Students’ Course Examinations By Gharib & Phillips Homework Essay Sample

Data Description

Gharib and Phillips (2013) compared students’ scores on open-book and cheat-sheet examinations. The predictor variable was the type of exam: open-book or cheat-sheet; nominal measurement. The outcome sets variables were:

  1. students’ grades (scale);
  2. anxiety scores (presumably scale; 5-point Likert scale was used);
  3. time of studying for exams (hours, scale). N=225.

The article is relevant for General Psychology because it sheds light on what methods are best for assessing students depending on the desired outcomes of a course.

Assumptions

Assumptions for paired samples t-tests:

  1. continuous scales of measurement of dependent variables;
  2. the independent variable consists of two categorical groups;
  3. no important outliers in differences between groups compared in the test;
  4. approximately normal distribution of the results.

Assumptions for Pearson’s r:

  1. continuous scales of measurement of variables;
  2. each participant has a pair of values;
  3. no important outliers;
  4. approximately normal distribution of the results (Warner, 2013).

Clearly, variables (1) and (2) are measured continuously because of the nature of these variables, thus meeting assumptions (a) and (A); this may be untrue for (2), which is based on the Likert-scale measurements.

Assumptions (b) and (B) are met because the same students completed the same quizzes (questionnaires about exams, anxiety scores, time of preparation), and their scores were compared.

Assumptions (c), (C), (d), and (D) are not discussed in the article, creating a limitation.

Questions, Hypotheses, α-level

The research questions were: for open-book and cheat-sheet types exams, (i) do students score differently?; (ii) do they have different levels of anxiety?; (iii) does their time of preparation differ? Also, it was asked: (iv) do students’ anxiety correlate with their grades?

Null hypotheses: for open-book and cheat-sheet exams, H0-i: students do not score differently; H0-ii: students have similar levels of anxiety; H0-iii: the time of preparation is similar. Also, H0-iv: students’ anxiety is uncorrelated with their grades during open-book exams; H0-v: student’s anxiety is uncorrelated with their grades during cheat-sheet exams.

Alternative hypotheses: for open-book and cheat-sheet types of exams: HA-i: there is a significant difference in students’ scores; HA-ii: students have different levels of anxiety; HA-iii: the time of preparation differs. Also, HA-iv: students’ anxiety is correlated with their grades during open-book exams; HA-v: students’ anxiety is correlated with their grades during cheat-sheet exams.

In all cases, α is not specified, but p is compared to.05, so α=.05

Interpretation

  • For (1), t(220)=2.94, p<.05. Also, for (1), Pearson’s r(219)=.51, p<.05. Students had slightly but significantly higher grades on open-book exams; the difference in scores was approximately 2%. H0-i is rejected, HA-i is supported.
  • For (2), t(209)=1.98, p<.05. Students were slightly but significantly more anxious during cheat-sheet exams. H0-ii is rejected, HA-ii is supported.
  • For (3), t(164)=2.00, p<.05; on average, students studied 0.64 hours longer for cheat-sheet exams. H0-iii is rejected, HA-iii is supported.

There was a Pearson’s r(215)=-0.16, p<.05, between anxiety levels and grades for the cheat-sheet exam; for the open-book exam, there was no such correlation. H0-v is rejected, HA-v is supported. Pearson’s r, df, and p are not reported for the open-book exam and anxiety levels, but the authors state that H0-iv should not be rejected.

Effect sizes are not reported.

Conclusion

Therefore, students get somewhat higher grades during open-book exams; are less anxious during open-book exams; prepare less for open-book exams; their anxiety is correlated with a performance during cheat-sheet exams. This can be used to adjust course exams to the desired course outcomes.

No analyses of strengths or limitations of the tests are provided in the article.

References

Gharib, A., & Phillips, W. (2013). Test anxiety, student preferences and performance on different exam types in introductory psychology. International Journal of e-Education, e-Business, e-Management and e-Learning, 3(1), 1-6. Web.

