Summary: A Prayer For My Daughter By William Butler Essay Example

This poem was penned after the World War as ended and the phase where he is a dangerous one which makes him worried about the future and how her daughter will fit in. The innocence and vulnerability Of his daughter is well symbolized by the words “coverlet” and “cradle-hood” which shows how protected she is in her cradle. The theme of A Prayer for My Daughter is a significant portrayal of the violent forces that surrounds the baby; something that she is ignorant of and is still unaffected or unmoved.

The several different forces which pose a threat for the baby; famine, riots, starvation, violence is a sharp contrast to her innocence knowledge that protects her as she sleeps on, The second stanza of the poem continues to head on and progress still depicting the gloominess of the poets mind and that he is worried about his daughter; Anne, (“l have walked and prayed tort this young child an hour).

The usage to the term “Flooded stream” represents the idea of A prayer for My Daughter as the poet continues to explain how worried he is at the existence of the troublemakers in the society and in this world as he talks about the “elms” that are tossed out by the destructive forces. The tone of the poem reflected in the summary of A Prayer for My Daughter y William Butler Yeats is one of frenetic and chaotic in nature where human emotions are on display.

However, the poem does experience a sudden shift of mood when the poet employing his power of imagination fancies how he would help his daughter that gradually puts down his worries to rest for some time. Further, it also grants the poem a pessimistic mood, and all Of a sudden Yeats seems to be excited about the impending future. (imagining… The future years had come/Dancing to a frenzied drum. ” Ann.’s life Will pass in chaos. “Dancing to a frenzied drum”). The passing years when his daughter grows up into a girl is echoed in the drum beats Which is both responsible for the rhythm and tempo that is important in one’s life.

In the summary of A prayer for my daughter by Williwaw Butler Yeats, the innocence of the baby is juxtaposed in a contrasting flavor; “murderous”, Her world is her sea all around and it’s evil and bodes ill for one and all. The usage of “murderous” makes the sea even more dangerous as the poet feels that there are people in this society who would try to manipulate and mold his daughters mind and might do evil things to her. Yeats also talks bout her beauty which he feels Will be her strength and give her the feeling Of fulfillment and help her make a better of character in times to come.

At the same time, he also prays to God to retain her feminine innocence so that she can shake off all negative virtues that reside within a human being and emerge strong and decisive in her won good mannered way. Yeats refers to the Story Of Helen Of Troy who had married a stupid man called Paris and that her life was doomed in a certain way as she wasn’t a good judge of character. In the following stanza of the poem, Yeats wants her daughter to be courteous and polite, benevolent and lawful and that she must know that love doesn’t come freely; one has to earn it in the right way. “Hearts are not had as a gift but hearts are earned. ” ) A Prayer for My Daughter: William Butler Yeats This poem was written by William Butler Yeats for his infant daughter, Anne. He worries about her. Maude Gonne was a radical, opinionated intelligent woman he had loved, but who had rejected his proposals. In this poem he vents his thoughts on her. Georgia Hyde Lees was his wife. Nag 4 Atari A Prayer for my Daughter by WE. Yeats: An Analysis by Claire Woo Stanza 1: The weather is a reflection of Yeats’ feelings. The post-war period was dangerous.

Ann.’s vulnerability and innocence is symbolized by the “cradle- hood” and “coverlet. ” “And half hid” shows that Anne is barely protected by the frail “coverlet. ” Anne is oblivious to the violent forces around her; she is ignorant (she “sleeps on”; she is not awake to the violence around her), hence she is “under this cradle. Hood” which hides her and is unaffected. (The forces may be riots, violence, starvation, or decay of moral values. ) “Under this cradled and coverlet/My child sleeps on. ” Her ignorance protects her from the uneasy knowledge hence she “sleeps on. ” Robert Gregory died.

His father could not protect him trot death. “The roof-leveling wind” is strong representing frightening, turbulent forces. Mere by the haystack- and roof-leveling wind,/red on the Atlantic, can be stayed,” ASSAI was more comfortable compared to Europe. Turbulent forces or “wind” was less significant and more controlled in the LISA Hence it ca be “stayed” or controlled. Yeats prays because he is gloomy; “great gloom Tone: Frightening, precarious, gloomy. In my mind,” Literary devices: personification – “the storm is howling” represents threatening external forces e. G. Riots, evilness.

Roof-leveling wind represents turbulent forces. Symbols – ‘Storm” represents outside forces which threaten Manes safety. “cradled” represents Manes innocence and infancy. “coverlet” represents innocence and ignorance, frail protection. Find” represents turbulent forces, “one bare hill” may represent Roberts death. (Why is the hill bare? Replies are appreciated. ) The hill is empty, it may represent his death – there is no one to occupy it. Or it may BEA hill where his tombstone lies. As have said, have no idea. Metonymy – The author may be mistaken but “Atlantic” may be the United States of America.

Rhyme scheme: backed Stanza 2: Yeats is worried about Anne. “Behave walked and prayed for this young child an weather reflects the threatening forces he fears. ‘Doodad stream” represents intense forces caused by people as it has strong forces. It is “flooded” because the troublemakers exist in large numbers or the forces are strong. The weather or external forces caused by the war are stormy and destructive. T He “elms” are tossed due to the destructive forces. People (possibly represented by “elm* are affected. Tone intense, anxious, frenetic, chaotic. This is rather desperate and pessimistic but there is a shift of mood.

