Summary Of Politics And The English Language Homework Essay Sample

Throughout his essay, Orwell connects with his readers by establishing his credibility, using emotional appeals, and providing logical evidence of how the English language is mutinously declining and how writers could slow, and possibly stop, this process. To emphasize the complexity of the rules of writing, Orwell utilizes parallel structure, often interlacing parallel structures to keep the reader on his/her toes and give the body unity. His parallel Structures also assist in straying away from repetition of ideas and a monotonous tone.

Although Orwell states that “correct grammar and syntax… Are Of no importance,” one can see that he most definitely attempts to engage his readers through syntax and grammar (109). His back-and- forth writing between his body paragraphs and his self contradiction supports he rule he later introduces: “Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous” (1 12). His contradictions of himself may at first leave some readers puzzled, but ultimately establishes the concept that a writer should not be afraid to break conventions to make a point.

George Orwell, in paragraph five, goes on to express his disappointment towards writers who lack originality by using common and overused metaphors, implying that they really do not care for what they are writing about what-so- ever. He discusses the common misinterpretations to old metaphors that are still seed in today’s works, explaining that if the writer knows it will be misunderstood, he/she should not incorporate the phrase. Orwell continues to express disdain as he explains that several writers no longer use simple verbs, but rather phrases that involve passive voice.

He looks down on the elimination of simple conjunctions and prepositions, accusing writers of focusing too much on symmetry and too little on climatic ends of sentences. As Orwell continuous his contemptuous writing in paragraph six, he scolds writers for overusing pretentious diction, saying that they “are used to dress up impel statements,” “dignify the sordid processes Of international politics,” and “give an air of culture and elegance” (109). He also expresses his disgust with words that add no particular meaning, like sentimental, natural, or vitality (110).

Many political words, Novel also states, are often used improperly and dishonestly. He explains that overusing pretentious diction and meaningless words only result in sloppy and vague writing, looking down on the lack of originality. In paragraphs 9, 10, and II, Orwell leads into a translation of”good English” into “modern English. He analyzes the lack of concreteness in the modern English version in comparison to the good English version. He describes modern writing as “gumming together long strips of words which have already been set in order by someone else, and making the results presentable by sheer humbug” (I I I).

Orwell states that writers choose to save mental effort by using vague and meaningless phrases and words, going back to the quotes he included earlier to porn. ‘e his point. By the end of paragraph 12, it is very clear that “ready-made phrases” are not What George Orwell would like to see in any particular passage. In paragraph 13, Orwell states that political writing is bad writing, unless the specific writer is somewhat outside of the box with his/her views. He compares a political speaker to a dummy as he discusses the speakers repetition of the same phrases over and over again, the speaker being in a sort of unconsciousness.

Unwell goes on in paragraph 14 to describe political speech as a sort of pacification for political issues across the world, even naming a few like British rule in India. He then explains how people, even professors, use unnecessary political speech to ineffectively get their points across. Orwell continues his discussion of the cycle involving thought ruining language and language ruining thought, expressing his concern that what is convenient is not always what is correct. He even claims that the very essay he has written undoubtedly has the simple mistakes he has discussed.

Melt uses a quote from The Allies to prove his point once again, also explaining that the only way to end this abuse of the English language is to be constantly on guard As Orwell restates his opinion, he poses a counterargument: “language merely reflects existing social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development by any erect tinkering with words and constructions” (1 14). However, he produces several solutions to solve the issue directly after the counterargument is stated.

Orwell whole-heartedly explains that the world could exterminate itself Of the over-used metaphors, ready-made phrases, and filler words easily, it only takes a small group to get rid Of them. In paragraph 18, he makes it clear that ending the use forsworn out phrases and words has no relevance grammar or syntax. He goes on to restate his point and how it can be avoided. As Orwell comes to a close, he restates basically every main point in his essay, clearing that major attitude change is necessary before the revival of the English language can happen.

Orwell explains that he considers ;language as an instrument for expressing and not for concealing or preventing thought” (115). He suggests writers simplify their works to steer clear of stupid and meaningless remarks. In his conclusion, Orwell urges writers not to change everything at once, but to change one aspect at a time, and to work hard enough to rid the English language to the useless, ready-made phrases that writers so often resort to.

