Super Exploitation: Unveiling Power Hierarchies And Capitalism University Essay Example


Capitalism has been criticized for exploiting labor. Recently, scholars have explored the concept of super-exploitation, which extends beyond conventional understandings of exploitation. Super exploitation is the heightened form of exploitation experienced by specific social groups, including but not limited to those who are gendered, racialized, and immigrants. This paper examines two examples of super-exploitation, analyzes the social mechanisms that maintain them, identifies the beneficiaries beyond capitalists, and evaluates the impact of these power hierarchies on capitalism and human freedom.

Example 1: Gendered Superexploitation

The persistent disparity between what men and women get paid for equivalent labor is an example of gendered super-exploitation. Different societal processes keep this extreme kind of exploitation going (Suk, 2010). Factors contributing to this phenomenon include discrimination in recruiting and promotion procedures, occupational segregation, and the undervaluing of “feminine” professions. The disproportionate amount of unpaid household work that falls on women only makes their exploitation worse. Patriarchal norms, cultural expectations, and subconscious biases all contribute to maintaining these systems, which ultimately favor capitalists and males as the dominant social group.

Furthermore, several cultural and institutional reasons maintain the female wage gap and gendered super-exploitation. The social milieu in which women are expected to be caretakers and homemakers rather than equal participants in the workforce is reinforced by patriarchal norms and expectations (Spierings, 2014). Employers may regard women as less devoted or competent owing to misconceptions about caring obligations brought on by these cultural expectations, which in turn perpetuates discrimination in recruiting and promotion processes. The persistence of female superexploitation is bolstered in no little part by occupational segregation. Females are overrepresented in caring, teaching, and nursing, all of which are traditionally low-paying, low-status occupations (Gradín, 2020). Women are further exploited since occupational segregation prevents them from advancing to higher-paying and higher-status employment.

Additionally, the undervaluation of “feminine” professions contributes to the gender pay gap. Jobs that are traditionally associated with women, such as teaching or social work, tend to have lower salaries compared to male-dominated professions with similar skill requirements. This undervaluation is rooted in societal biases and perceptions that prioritize and reward traditionally male-dominated roles, reinforcing the exploitation of women’s labor. Moreover, women’s disproportionate burden of unpaid domestic labor further exacerbates their super-exploitation. Despite participating in the paid workforce, women continue to bear a significant share of household and caregiving responsibilities (De Laat & Sevilla-Sanz, 2011). This unequal distribution of unpaid work limits women’s time, energy, and opportunities for career advancement, perpetuating their economic subordination and contributing to the gender pay gap.

Example 2: Racialized Superexploitation

Racialized super-exploitation manifests in different ways, one of which is racial wage differentials. People of color, particularly Black and Hispanic individuals, consistently face lower wages and limited access to high-paying employment opportunities compared to their white counterparts (Assari, 2018). The social mechanisms upholding this super-exploitation are multi-faceted. Structural racism perpetuates discriminatory hiring practices, occupational segregation, and limited mobility for racialized communities. Racial biases and stereotypes further reinforce these mechanisms, benefiting capitalists and white individuals who benefit from systemic advantages. In addition to racial wage differentials, racialized super-exploitation encompasses various other manifestations, each sustained by a complex interplay of social mechanisms. One such mechanism is discriminatory hiring practices, which disproportionately affect racialized individuals. Structural racism within employment systems perpetuates recruitment, screening, and promotion biases, limiting the opportunities available to racialized communities (Abawi & Eizadirad, 2020). These discriminatory practices serve to maintain power imbalances and sustain super-exploitation.

Occupational segregation is another critical mechanism contributing to racialized super-exploitation. Racialized individuals are often concentrated in lower-skilled and lower-paid occupations while higher-paying and higher-status professions tend to be dominated by white individuals (Velthuis, 2019). This segregation reinforces the economic subordination of racialized groups and perpetuates their exploitation within the labor market. Furthermore, limited mobility and advancement opportunities further entrench racialized super-exploitation. Systemic barriers, such as unequal access to quality education, lack of social networks, and biases in promotion and leadership positions, hinder the upward mobility of racialized individuals. These barriers, rooted in structural racism, impede their ability to secure higher-paying jobs and increase their earning potential.

Racial biases and stereotypes also play a significant role in sustaining racialized super-exploitation. Prejudiced attitudes and perceptions about racialized communities contribute to their devaluation within the labor market. Stereotypes that portray racialized individuals as less competent, reliable, or deserving of opportunities perpetuate their marginalization and allow for the exploitation of their labor (Kivel, 2017). Such biases benefit both capitalists, who can hire racialized workers at lower wages, and white individuals, who benefit from the advantages of systemic racism.