Imagining ” When Yeats starts to imagine, he helps his daughter; he decides how she should turn out. This appeases his worries and gives him new ideas and food for thought. He imagines how her torture will be excitedly. “Imagining… The future years had come/Dancing to a frenzied drum. ” Ann.’s life will pass in chaos, “Dancing to a frenzied drum” also indicates the passing years in Ann.’s life which are represented by drum-beats (which have rhythm and tempo) – which also symbolize violence and chaos. It is a violent and chaotic time. The drum is “frenzied” because of the danger and chaos around Anne.

Furthermore, Yeats is excited (hence frenzied) for her to grow up. Ann.’s innocence is juxtaposed with the contrasting “sea” which is “murderous. ” The sea represents the world and the crowds around her, and as they are evil, destructive and take advantage of her innocence, they are “murderous? ‘ Moreover, the “sea” or the world is termed as “murderous innocence” because as part Of the “sea”, Ann.’s innocence is ‘murderous’ to herself because it enables others to manipulate her. Tone: frenetic, maddening, excited. Literary devices: symbols – “sea wind” , “flooded stream” – turbulent forces

Personification – “future years dancing” – the passing years of life Juxtaposition/oxymoron/paradox – “murderous innocence of the sea” Sibilance – “sea-wind scream” Assonance:”sea-wind scream” Onomatopoeia – “scream” Stanza 3: Yeats hopes that Anne will be beautiful but not excessively. “May she be granted beauty and yet not,’tatty to make a strangers eye distraught. ” Beauty is distracting and destructive, because it causes an admirer to be “distraught” and unhappy as a result of this unfulfilled desire to possess this beauty. Besides, he may desire her negatively and steal her innocence.

It inspires passion Vichy ay be hopeless. She should not be vain and conceited of her beauty. “Or hers before a looking-glass. ) Yeats fears that beauty will make her think that it is sufficient, for beauty would help her. Beautiful people being more attractive can benefit more, and With this attribute, Anne may think that she needs not perform acts of goodness, for her beauty is sufficient to place her in a position Of security and acceptance. This causes her to lose “natural kindness”. She does not see or appreciate the values of kindness and virtue. She would think herself superior and strive less without helping others.

They do not have to be kind and espies the physically undesirable. Furthermore, their beauty allows them to be fastidious in their choice of partners, having many admirers. Hence, they do not choose the right person as they have no heart or soul, “Lose the heart- revealing intimacy/ That chooses right. ” They cannot love truly and care for veneer and shallow qualities, for they cannot truly feel or know who “the one” is. They are sought for. The right person would in the end be more drawn to a good worn as shown in stanza 5. “Hearts are not had as a gift but hearts are earned. Beauty obstructs friendship as being as being beautiful causes one to be undiscerning, malicious and take things for granted. It causes the loss of human touch for the beautiful may tend to boast and despise their inferiors. They are not true friends. In another perspective, they do not form true friendships because others befriend them for the benefits derived from their appearance and even take advantage of them, The beautiful do not pay attention to those who make true friends as they believe themselves superior in beauty, fashion, etc. Etc. Furthermore, excessive beauty results in jealousy and broken friendships.

Another point to make is that beauty that over-entices may decrease Ann.’s virtue and increase her vulnerability as Others Wish to use her. This is crucial as in this poem, Yeats emphasizes the need for feminine innocence. In contrast, a plainer person being on a lower hierarchy will appreciate the importance Of kindness. In this context, beauty is equated With societies shallowness. Tone: imploring, beseeching, prayer-like, reflective. Literary devices: personification – “strangers eye distraught” – attracts and saddens one who is attracted Symbol – the “stranger is an unhappy admirer.

Alliteration – “strangers eye distraught”. Stanza 4 Yeats speaks of Greek mythology, Helen of Troy, being the most dutiful woman in the world, married Paris, a stupid man. Quote: “Helen being chosen found life flat and dull / And later had much trouble from a fool ” As she was greatly admired and revered for her beauty, life was boring with little strife. Inline that great queen, that rose out of the spray, ;being fatherless could have her Vass/ Yet chose a bandy-legged smith for man. ” Venus or Aphrodite, being fatherless, could marry as she pleased with no parental authority.

Yet with all her power and advantages “chose a bandy-legged smith for man” (Hyphenates) – someone inferior to her. She had no father to guide her. Yeats intends to guide is daughter in the choice Of a suitable spouse. Yeats is scornful: cultured women make mad choices in spouses. “Fine women eat/ A crazy salad with their meat. ” Meat is substantial; salad is not. Meat represents a fine lady who can be said to be “substantial,” having numerous qualities; the “crazy salad” is their dreadful mate, who is devoid of many qualities. They can have more, but choose worse. The Horn of Plenty was a horn given by Zeus to his caretaker.

The possessor of this Horn would be granted his wishes. Merely the Horn of Plenty is undone. ” This is because Maude Gonne squandered her gifts to intellect, grace and beauty ND the benefits she could command by marrying John McBride. She could obtain what she desired with these gifts – similar to the Horn to Plenty – and wasted the aforementioned gifts on McBride. As the Horn of Plenty could bring victuals, John McBride is symbolized as an unsubstantial “salad. ” Maude Gonne wasted her supposed power; she could have done better for herself, instead she made the wrong choice or desire. Tone: cynical, sad, troubled, scornful.