Effect Of Temperature On Permeability Of Red Cabbage Biology

The purpose of the experiment was to look into the consequence of temperature on the membrane permeableness in ruddy chou. The permeableness lesion be estimated by the sum of ruddy pigment spreading out of the ruddy chou.


They are both bounded by membranes. Red chou appears as a violet coloring material since it contains a category of ruddy purple pigment called anthocyanin within the vacuole of ruddy chou cells. The anthocyanins are responsible for the ruddy, violet and bluish colors of works ‘s foliages, flowers and fruits ( Biologymad, neodymium ) .

Like other eucaryotic cells, ruddy chou cells have different cell organs. They are both bounded by membranes. Cell membranes can supply structural support and command the conveyance of substances traveling through the cells. As Figure 1 shows, the cell membrane is made up of a phospholipid bilayer, cholesterin, proteins, glycolipids and glycoproteins. Without the cell membrane, cells would non be able to transport out the multiple maps for the activities of beings.

The basic construction of the membrane is phospholipids ( Figure 2 ) . They are composed of a phosphate group chemically linked to a three- C glycerin molecule and two fatty acids ( Ucl. neodymium ) . As a consequence, the phospholipids have a hydrophilic ( loving H2O ) caput and two hydrophobic ( hating H2O ) tails ( Lane, 2009 ) .

Cytochemistry ( 2007 ) studies that the temperatures can impact the wadding of the hydrocarbons. As Figure 3 shows, the phosphlipid is tightly packed and have a gel province at low temperatures ( Cytochemistry, 2007 ) . A higher temperature can do the lipoids ‘melt ‘ and go more fluid, which allow the phosphlipid to travel or revolve ( Cytochemistry, 2007 ) . This leads to the membranes become more unstable and delicate ( Ucl. neodymium ) . Although holding hydrophilic caputs, phospholipids are still a barrier to H2O ( polar ) molecules because of the hydrophobic dress suits.

The coiled and folded strings of amino-acids can organize variable constructions of proteins. These amino-acids are besides held together by H bonds and disulphide Bridgess ( Losos, Mason and Singer, 2008 ) . With weak interactions, such as H bonds, the secondary and third construction of proteins can be disrupted and become denaturized. Denaturation is the construction of a protein is charged, taking to the loss of proteins ‘ biological belongingss ( Clik4 Biology, 2008 ) . Heating increases the kinetic energy and causes the molecules to vibrate. Therefore, the interactions can be weakened and broken. Temperatures above 41a„? will interrupt the interactions in many proteins and denature them ( Chemistry Explained, neodymium ) .

Proteins can move as a transition manner for ions and polar molecules to spread through the membrane. The plasma membrane is a selectively permeable barrier because of protein bearers can command certain substances to come in or go forth ( Losos, Mason and Singer, 2008 ) .

The substances can transport across the membrane by diffusion. The motion is from high concentration to low concentration. For hydrophobic substances, they can travel by simple diffusion. They straight pass through the membrane and no energy is required ( Losos, Mason and Singer, 2008 ) . As Figure 3 shows, facilitated diffusion occurs when channel proteins adhering to specific molecules i??Click4 Biology, 2002i?‰ .

The diffusion of H2O molecules from high H2O concentration to low H2O concentration is called osmosis ( Lane, 2009 ) . Active conveyance and cytosis can besides travel certain things through cell membranes.


In this experiment, ruddy chou, trial tubings, beakers, cork bore bit, a cylinder, a mounted acerate leaf and spirit lamp were provided.

The practical was done as following stairss ( Lane, 2010 ) . To get down with, cylinders of ruddy chou tissue were cut and placed on a tile. The ruddy chou phonograph record were so washed under a running pat for 5 proceedingss. Using the cylinder, 6 cm3 cold H2O was individually added to seven trial tubings labeled 30a„? , 40a„? , 50a„? , 60a„? , 70a„? , 80a„? , and 90a„? . Using a big beaker, tripod and gauze and spirit lamp, a H2O bath was set up. Six ruddy chou phonograph record were impaled on a mounted acerate leaf. The H2O bath was heated to 30a„? . The burner was so removed and the phonograph record were placed in the H2O bath for 1 minute. These phonograph records were push away and dropped into the trial tubing with cold H2O ( 5 cm3 ) . The processs of heating at changing temperatures, puting the phonograph record into the H2O bath and so taking them to the trial tubings were repeated. The start clip was recorded. The phonograph record were left in the trial tubing for 20 proceedingss. The tubings were shaken and observed.