Implications for Capitalism and Social Power:

Analyzing super-exploitation sheds light on the intricate relationship between capitalism and social power. Capitalists, who exploit both labor and super-exploited labor, reap higher profits by taking advantage of power hierarchies. This analysis reveals that capitalism relies on and perpetuates oppressive systems, exacerbating inequality and limiting human freedom (Fuchs, 2018). Superexploitation demonstrates how power imbalances intersect with economic structures, consolidating wealth and power in the hands of a few while marginalizing others. Moreover, the analysis of super-exploitation uncovers the broader implications for capitalism and social power dynamics. It reveals that capitalism is deeply entwined with oppressive systems perpetuating inequality and limiting human freedom. By exploiting both regular labor and super-exploited labor, capitalists maximize their profits and consolidate wealth and power in the hands of a privileged few.

Superexploitation demonstrates how power imbalances intersect with economic structures within capitalist societies. The exploitation of marginalized social groups, such as women and racialized communities, is not simply an unfortunate byproduct of capitalism but rather an integral part of its functioning (Wood, 2022). Power hierarchies based on gender, race, and other social categories intersect with capitalism, enabling capitalists to extract surplus value from the labor of marginalized groups. Capitalists get access to cheap labor, more earnings, and more say in organizational matters when they exploit super-exploited workers. By keeping certain people disadvantaged, capitalism ensures that money and resources will continue to accrue to a select few. This centralization of wealth and influence further solidifies current power structures and reduces opportunities for advancement and economic fairness.

Superexploitation also highlights the interconnected nature of different forms of oppression. It reveals how capitalism and social power intersect with gender, race, and other axes of oppression. The analysis of super-exploitation prompts a deeper understanding of how capitalist exploitation intersects with and reinforces systems of patriarchy, white supremacy, and other forms of social domination (Fuchs, 2018). Recognizing the relationship between capitalism, super-exploitation, and social power provides critical insights into the struggle for social justice and human freedom. It underscores the need for transformative change that challenges and dismantles the systems of power and oppression that underpin capitalism. This involves addressing economic inequalities and tackling the underlying structures of patriarchy, racism, and other forms of discrimination.

Overcoming Power Hierarchies and Promoting Human Freedom:

To overcome powered hierarchies inhibiting human freedom, addressing the underlying structures that sustain super-exploitation is crucial. This necessitates a multi-faceted approach encompassing legal reforms, policy changes, and societal transformations. Implementing anti-discrimination laws, equal pay legislation, and affirmative action policies can help mitigate the effects of super-exploitation. Additionally, promoting gender equality, challenging racial biases, and dismantling systemic racism are vital steps toward eradicating power imbalances within capitalism (Genao & Mercedes, 2021). Furthermore, education and awareness play a pivotal role in challenging power hierarchies and promoting human freedom. It is essential to foster critical consciousness and promote dialogue about the intersections of capitalism, power, and oppression. By raising awareness about the ways in which super-exploitation operates, individuals can become advocates for change and work towards dismantling oppressive structures.

Institutions like corporations and nonprofits may take measures to combat inequality of power and advance diversity and inclusion. Diversity and inclusion programs, fair hiring and promotion policies, and anti-discrimination education are all examples of what this might include (Swartz et al., 2019). Grassroots movements and civil society groups are also essential in destabilizing established power structures—groups working to empower underrepresented populations via advocacy, community organization, and institutional accountability. Collective action is necessary to subvert oppressive power structures and advance human liberation. Superexploitation can only be stopped if people, groups, and institutions work together to aggressively confront and oppose the structures that sustain it (Brynjolfsson & McAfee, 2012). We may imagine a world in which power is dispersed, and human freedom is protected if we work for systemic change based on values of justice and equality.


Superexploitation provides a deeper comprehension of how social stratifications of power interact with capitalist economic systems to amplify the oppression of vulnerable social groups. Examples of gendered and racial super-exploitation show how powerful social groups, in addition to capitalists, gain from these oppressive practices. Realizing how power relations affect capitalism underlines the necessity for revolutionary transformation to advance human liberation. Economic justice and equality may be achieved by breaking down hierarchies of power, prioritizing fairness, and eliminating prejudices at all levels of society.


Abawi, Z., & Eizadirad, A. (2020). Bias-free or biased hiring? Racialized teachers’ perspectives on educational hiring practices in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, (193).

Assari, S. (2018). Unequal gain of equal resources across racial groups. International Journal of health policy and Management7(1), 1.

Brynjolfsson, E., & McAfee, A. (2012). Race against the machine: How the digital revolution is accelerating innovation, driving productivity, and irreversibly transforming employment and the economy. Brynjolfsson and McAfee.

De Laat, J., & Sevilla-Sanz, A. (2011). The fertility and women’s labor force participation puzzle in OECD countries: the role of men’s home production. Feminist Economics17(2), 87-119.

Fuchs, C. (2018). Capitalism, patriarchy, slavery, and racism in the age of digital capitalism and digital labor. Critical Sociology44(4-5), 677-702.