Literary devices: symbol – “Helen”, “Queen” -? a beautiful cultured woman or Maude Gonne “Horn of plenty” – gifts, advantages. Metaphor – “crazy salad” -? an inferior spouse. Stanza 5: Yeats wants Anne to be courteous. Lou does not come freely and unconditionally. “Hearts are not had as a gift but hearts are earned. ” Love is not inspired by mere physical beauty; it is earned by good efforts “by those Who are not entirely beautiful” who are kind and helpful. Those who have in stupidity made a fool Of themselves by hopelessly loving beautiful women and thought it was reciprocated. ‘Yet many, tat have played the fool/ For beauty very self. One may not be loved by a beautiful woman. ” “Charm” from a good woman has charmed a man eventually. “has charm made wise. He becomes “wise” by realizing the goodness of loving a good woman, Unsuccessful men have loved and are loved by kind women who make them happy, yet are not beautiful. “Loved and thought himself beloved/ From a glad kindness cannot take his eyes. ” She “cannot take his eyes” or navigate him by sight because she is not physically beautiful. But her kindness makes him glad. This could be a reference to Yeats’ wife Georgia Hyde Lees who was not beautiful, but they had a happy marriage.

Georgia loved him and let him take the credit for her work. The persona praises good unfaithful women – like Georgia ho re more loved by men compared to harsh beautiful ones – Maude Gonne. Tome: reflective, advisory, grateful, enlightened. Literary devices: personification – “glad kindness cannot take his eyes” “charm made Wise. ” Symbol – *hearts” -? love. A Prayer for My Daughter : William Butler Yeats . Summary and Critical Analysis I A Prayer for My Daughter by William Butler Yeats opens with an image of the new born child sleeping in a cradle. A storm is raging with great fury outside his residence.

A great gloom is on Yeats mind and is consumed with anxiety as to how to protect his child from the tide of hard times ahead. The poet keeps walking and praying for the young child and as he does so he is in a state of reverie. He feels a kind of gloom and worry about the future of his daughter. I He says “As walk and pray for my younger daughter imagine in a state of excitement and reverie’ that the future years (years devotional and bloodshed and frenzy) have already come and that they seem to come dancing to the accompaniment of a drum which is beating frantically.

These future years are seen by Yeats’ imagination as emerging out of the murderous (treacherous) innocence of the sea. In other words, the sea seems to be innocent but is capable f giving birth to those howling storms which are capable of leveling everything. I Yeats wants his daughter to possess some qualities so that she can face the future years independently and with confidence, Yeats says: Let her be given beauty but a more important thing is that her beauty should not be of a kind which may either make her proud of her beauty or distract a stranger’s mind and eyes.

Those whose beauty is capable of making them proud consider beauty an end in itself. The result is that pride leads to their losing natural kindness in some cases of that heart revealing intimacy which helps them to make the right hooch in life. Being able to make the right choices in life is a very important thing but those who have excessive beauty are unable to do so and never find a good fried in the true sense Of the world. The great thing about the poem is that it has a specific as well as general applicability.

At the same time the poem makes an indirect reference to Maude Gonne also whom Yeats loved so much and yet could not win her hand. The poet looks with in himself and finds that there is hatred inside. He thinks that hatred kills innocence and wishes that his daughter should not harbor hatred. It was because of this unwholesome bent of the mind hat Maude Gonne married a tool. The poet wished that her daughter should not cultivate a frantic intellect; he thinks that her daughter can remain innocent if she is tree tort hatred and intellectual fanaticism.

The innocence is sell delighting, self-appeasing and self-freighting. The poet’s last wish is that his daughter should marry a person of aristocratic_ family who may take her to a home where tradition and ceremony fill the atmosphere, A prayer for his daughter can be interpreted for the restoration of order and grace in a battered civilization, In “The Second Coming”, Yeats had described his vision of the future oral torn by anarchy. Yeats believed, as he has expressed in “The Second Coming” that the Christian civilization had reached in its zenith and was disintegrating now.

The prayer for his daughters survival becomes also a prayer for an improvement in the world. The term “ceremony” is a keyword in Yeats’ thought, and it involves not just formal ritual or courtesy but also order, grace and reverence. Yeats uses the word “ceremony” by associating it With the horn Of plenty, bestowed of all kind of virtue. It is facile to argue that the poem is not really a “prayer< or that Yeats is not praying for his "Christian virtues" for his daughter. Yeats wishes for organic innocence and freedom form hatred – the basis on which other virtues will inevitably grow.

The Young Brothers Missouri Massacre

Howard often wrote of the desperadoes terrorizing the South and Midwest during the early 1930s to his fellow Weird Tales writer H.P. Lovecraft. On July 13, 1932 he included this bit of information on Charles Arthur “Pretty Boy” Floyd and Harry and Jennings Young in his letter to HPL:

Referring to “Pretty-Boy” Floyd, he’s still at large, as near as I can learn, having recently shot his way out of a trap where the police had him surrounded. It’s rumored that he was in the farm-house in Missouri the night the Young brothers massacred those six officers, and I think it quite probable. You know the Youngs were cornered in Houston and killed themselves. I don’t think Floyd will go out that way. He’ll probably be shot in the back by one of his own gang who wants the big reward.

Despite Howard’s assertion that Pretty Boy Floyd was a participant in the massacre, it was merely a popular rumor at the time. While Harry Young and Floyd undoubtedly met in the Missouri prison where both were incarcerated during 1927 and 1928, Floyd was not at the Young farm that fateful day. What started out as a simple arrest, turned into the worst loss of life in law enforcement history resulting from a single incident. Six officers died that day, a deadly record that stood until September 11, 2001.

