manage and organize. Smaller groups may be more adept at organizing their actions, but this does not guarantee they have any sway over policy decisions.

The common values and goals a group shares determine their unity. Cohesive groups have the advantage of passing laws favorable to their members. However, the groups may be challenged in being open to new ideas and engaging their members in providing support. In these groups, leaders can change an organization by enhancing the morale of the employees, fostering consensus, and establishing priorities. Strong leadership makes it easier to accomplish group goals and impact policy decisions.

Group dynamics, including power dynamics, can affect members’ actions and choices. There is a danger that powerful interest groups, such as those run by a small group of elites, may put their own needs before those of the general population (Chong et al., 2020). To guarantee fair and inclusive policy outcomes for all members of society, however, organizations with a more even allocation of power are preferable. Group theory’s key ideas include compromise between competing interests and open, inclusive decision-making. Public involvement must welcome and encourage participation from all interested parties, not just the loudest or most visible voices, for it to be effective.


Given the current political and social turbulence in Hong Kong, the significance of citizen involvement in governmental affairs and decision-making procedures has escalated. Several researchers highlight the importance of civic engagement in the governance and decision-making mechanisms of Hong Kong. In 2019, Hong Kong experienced a series of protests in response to a proposed bill that sought to enable the extradition of offenders to the Chinese mainland (Malek et al., 2021). The proposed law incited widespread public demonstrations for several months, with many individuals expressing displeasure. The measure was repealed in September 2019 due to public pressure, despite the initial opposition from the government.

The Hong Kong demonstrations garnered attention for attracting a substantial proportion of the general populace. The organizers of protests have discovered that platforms such as Telegram and LIHKG are highly effective for coordinating activities and disseminating news. The widespread availability of social media and other online platforms facilitated increased participation in protests by many individuals. This phenomenon was particularly evident among individuals from the younger demographic cohort who may have previously lacked involvement in political affairs.

The events in Hong Kong have underscored the importance of public sentiment in shaping policy implementation. After the demonstrations, the Hong Kong administration assembled a group of specialists to scrutinize the municipality’s transfer protocols and proffer suggestions for enhancement. The final recommendations were formulated after accounting for over 20,000 public comments (Malek et al., 2021). Hong Kong has passed effective environmental policies through public participation in the governance and decision-making process. The policies have solved some of the environmental concerns of Hong Kong, like air pollution, conservation of national resources, and waste management.

The government made several legislative policies to solve the environmental challenges facing Hong Kong. One of these policies is a plan for managing air quality, in which public participation was a key step in achieving the goal of this policy. When formulating the policy, Stakeholders, including members of the public, environmental advocacy organizations, and corporate executives, were all engaged. The initiative of Lantau Tomorrow Vision serves as an illustration of the significance of involving citizens in the formulation of environmental policies. The proposed infrastructure undertaking entails recreating extensive oceanic territories off the coast of Hong Kong. The project has elicited significant public discourse and resistance, primarily from concerns regarding potential environmental impacts and financial implications.

The government wanted feedback from relevant stakeholders to develop an effective policy. For this reason, their government developed a public consultation process where members of the public were allowed to give their views on the suggested policy. Throughout the consultation process, the perspectives of over 20,000 individuals were gathered. The involvement of the public in this policymaking process enhanced the formation of effective policies and influenced the accountability and openness of the Hong Kong government (Malek et al., 2021). The critical considerations include assessing policymakers’ ability to receive and evaluate public feedback, the availability of tools and platforms that facilitate participation, and the inclusivity and diversity of the participation process.

The presence of violence and political instability in Hong Kong demonstrates the obstacles and constraints that public involvement can encounter. The employment of social media and other internet technologies may lead to increased participation of individuals; however, this may also result in the dissemination of misinformation and the proliferation of extremist viewpoints. The available data from Hong Kong indicate that the involvement of citizens in governmental affairs is a viable approach to enhance transparency, accessibility, and the caliber of policymaking determinations. Participation rates are subject to the influence of various factors.

Analysis and discussion

Public participation in policymaking and administration is more critical in today’s complex governance environment. The Advocacy Coalition Framework and the Group Theory were two theoretical and conceptual frameworks used in this investigation. The case of Hong Kong shows that public input is necessary to provide democratic legitimacy, transparency, and accountability in governance and decision-making.

The Role of Interest Groups and Public Interest Groups in Public Participation

Figure 1: Online contact between public interest group members and non-members

Online contact between public interest group members and non-members

People in interest groups contribute more to the decision-making process than those not members in interest groups. This is because the individuals in interest groups have a higher possibility of online contact than those who are not members. The graph above shows the difference between those in public interest groups and those not members in terms of online contact. In Hong Kong, public and special interest groups are crucial in politics and policymaking. These organizations can be found in any field, like business and labor industry. The groups are responsible for advocating for their members’ interests (Ford, 2023). On the other hand, public interest groups advocate for the interests of all people in a state or region.

Various interest groups have heavily influenced public policy in Hong Kong. Ford (2023) argues that these organizations have sway over the government because of the knowledge and experience they bring to the table. For instance, commercial lobbying groups might use their influence to push for laws that benefit their industry. Members of unions can better their economic standing and working conditions due to the union’s ability to bargain collectively on their behalf.