In the experiment, the diffusion between the ruddy chou membrane and the cold H2O in the trial tubing is inactive conveyance. As mentioned before, osmosis occurs from the higher H2O concentration in cold H2O to the phonograph record. The lower concentration outside the pigment can do the pigment diffuse out from the ruddy chou phonograph record. However, the proteins within the ruddy chou membrane can assist a selective conveyance.

The clear H2O in the trial tubing labeled 30a„? to 60a„? can be explained, the ruddy pigments found within the vacuole of ruddy chou cells are good for the ruddy chou. Even though they have different concentration, there are no bearer proteins leting pigment to be transported. The sky blue coloring material in other trial tubings indicates that the proteins or the phospholipids in the cell membrane have become denaturized and lost the unity, which cause the pigments to spread out. With the similar grounds, the motion of H2O into the ruddy chou phonograph records make the phonograph record crestless wave at low temperature ( 30a„? to 60a„? ) . The shriveled phonograph record might be caused by the loss of membrane unity. It can non defy the osmotic forces.

The consequences indicate the phospholipids or the proteins become denaturized when heated with the temperature higher 60a„? . Compared with above 41a„? , the temperature devising denaturized proteins is higher in the experiment. This might be caused by the clip heating the phonograph record in the H2O bath is excessively short. Or the temperature can non keep a changeless temperature and falls, because in this experiment, the burner was removed when puting the phonograph record in the H2O bath.

It can be deduced that as the temperature rises, the cell membrane will go more and more permeable. Therefore, all content within the cell will slop out at the terminal. With such ground, the H2O coloring material would hold become more and more blue from 70a„? to 90a„? . The consequences are different from the expected 1s. Mistakes may hold arisen in the measuring of H2O used in each trial tubing. The H2O was measured utilizing a cylinder instead than a calibrated pipette. It evidently causes the different volumes of H2O and different concentrations have different colorss. Another ground might be portion of pigments diffuse into the warming H2O before placed into the trial tubing, particularly at higher temperatures. Or higher temperatures destabilize the anthocynin molecules and break up the pigments to colourless.

This experiment merely investigates the consequence of temperature. Therefore, other variables need to be controlled. They are besides the alterations need to better the experiment. For illustration, utilizing the same sized cork bore bit cutting the ruddy chous holding the same thickness can do certain the same surface country and the same dry weight of the phonograph record. It is possible a broad scope of temperatures were used. If more reduplicate processs had been done at smaller intervals, the consequences would be more accurate.

Summary Of R K Narayan’s ‘Leela’s Friend’

Mr. Severances is deeply thinking about his servant-problem. Sided, a homeless poor boy, comes to his gate just then in search of a job. Severances looks at him and finds nothing objectionable. Yet he asks a few questions about his previous work. He calls then his wife who turns satisfied after meeting the boy. Ella, their five-year old daughter comes out and likes the boy. Sided is selected on an agreement of two meals a day and four rupees a month.

In return he is to wash loathes, tend the garden, run errands, chop wood and kick after Ella. Sided is a likeable boy who gets on well with the family. He becomes a good friend with Ella. Sided and Ella play together With a ball. Sided throws the ball upward. When the ball comes down, he tells her that the ball has touched the moon. Even he has touched the moon many times from a coconut tree. The innocent girl believes every word of Sided. She also expresses her desire to touch the moon.

She is surprised to see that wherever they move, the moon is there. She claps in joy. Sided informs her that he really knows the moon which follows up his command. At days end Ella plays the teacher to Sided. She tries to teach him with her little knowledge. She writes a letter or draws a kind of cat or crow, and asks him to copy it. But he is a very poor performer. Yet Ella does not give up her effort, She does not allow him to leave his task, The game of teaching goes on for a long time.

Sided gets relief only when he falsely tells her that her mother s calling her to dinner, Every night Sided tells a nice story to put Ella to sleep. Day by day he becomes her constant companion. A sweetening relationship is established between them. One evening Sided goes out to buy sugar and Ella accompanies him. When they come home, Allele’s mother noticed that the gold chain around Allele’s neck is missing& Being furious she slaps Ella and calls Sided at once on suspicion. Sided defends himself feebly but leaves the house stealthily.

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