James David Young, was a Christian and honest man, but had to hang his head in shame when three of his eleven children turned to a life a crime and he was powerless to stop their slide down that slippery slope. Three of his sons, Paul, Jennings and Harry, became gun-toting wise guys who believed they were above the law and disdainful of honest, law abiding citizens. Indeed, they felt entitled to appropriate any property they wanted from those citizens they so despised. His wife, Willie Florence Young, was supportive of all her children, even the ones who went astray. The family lived on a 100 acre farm just southwest of Springfield, Missouri, located in the Ozarks region of that state.

The three brothers, who called themselves the Young Triumvirate, were suspected of committing both petty and major crimes, but despite the efforts of law enforcement, nothing could be pinned on them. A reckoning came in 1919 when Paul and Jennings broke into a small-town store south of Springfield, and were quickly caught with stolen merchandise. In light of the overwhelming evidence, they confessed to the theft and were sent to the state penitentiary in Jefferson City.

The pair was indifferent to the shame and humiliation their father felt in the presence of his friends and kin. The rest of the Young children shared their father’s grief, but Mrs. Young held Paul and Jennings blameless in the crime. She pleaded frame-up, double-cross and misplaced justice. She became the defender of her sons’ transgressions, especially Harry who was her favorite.

Their father was inconsolable over the actions of his sons. All he wanted was peace and quiet, but the burden of what his sons had become was too much for him to carry. He became sicker and sicker —  his heart broken, he died while Jennings and Paul were in prison.

A one point in the brothers’ lengthy crime spree, Mrs. Young was nearly arrested after police officers found stolen merchandise in her home. She claimed she knew nothing of the items (tires and rugs) stored in the farm house and Jennings stepped up and took the fall so his mother wouldn’t be charged with possession of stolen merchandise. While he cooled his heels in prison, brothers Paul and Harry kept up the family traditions of robbery and burglary. Harry was sent to the penitentiary in 1927, but soon all three were free again.

On June 2, 1929, Harry was driving recklessly through Republic, Missouri, when he was apprehended by City Marshal Mark Noe for drunk driving. Marshal Noe’s body was found in a roadside ditch several miles out of town the next day. Harry was hunted in big cities and small towns throughout the United States, Canada and Mexico. Now and then officials would hear of him and often they read of crimes they thought were his, but he was like a ghost, eluding capture for over a year.

Around Thanksgiving 1931 it was learned that Harry, Paul and Jennings were stealing cars and peace officers were on the lookout for the trio of criminals. Federal warrants were out in many jurisdictions for them on violations of the Dyer Act, and there were numerous state warrants too, for offenses including the charge of murder against Harry. Greene County Sheriff Marcell Hendrix spread the false story in the Youngs’ neighborhood he was tired of looking for Harry and that in all probability he had fled to Mexico anyway. It was generally agreed among the sheriff’s forces and the Springfield police they would bide their time flushing the Youngs out of the farm house. They also did not want to tip off Mrs. Young in advance of the raid, fearing she would alert her sons who returned home now and then for short visits.

Federal and State officers in Oklahoma and Texas had traced stolen cars to Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas, Iowa and Illinois, and they had evidence the Youngs were responsible for the thefts. And then there were an equal number of stolen cars taken from Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas and Illinois into Oklahoma and Texas for disposal there. At the time, their elaborate auto theft ring was one of the largest the FBI had ever seen. Clearly the Young brothers needed to be dealt with, and sooner or later officials knew some of them would stop off at the home place for a visit with their mother. A few days after Thanksgiving it was learned that Jennings was actually at home. He soon left, probably on his way to Illinois with a stolen car and returned shortly on his way back to Texas with a stolen Illinois car, and then on another trip through the Ozarks he actually came into Springfield.

On Saturday, January 2, 1932, evidence indicated that Jennings and probably Paul and Harry were at the family farm. Sheriff Hendrix collected ammunition, deputies and detectives to make the raid. A total of eleven men headed for the farm seven miles southwest of Springfield that fateful day. Since the farm was outside the city limits of Springfield, Chief of Police Ed Waddle handed the matter off the the County Sheriff to deal with. Sheriff Hendrix had been a friend and neighbor of the Youngs for many years and believed they would not harm him. When they arrived, the men milled about the farmhouse for a few minutes, banging on doors and yelling. They thought they heard noises coming from inside and came up with a plan to safely force the occupants out of the house. Getting no response from the occupants, it was agreed that the officers would fan out around the front of the house, fire a gas canister into one of the upstairs windows, and after the gas had time to saturate the second floor, the Sheriff and a few others would force their way in the back door and flush the brothers out the front door. Detective Johnson fired a gas canister through one of the upstairs windows while the group of officers waited a few minutes before taking up their assigned positions.

Sheriff Hendrix and Deputy Sheriff Wiley Mashburn, followed by Detective Virgil Johnson, left the southeast corner of the house and walked to the kitchen door. In order to cover them and observe their movements, Chief of Detectives Tony Oliver took cover behind a tree on the outside of a small lawn fence. Patrolman Charles Houser stood unprotected by the lawn gate. Detective Sid Meadows stood behind a tree outside the lawn fence on the north side where he might observe any exit from the northwest corner of the house. Detective Ben Bilyeu stood in the open close to Oliver. Detective Frank Pike and civilian R. G. Wegman were ordered to the rear of the officer’s cars to keep careful watch of the barn and shed. Detective Owen Brown and Deputy Sheriff Ollie Crosswhite took up positions at the northeast corner of the house so Crosswhite could look in the window.