Warner, R. M. (2013). Applied statistics: From bivariate through multivariate techniques (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Empathic Responses To Clients’ Feelings In Human Services

Professionals must listen to their clients appropriately so that they can understand their thoughts and feelings with no mistakes. This is a crucial aspect of effective communication, and its value is undeniable. However, being a good listener is not easy. One is to be able to summarize the obtained information and paraphrase. In addition to that, it is important to provide an empathic response, which shows that the professional understands both the content and the feelings (Summers, 2016). Maintaining such communication, one can establish rapport and strengthen helping relationships. Empathy makes clients more willing to trust a person because it ensures that one cares about them and their situation.

A great advantage of empathic responses is that they can help clients to solve their problems with minimal external assistance. The thing is that they need to speak up and tell someone what has happened and how they feel about it. In many cases, such an approach allows them to get a clearer image of the situation. Being placed in a safe environment and having an opportunity to share with the professional all concerns, clients understand themselves better. In addition to that, of course, they can obtain several possible solutions to their issues from the practitioner.

Reflecting feeling, a professional focus on the emotional constituency of the message. With its help, one conveys their understanding so that clients perceive it and manage their emotions. One can also differentiate multiple meanings of similar messages, which prevents misunderstanding and following complications. In this way, it is much easier to realize the depth of the problem (Evans, Hearn, Uhlemann, & Ivey, 2016).

When using direct emphatic responses, a professional obtains an opportunity to focus on a client and avoid self-expressions that attract attraction to one. In addition to that, they allow clarifying some information without making clients feel the pressure of the necessity to answer a question that they do not like. Even non-verbal emphatic responses can be used to encourage clients to tell more about their issues and make them feel better due to the practitioner’s involvement.

Clients can provide initially confusing messages because they feel uncertain regarding their experiences. Emphatic responses help them to get better understanding without judging. They also allow a professional to express oneself while listening to clients so that they do not become distracted or lose the desire to communicate. Sometimes clients ask themselves whether they are followed and understood. Emphatic responses are also appropriate in such a situation, as they do not make consumers feel offended or neglected.

Emphatic responses ensure multi-cultural sensitiveness and dimension in client-centered therapy. For example, knowing that African Americans may face discrimination in the USA, a professional can presuppose that an issue occurred because of it or/and try to avoid such themes not to ruin relations with clients. Being aware of the cultural and religious background of clients, one can offer those healing practices that are preferred by them. The psychosocial adjustment also matters. Getting to know some information about community resources and services, a professional can assist those clients who feel underprivileged. Knowing the social-familial context, one will understand consumers’ behavior and respond to it correctly.

Thus, empathic responses tend to be very useful in supporting clients. Professionals should resort to them when helping people to ensure that they follow and understand clients’ messages. In addition to that, maintaining multi-cultural sensitiveness, they can ensure that their responses are appropriate for particular populations.

References

Evans, D. R., Hearn, M. T., Uhlemann, M. R., & Ivey, A. E. (2016). Essential interviewing: a programmed approach to effective communication. (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Summers, N. (2016). Fundamentals of case management practice: Skills for the human services (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Weight Gain, Atherosclerosis, Diabetes Relationship

Introduction

The article in question deals with some effects of intensive diabetes treatment in type 1 diabetes patients. Purnell et al. (2012) claim that intensive diabetes treatment has been regarded as an efficient way to address diabetes type 1 symptoms, but it is also associated with quite serious side effects. The authors focus on the development of atherosclerosis, as well as other health conditions, associated with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) intensive treatment. The objective of the study is to explore the relationships between symptoms of metabolic syndrome, excessive weight gain, atherosclerosis, and intensive diabetes treatment. Purnell et al. (2012) hypothesize that hyperlipidemia and hypertension, as well as the family history of T2DM, is associated with “worsening markers of atherosclerosis” in patients during intensive diabetes treatment (p. 180).

The authors used a longitudinal experimental research design to check their hypothesis. Patients were divided into two groups: those who received an intensive or conventional type 1 diabetes treatment. Purnell et al. (2012) state that the results of the study show that there is an obvious correlation between intensive T1DM treatment, excessive weight gain, and T2DM histories. The major dependent variables used were blood pressure, lipid levels, and waist circumference.