Public interest organizations have played an essential role in pushing forward socially beneficial legislation. According to Ford (2023), the groups have improved the lives of their members by advocating for environmental protection, consumer rights, and social justice. For instance, environmental groups in Hong Kong have worked hard to influence the passing of laws that protect the environment, such as those that aim to enhance the quality of the city’s air and water and to preserve its biodiversity.

The efforts of public-interest groups have bolstered the rule of law and Hong Kong’s civil society. According to Ford (2023), the groups have made strides in protecting fundamental civil and human rights and expanding opportunities for citizens to weigh in on important matters. They have held protests, public campaigns, and lobbying efforts to spread their messages. Interest and public interest groups do a lot to get people involved, but their impact is limited (Chong et al., 2020). One social group’s attempt to represent the interests of all stakeholders may fall short. Decisions that unfairly benefit some parties while neglecting others or fall short of satisfying everyone’s needs may be taken.

The Importance of Group Cohesion and Leadership in Public Participation

Figure 2: Percentage thriving by race, ethnicity, and age group

centage thriving by race, ethnicity, and age group

The Hong Kong society is made up of different races of people. From the graph above, some groups thrive more in Hong Kong than others. For instance, whites are thriving more than other racial groups. This is because the whites are more united than other groups in Hong Kong. Individuals cannot effectively participate in governance or decision-making without group cohesion and leadership. It is possible that more united groups can adopt laws that are favorable to their members, but they may also be less open to new ideas and viewpoints (Areia et al., 2023). A strong leader can help their team accomplish their goals and have more say in how those goals are implemented.

The insights supplied by the Group Theory are essential when dealing with big groups of people in the spotlight. The case study concluded that well-organized coalitions spearheaded by strong personalities had a significant role in the success of Hong Kong’s democratic reforms. There is a strong sense of unity and commitment to democracy among Hong Kong’s pro-democracy organizations (Areia et al., 2023). Their ability to work together has helped them plan their actions and win their supporters. The pro-democracy movement in Hong Kong has profited from this in addition to having strong leaders. Joshua Wong and Benny Tai, two prominent leaders in the fight for democracy, have led, motivated, and organized the campaign. These authoritative people have been essential in maintaining the movement’s dedication to its goals and helping it to adapt to new situations.

Balancing the Interests of Different Stakeholder Groups in Public Participation

Regarding public participation in Hong Kong’s governance and decision-making, finding a happy medium between competing interests is crucial (Pierce & Osei-Kojo, 2022). Successfully managing the tensions and ensuring that the resulting policies are fair and inclusive can be made possible by balancing different stakeholders’ interests. Hong Kong’s government and the general public have a good relationship that limits competing interests (Pierce & Osei-Kojo, 2022). Strangely, a Beijing-based panel chooses Hong Kong’s Chief Executive. As the people of Hong Kong have sought greater autonomy and democratic rights in recent years, this has led to tensions between the people and the government.

The government has instituted mechanisms to deal with these problems, aiming to ease the worries of everybody involved. Among these methods is seeking feedback from the general population. This approach ensures that people’s opinions and ideas are considered during policymaking (Pierce & Osei-Kojo, 2022). Many tools are available for eliciting public feedback, such as public hearings, consultations, advisory groups, and online input platforms. Public consultation aims to provide all interested parties a say in policy development and address any issues that may arise.

One way to satisfy many stakeholders is to employ negotiation and conflict resolution methods. The first step in settling a disagreement is pinpointing its origins and creating a workable solution that satisfies both parties (Pierce & Osei-Kojo, 2022). Finding a middle ground that works for everyone is crucial during negotiations. These methods can be helpful in conflict resolution because they promote policy outcomes that are fair and inclusive for all parties involved.

The proposed Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge illustrates the usefulness of public engagement in finding that effective spot between competing interests. Public participation played a significant role in connecting Hong Kong to the rest of mainland China. During this process, concerns were voiced over the project’s viability, cost, and potential influence on the surrounding community and the environment (Malek et al., 2021). To tackle these problems, the Hong Kong government created a strategy that sought and included the perspectives of as many people as possible. In this strategy, government agencies, businesses, environmentalists, community organizers, and ordinary citizens worked together to ensure the success of this project (Malek et al., 2021). The government held public hearings and consultations, and an advisory board was established so all stakeholders could have their say.

Participants found common ground and collaborated on solutions that accounted for the perspectives of various interested parties. According to Cheung (2021), the government is taking measures to protect the environment and its citizens from any potential harm caused by the project, such as keeping an eye on the air and water.


In conclusion, the lack of public participation has increased political challenges in many countries. The paper investigates the importance of public engagement in governance and decision-making. The Advocacy Coalition Framework contends that the public’s involvement can significantly influence the outcomes of policy decisions in governance and decision-making. Public members can impact politicians’ ideas and objectives by combining their resources and exchanging new knowledge and opinions. On the other hand, the field of group dynamics sheds light on the factors that contribute to and facilitate productive teamwork. Group theory’s explanation of the interplay and influence of diverse stakeholder groups aids public engagement in governance and decision-making.


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Appendix 1: Online contact between public interest group members and non-members

Online contact between public interest group members and non-members

Appendix 2: Percentage thriving by race, ethnicity, and age group

Percentage thriving by race, ethnicity, and age group