The Sheriff  and Mashburn knocked on the kitchen door. They both called out several times for the Young brothers to come out with their hands up. A reply from the house did not come and the lawmen decided to force their way in.

Hendrix and Mashburn were on either side of Johnson who, with gas gun in hand, reached for the door knob, as Mashburn on the left and Hendrix on the right, shoved hard with their left shoulders. The door creaked and broke along the door knob panel, springing part way open. Mashburn raised his revolver and took one step inside. A shotgun fired with an awful roar, sending a well-aimed charge of bird shot into Mashburn’s face, peeling off the flesh and blowing his eyes out of their sockets.

The Sheriff yelled and stepped into the opening left by Mashburn, as the mortally wounded Deputy faltered back. Another shot rang out, hitting Sheriff Hendrix full-force in the upper part of the shoulder just below the right collarbone, tearing a ragged hole through the first and second ribs and sending hot lead deep into the Sheriff’s chest cavity as he slumped to his knees.

Deputy Sheriff Mashburn, surprisingly still standing, staggered backward with short steps, swayed and fell on his backside before falling completely backward, his head striking the concrete walkway. Wracked with pain, his body convulsed as his hands fumbled over his ruined face.

Sheriff Hendrix must have seen his killer as he slumped in the doorway while Mashburn lay kicking on the ground behind him. Without saying a word, he raised his gun and straightened up to shoot it out with his murderer before he died, but his torn muscles would not function and his gun slipped from his fingers. But he did not retreat and stumbled forward though the kitchen door, falling to the linoleum floor where he bled-out at the feet of his murderer. The Sheriff had come as an old-time neighbor to peacefully arrest the errant sons of an honest and upright friend only to die at the hands of one of those sons.

Detective Johnson, who had fallen back, ran for the front of the house as Chief Oliver yelled to the others that the Sheriff and Mashburn had been shot. The Detective whirled at the gate and knelt down with the gas gun to fire another shell into the house. Calmly aiming, he pulled the trigger, but the gun didn’t fire. He pulled again and again, but still it wouldn’t work. He lowered the gun and saw it wasn’t closed, so he closed it. But before he could re-aim, it fired unexpectedly, sending the gas shell wide of its mark to hit the side of the house just above the front porch roof where it smoked for a second and then started to burn. Johnson turned to Oliver and yelled that he was out of gas rounds.

Oliver shouted at Johnson to take cover and then yelled to the rest of the officers to do the same. He also shouted at them make sure their guns were loaded and extra ammo at the ready. During the lull in the shooting, Deputy Sheriff Crosswhite yelled for Chief Oliver to send someone after long guns — rifles and shotguns — more gas shells and bullets. The Chief shouted to Johnson to take one of the cars and hurry back with all of the guns and shells he could find at the station and to bring more men back. He also advised the rest of the men to be on the lookout in case the brothers made a break for it and to save their ammunition.

Detective Johnson made his way around some trees to the car and was backing it up to turn around when Detective Ben Bilyeu and civilian R. G. Wegman scrambled into the back seat. The gunmen inside the house had come to the front room, in all probability wearing bullet-proof vests, and when they saw the men leaving they opened fire with rifle and shotgun on the car. Two bullets whizzed through the windshield close to Johnson’s head and exited through an open window. Three or four successive charges of bird shot from the house shattered the glass to bits and rained lead upon the body and feet of Johnson, but he made the turn nevertheless and sped away down the lane for Springfield and more help. When the desperadoes opened fire on the car, Chief Oliver yelled for his men to fire into every downstairs window.

In the second lull of firing Oliver, ordered Patrolman Houser to take cover behind a larger tree. He looked around, spotted a bigger tree and then before making a run for it, he peered around in front toward the house to see if it was safe. A well-aimed bullet spat out of the south window and plowed into his head just to the left of the center of Houser’s forehead and midway between the eyes and hairline. The bullet tore a jagged path through the left hemisphere of his brain and through the right to make its exit through the middle of the posterior part of the right parietal bone. Dying, he shouted “My God,” as he fell over supine on his back with legs and arms outstretched.

The killers returned to the kitchen to make their escape. One of them peered out the back window and was spotted by Crosswhite, who opened fire and fired every bullet in his gun. The shooter with the rifle went to the dining room window, stood on a chair as he fired bullet after bullet at Crosswhite to keep him pinned down while the killer with the shotgun snuck out the kitchen door, coming up behind the Deputy and shooting him point-blank in the back of the head, sending him sprawling to the ground.

The bird shot a blew a hole more than three-fourths of an inch in diameter about two inches above the top of Crosswhite’s right ear, the impact shattering his skull into several irregular fractures. The back of his skull was loosened entirely and the shot entered the cranial cavity completely destroying his brain — he died instantly.

Chief Oliver ordered Detective Sid Meadows to move further back, seeing from his vantage point that Meadows was somewhat exposed. Meadows replied that he was out of ammo, putting his hands in his pockets, hoping to find a bullet or two in them. Suddenly, shots were fired from the south window of the house directly at Meadows – bird shot riddled the tree he was behind. Again Chief Oliver ordered Meadows to fall back while he covered him, firing round after round from his pistol at the house. Meadows started to make his move and peeked around the tree trunk at the house. This time a rifle fired from the north window of the house, the bullet perfectly aimed struck Meadows just above his right eye. Meadows died instantly and collapsed without making a sound.