Evaluation

It is possible to note that the study under analysis is rather effective, but it could be improved in many ways. For example, Purnell et al. (2012) do not include a literature review section. The authors refer to other studies, but these references are rather scarce. They are included in the introduction and discussion sections. Nonetheless, the absence of the literature review makes the study quite disconnected from the overall knowledge base on the matter. The reader does not have enough details to understand the scope of knowledge concerning the effects of intensive type 1 diabetes treatment. It is also unclear whether the issue has attracted any attention of scholars and practitioners.

At the same time, it is possible to note that the research is current and relevant to current health issues. First, the article was published in 2012 after the experiments had been carried out. The topic is relevant as there are millions of people suffering from type 1 diabetes who receive different types of treatment characterized by benefits and serious side effects. Therefore, it is vital to explore the effects of various types of treatment to ensure the best outcomes for patients.

As far as the type of research is concerned, it is efficient and relevant to the study’s objectives. Purnell et al. (2012) use the experimental research design to check their hypothesis. The authors examine the effects (particular variables) of the intensive T1DM treatment and the conventional one. It is also noteworthy that the dependent variables used are relevant to the objective as well since blood pressure, lipid levels, and waist circumference can reveal the degree of weight gain and symptoms of atherosclerosis.

It is possible to note that the sample is one of the strengths of the study. The number of participants is significant and can be regarded as informative enough as 1940 participants took part in the study. As has been mentioned above, the participants were divided into two groups randomly (1015 and 925), which makes the comparison relevant since the number of people in each group is quite similar. Random sampling ensured the validity of the research. It is possible to state that the sample was appropriate to the research as the participants had similar health conditions, so the changes in their health could be compared.

Another important strength of the research is it’s being practical. Purnell et al. (2012) provide scientific evidence of the correlation between intensive T1DM treatment and excessive weight gain as well as the development of atherosclerosis symptoms. The authors stress that T2DM family histories also correlate with the development of these symptoms in T1DM patients who receive intensive T1DM treatment. This information can help researchers in the development of more effective methods when treating the disorder and taking into account such criteria as family histories. The researchers note that their study helps practitioners to choose appropriate treatment types as it is clear that intensive T1DM treatment may lead to serious side effects. Purnell et al. (2012) also add that it is critical to pay more attention to weight control in such patients as it may lead to improved health outcomes. I support the researchers’ ideas concerning the practical use of the article.

As has been mentioned above, the research is quite effective, but when considering possible improvements, it is possible to add some dependent variables to test. It has been acknowledged that diabetes is a disorder that is associated with certain lifestyles. Therefore, it can be important to add the amount of exercise the participants have and their dietary habits. The experiment could be improved through the use of a survey that would include the points mentioned above. It can also be effective to highlight such aspects as socio-economic status and employment. People having more funds can have healthier lifestyles as they can afford better food and have more leisure time that can be devoted to exercise.

As to the downsides of the articles, it is possible to note that the writing is quite effective, but the layout of the article could be improved. For example, the authors should provide tables and graphs in the text as it is not very convenient to read the result section and search for the necessary page each time it is needed. The results section is overloaded with numbers, which makes it quite difficult to follow.

Although this study provides valuable insights into the topic, there are still numerous gaps yet to be addressed. For instance, it is possible to explore the correlation between intensive T1DM treatment in patients about different age or ethnic groups. The study in question involves predominantly Caucasians, but ethnicity may have a certain effect on the way the disorder develops.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is possible to note that the article in question can be regarded as a valuable resource for those interested in the peculiarities of T1DM treatment. The study provides insights into the way intensive treatment correlates with excessive weight gain and the development of atherosclerosis. However, further research can complete the remaining gaps. For example, such factors as socioeconomic status and ethnicity can be analyzed. More so, the way the results of the research are delivered could also be improved. The article would benefit from the use of such sections as the literature review, limitations, and implications. The researchers could improve their results section through the use of graphs in the text as compared to using them in appendices.

Reference

Purnell, J.Q., Hokanson, J.E., Cleary, P.A., Nathan, D.M., Lachin, J.M., Zinman, B., & Brunzell, J. (2012). The effect of excess weight gain with intensive diabetes treatment on cardiovascular disease risk factors and atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes: Results from the diabetes control and complications trial / epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications study (DCCT/EDIC) Study. Circulation, 127(2), 180-187.

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