Detective Pike leaned out from his tree and fired a stream of bullets into the north window. He was answered with a volley of bird shot from another window, which went wild; but a few pellets struck Pike in the left arm. He yelled in surprise and pain. Fearing they would all die where they stood, Oliver shouted for Pike and Brown to make a run for the barn.

The shooters now concentrated their firepower on Oliver, peppering the tree he was behind with bird shot. The Chief took a step back  to avoid getting flying splinters in his eyes when he was hit with a blast of bird shot that tore through his heavy overcoat and clothing. In pain, he forgot his perilous position and stepped to the right exposing his shoulder. The rifle fired and a bullet tore though flesh, muscle and bone. Suffering from loss of blood, Oliver turned to seek cover behind the Sheriff’s car. At first he was erect and steady, but after taking a step or two he faltered and struggled to stay upright. He was stumbling toward the cover of the car when a shot rang out. The whizzing, sizzling bullet took him in the back, entering just below the left shoulder blade and tore a jagged wound clear through his chest cavity, plowing into the lower lobe of his left lung and on through the pulmonary connections near the heart and ripped still deeper into his body. He pitched forward landing next to the patrol car and died a slow and painful death as his chest cavity filled with blood.

With Chief Oliver dying on the ground in front of them, the remaining two officers, Detectives Owen Brown and Frank Pike heard one of the shooters yell from the house: “Lay down your guns and come up. We’ve killed the others.”

Both men refused to obey the shooter’s demands and, hopelessly outgunned and facing certain death if they remained outside the farm house, decided to leave the premises and return when the reinforcements arrived.

With all of the officers apparently dead or fleeing for their lives, the killers, suspected to be Jennings and Harry, hurried into the yard. Unseen by anyone, they yanked the spark-plug wires from the Sheriff’s car, grabbed Chief Oliver’s gun while he lay struggling in the throes of death and Houser’s gun as well; they then hurried back to the house. At the kitchen door they snatched up Mashburn’s gun and Crosswhite’s pearl-handled revolver and retreated into the house. Inside they stole the Sheriff’s gun and from his wallet containing several hundred dollars. They hurriedly packed some underclothes and shirts, and the five stolen revolvers, a rifle and shotgun, along with a lot of shells and cartridges in two light traveling bags.

In a scant few minutes they were off; investigators say they must have fled through cornfields and orchards on foot in a northwest direction to freedom and future crimes. Some people found it hard to believe that two men could have killed six lawmen, but considering both were expert marksmen, had the advantage of the high ground (the second story of the farm house) and considering the peace officers, only armed with pistols, were ill-prepared for a shootout and had sparse cover outside the house, it is feasible that the two hardened criminals could have acted alone in the killings.

When Johnson returned with additional officers, weapons and ammunition, he walked into a scene out of Dante’s Inferno, with the dead and dying strewn around the farm house like rag dolls. Despite the severity of his wounds, Deputy Mashburn was still alive, but died later that evening. Detectives Brown and Pike were soon located and Pike’s wounds were treated.

A full-scale investigation was launched into the shoot-out, as was a nationwide manhunt for the perpetrators. Another of the Young brothers, Oscar, told lawmen that Harry and Jennings were the only two family members at the house that fateful day. Also, it was later confirmed that “Pretty Boy” Floyd was in Texas at the time of the massacre. With no solid leads, lawmen waited for the brothers to resurface.

The first break in the case that lead to the capture of Harry and Jennings came to Greene County Prosecuting Attorney Dan M. Nee from Streetman, Texas. The Young brothers were driving at a high rate of speed on U.S. Highway 75 and wrecked their Ford coupe in a ditch near the town of Streetman, located 80 miles southeast of Dallas. Battered and bruised, the pair climbed out of the wreck, waving off motorists who slowed down to offer aid. Shortly, a farmer named H. D. Carroll and his daughter came riding up on horses and asked the men if they needed help. The brothers convinced them they were not seriously hurt and asked if there was a phone nearby so they could call a wrecker. Carroll replied he did have a phone at his house, which was adjacent to the scene of the accident. He further stated that there were no wreckers in the area and that it would take a while for one to arrive.

The occupants of the car didn’t want to wait on a wrecker because they said they had better see a doctor soon, since they might be hurt. But they didn’t want to leave the car in the ditch. A further discussion led to an offer from Carroll that he would pull the car out of the ditch and store it in a shed. The men said they would catch a ride to town, see a doctor and return as soon as possible with mechanics.

As promised, Carroll hooked a team of horses on the auto and towed it to his yard. When he looked it inside the car he was surprised to find two guns — a shotgun and rifle — inside. He thought the pair might be hunters. Carroll also found a checkbook for a Parsons, Kansas bank and other things that seemed appropriate.

He did become concerned when discovered that both license plates were missing from the car. His daughter then informed him she had seen one of the men remove something from the car and toss it into a nearby field. Carroll returned to the scene of the accident where he found what had been tossed — two Missouri license plates numbered 363-662.

The farmer brought the plates back to the car and waited for the Youngs to return. When they did not return with mechanics to repair the auto, he went to the phone and called the Navarro County Sheriff’s Office at Corsicana. He related to officials there the circumstances surrounding his present possession of a Missouri car. They agreed to look into the matter at once and several officers were dispatched to the Carroll farm where they examined the car and took an inventory of it contents, including the guns.

Mrs. A. E. Gaddy, the telephone operator, overheard Carroll’s conversation with Corsicana officials but said nothing about it to her family. Later that evening her son, A. E. Gaddy, Jr., was listening to a radio program being broadcast from station KMOX out of St. Louis about the Springfield killings, which presented descriptions of Jennings and Harry Young. He mentioned the matter to his mother and she told him what she overheard from Carroll. To satisfy his own curiosity, the young man called Carroll about the details of the wreck and to get descriptions of the two men. After talking with the farmer, he felt for certain the occupants of the wrecked car were Jennings and Harry. He immediately wired Greene County Prosecuting Attorney Dan M. Nee in Springfield and notified him of the situation.

At that moment, twenty-four hours after the fatal shooting, Prosecutor Nee, his assistant HornBostel, Federal Agents Burger and DeMoss, Messrs. Wilson, Nolan and Arndt of the Frisco Railway detective staff and several other Midwestern investigators, were questioning Mrs. Willie Florence Young and her two daughters, Lorena and Vinita, who claimed they were visiting relatives the previous day when the massacre occurred.

Nee quickly called the younger Gaddy on the phone to get more details and was convinced from the conversation the lead was worth running down. He phoned the Corsicana officials next and from them he obtained the serial numbers on the guns. Nee knew that the brothers had connections in Houston and other Texas cities where they operated their auto theft ring. Even though it was late when he received the last bit information, he spread the word via wire and phone to law enforcement throughout southern Texas to be on the lookout for Harry and Jennings.

Early the next morning, Nee and his men learned that the two occupants of the wrecked car had stopped E. C. Hogan, a Fort Worth drug salesman, near the scene of the accident for a ride into the town of Fairfield. On their way there,  a bearing on salesman’s car burned out near Caney Creek Bridge. The hitchhikers thanked Hogan for the ride and flagged down the next traveler, Isaac Levy of Corsicana, who was also on the way to Fairfield. He picked them without suspicion, but grew worried when they insisted he drive them all the way to Houston for any sum of money he wanted. As they neared Fairfield, the injured men changed their minds about visiting a doctor to tend to their wounds on the pretense they were anxious to reach Houston that (Sunday) night. Levy let the suspicious pair out at a filling station in Fairfield. They proceeded on foot down the road, but were soon picked up by another, unidentified motorist.

The Prosecuting Attorney also discovered that farmer Carroll, the drug salesman Hogan and Mr. Levy from Corsicana, all three who spent time with the two men, did not see them carrying weapons on their persons or in possession of any traveling bags.

At Nee’s behest, investigators found out by tracing the license plates found in Texas to several different Missouri owners that the plates were on a Ford coupe reported stolen on the streets of Springfield the night of the crime. Greene County officials felt certain now they were on the right trail of Jennings and Harry Young and redoubled their efforts to have all Texas law enforcement officials use every resource possible to apprehend them.

On Monday morning the Springfield Leader newspaper learned the serial numbers on the shotgun and rifle found by H. D. Carroll in the wrecked car and a reporter wired the manufacturer for the name of the wholesale dealer to whom they had been first consigned. Quickly through dealers and others, they traced the guns to the ownership and recent possession of Oscar Young. He admitted when questioned by lawmen that he had loaned the guns to Harry and Jennings a day or two prior to the killings so that they could go hunting. Armed with this information, investigators knew for certain that Harry and Jennings were the occupants of the Streetman auto.

Late Sunday night, the two outlaws made their way into Houston where they kept a low profile, going undetected even though the local police were pulling out all the stops to find them. Lawmen raided the known hangouts of the Youngs and questioned their friends, but none revealed where the killers were. Despite the dragnet thrown over the city, Jennings and Harry managed to stay one step ahead of the law and elude capture. Additionally, somehow the bags and stolen guns they packed at the home of their mother after the massacre found their way to Houston where the brothers retrieved them sometime Monday. Evidently someone, perhaps brother Paul, had helped them get these items from Missouri to Texas without being detected.

On Monday afternoon one of Houston’s best police officers had a fleeting glimpse of Harry, but in the blink of an eye he faded away into a crowd. This particular lawman’s past record for remembering faces made it an absolute fact to his superiors that Harry and Jennings Young were in Houston. The alarm was sounded and every road out of town, every boat to foreign ports, every train that left the station was watched to make their escape from the city impossible.

Early Tuesday morning, January 5th,  J. F. Tomlinson, a carpenter by trade, who lived at 4710 Walker Avenue, telephoned personally Houston Chief of Police Percy F. Heard and told him that in the morning paper he had seen pictures of Harry and Jennings Young, who greatly resembled the two men he had rented a room to the previous afternoon. Further, he fearfully admitted the men were at his home still sleeping right then.

Chief Heard immediately contacted Lieutenant Claude Beverly of the Magnolia Park substation and together they arranged for the elite of Houston’s Police Department to assemble at a pre-arranged location on McKinney Avenue near the Tomlinson cottage where a quick meeting was held and specific duties were assigned to each of the detectives and patrolmen who were there to capture, dead or alive, the notorious Young brothers.

Shortly after 9:00 a.m., the carpenter’s small bungalow, immaculately landscaped with evergreens and shrubs, was completely surrounded by lawmen armed with every conceivable type of weapon, including revolvers, shotguns, sub-machine guns, rifles, gas-guns, gas grenades, and smoke bombs. This time, the law enforcement officers were well prepared for the Young brothers.

Lt. Beverly went up the steps, grabbed the doorknob, causing the door to swing open and walked in —  he was closely followed by Officers Peyton and Bradshaw. Tear gas canisters were hurled through a rear window into the bedroom where the outlaws were believed to be, and then into the front room of the small house. Allowing time for them to saturate the rooms, Lt. Beverly walked down the hall and found a visitor, who was handcuffed and taken outside. Beverly and Peyton continued to the rear bedroom door, opened it and quietly walked in. The Youngs were not in the bed and when they searched the room, they saw no one beneath the bed or hiding behind the open door. The officers then stepped toward the door to the bathroom, turned the knob and opened the door a little – instantly three shots blasted out, barely missing the two lawmen. They jumped back into the kitchen across the hall and positioned themselves so they had a view of the rear bedroom and another door to the bathroom. Things were deathly quiet for a second. Then as Chief of Police Heard came through the front door, the bathroom door opened slightly and one of the Youngs peeked out.

Lt. Beverly fired point-blank with his sawed-off shotgun. The door slammed shut and then from within the bathroom several shots rang out. Someone behind the door yelled, “We’re dead — come and get us.” Suspecting a trap, Chief Heard and Lt. Beverly kept their men back until another canister of gas had had time to be effective. Then they unlatched the bathroom door and pushed. It struck something that gave way slightly. They continued opening the door wider until they could see a man sprawled out on the floor. They quickly rushed into the bathroom to find Jennings Young lying dead in a pool of blood and by his side lay Harry Young, bleeding profusely but still alive.

In the Tomlinson bathroom, trapped like rats, the outlaw brothers cheated the lawmen, the judge, jury and executioner by killing each other in a mutual death pact. When cornered, Harry and Jennings Young took the easy way out and fulfilled a promise made to their mother, who not wanting to see them hanged, told them to kill each other rather than be captured.

A cache of pistols, taken from the dead officers near Springfield, several of which were used by the Youngs to take their lives, lay beside the head of a bloodied Jennings Young. Harry, just barely alive, was placed in an ambulance and rushed to St. Joseph’s Infirmary where he died shortly after arriving. He did not regain consciousness on the way to the hospital so Lt. Margiotta and Detective Stinson, who accompanied him, obtained no deathbed statement.

Dead in Houston, Texas, but damned to the depths of Hell, Jennings and Harry Young were laid out covered with blood on cold hard slabs in a mortuary 700 miles from Springfield, where at that very hour widows and fatherless children were mourning the loss of their husbands and fathers at the hands of the now deceased killers. 

There was no rejoicing in the Ozarks over the bad end of Harry and Jennings Young, but a great sigh of relief did wash over many of the city and county officials in Springfield who had been awake every hour since the horrendous tragedy had catapulted them into feverish, nerve-racking activity. There had been no rest until the final act was over. The intensive manhunt had come to an inglorious end for the two outlaw brothers who were unwilling to take accountability for their crimes and instead gunned down six good lawmen.

Summary Black Men And Public Space

The presence of black men is the harbinger of black stereotypes and severe racial discrimination. This issue has caused trouble throughout history, regardless of what period it once again arose to a hotly debated public issue before being pushed aside provisionally. However, one must not blame such an unfortunate population for the troubles that have occurred. ! Brent Staples, the author of Black Men in Public Space, utilizes a variety of strategies in his work to best develop his ideas.

In his work, Staples uses not only consistent diction and language that set the atmosphere to best present is ideas to the reader create a queer yet thrilling contrast between his relatively casual writing style and the critical issue he is dealing with, but also the first three abbreviations of the PELVIS writing style, pathos, ethos, and logos, in order to solidify the relationship between his ideas in the writing and the reader with empathy and credence.

Additionally, Staples brilliantly implies and thus emphasizes the main idea upon which the solar system of ideas and details presented in his writing revolves around, a truth that the reader expects prior to finishing the work. ND yet still retains its significance as a breathtaking realization – The public is blind to injustices that black people endure as an everyday part of their lives. Throughout the whole of Black Men in Public Space, Staples generates an intriguing atmosphere that is not captivating in the sense that it incorporates copious amounts Fuchs unnecessary things as action, but is enticing due to its informality and serenity even whilst discussing sensitive issues.

The writing is engulfed in a casual atmosphere, which is ironic when considering the tone is directly juxtaposed with information considering racial aggregation This method can be identified as black humor _ It is not the common tone that is expected especially when the author himself is the protagonist in a story concerning frequent life-threatening experiences, thus subverting thereafter expectations.

An example of this critical contrast between a serious issue and the casual tone applied by the author is the tone by Which Brent Staples recalls past, personal experiences with racism. He first lays out a laundry list Of disturbing events that occurred throughout his life, then he describes Hess events as trivial due to their frequent occurrences, and leaves at that. By using black humor, Staples is able to maintain this atmosphere of serenity and simultaneously present shocking evidence of racial segregation. Supplementing the casual, yet personal atmosphere established by the authors careful use of diction and language, Staples uses pathos, ethos, and logos, Through the use of ethos, Staples establishes the credibility of his writing as that of an intelligible, graduate student of the university of Chicago, Thus, Staples oldies his ideas that are presented as legitimate concerns, and not the words of an uneducated black man who banters on about the unfairness of racism.