Genao, S., & Mercedes, Y. (2021). All we need is one mic: A call for anti-racist solidarity to deconstruct anti-black racism in educational leadership. Journal of School Leadership31(1-2), 127-141.

Gradín, C. (2020). Segregation of women into low-paying occupations in the United States. Applied Economics52(17), 1905-1920.

Kivel, P. (2017). Uprooting racism: How white people can work for racial justice. New Society Publisher.

Spierings, N. (2014). The influence of patriarchal norms, institutions, and household composition on women’s employment in twenty-eight Muslim-majority countries. Feminist Economics20(4), 87-112.

Suk, J. C. (2010). Are gender stereotypes bad for women? Rethinking antidiscrimination law and work-family conflict. Columbia Law Review, 1-69.

Swartz, T. H., Palermo, A. G. S., Masur, S. K., & Aberg, J. A. (2019). The science and value of diversity: closing the gaps in our understanding of inclusion and diversity. The Journal of infectious diseases220(Supplement_2), S33-S41.

Velthuis, S. (2019). Low pay, progression, and local labor markets (Doctoral dissertation, Coventry University).

Wood, A. C. (2022). Toward a Theory of Super-Exploitation: The Subproletariat, Harold “Hal” Baron, and the Crisis of the Political Economy of Black Labor. Labor Studies Journal47(4), 462-487.

Touch As A Healing Ministry University Essay Example


Believers follow Jesus Christ’s model by recognizing touch as a crucial component of their healing ministry and conveying God’s love through touch encounters. Every Christian has access to the Holy Spirit, which makes it possible for everyone to feel a divine touch at specific points in life. Promoting a person’s physical, psychological, and social well-being and social and professional well-being depends on touch. Touch has the power to alter the way that believers pray and worship. However, it is crucial to inform the congregation of the value of setting touch boundaries that guarantee each person’s privacy and preferences are considered.

Key Words: Healthy, Touch, healing, psychological, physical, safe spaces, congregants, worship, holy Spirit.

Part1: Introduction

A Spiritual Care intern who has just completed Clinical Pastoral Education CPE 1 is equipped with sufficient knowledge and experience on the consequences of touch as a healing ministry on people. Healthy touches can be used as an extension of the love of Jesus in the Ministry. To spread the love of Jesus and promote interpersonal connection, the following paper will examine the benefits of healthy touching when it is done with a consensus. Throughout past times, contact has played a crucial role in healing. Christ touched people to bring forth both bodily, spiritual and psychological restoration. Christians may better comprehend the transformational power of touching in the healing ministry by exploring examples of touch in rehabilitation, embracing the divine Touch of the internal Holy Spirit, and offering solutions for incorporating constructive interaction into religious services and different phases of life.

Part 2:Touch as a Healing Ministry

  • Jesus (The Physical healing Touch)

Jesus exhibited the transformational healing power of Touch during His entire mission. His physical contact resulted in incredible recovery and life-changing interactions with His affection and empathy in several cases. These interactions give us essential knowledge about the Ministry of Healing. One renowned instance is the leper, who was cured in Matthew 8:3. In addition to being a physical illness, leprosy was also a societal and theological torment. Leprosy patients were stigmatized as dirty and excluded from the community. Jesus broke the seam of separation and restored the leper’s status and relationship with society, in addition to curing leprosy. In Mark 8:22–25, Jesus restores a blind man’s eyesight through touch, making it another powerful healing by Touch (Fox,2019). Before touching the individual’s eyes and giving him his sight back, Jesus seized him by his left hand and walked him beyond the small town. This touching revealed Jesus’ direct engagement in the person’s recovery, expressed concern, and expressed faith and confidence in Jesus’ authority. The woman with a hemorrhaging problem who stroked Jesus’ garment and was immediately healed is described in Mark 5:25–34(M’bwangi, 2021). Jesus inquired about the touch after sensing that someone had touched the garment. In addition to emphasizing the importance of physical healing, this encounter demonstrates the value of intimacy and faith. Jesus realized that power had left Him through the sensation of touching, revealing the closeness of touching as a means of connection with God and restoration.

These instances demonstrate how Jesus expressed His love, understanding, and omnipotence through touch. He attended to people’s spiritual and psychological demands in addition to their physical demands. Jesus created a deep relationship with individuals needing healing by dismantling social boundaries through touch, restoring dignity, and breaking down boundaries. By considering these specific instances of the healing power of Jesus’ Touch, christian scholars can better comprehend how touch can transform healing ministry. Every individual can imitate Jesus and share His compassion via our authority of touch as religious and spiritual caretakers. Nevertheless, it is essential to handle this contact with reverence, empathy, and authorization, ensuring that it is used within acceptable parameters while continuously considering a person’s well-being and ease.

(b)Holy Spirit(The spiritual healing Touch)

Jesus touched the people he encountered physically. Nevertheless, humans also feel the Holy Spirit’s spiritual touch, which often resides inwards. A profound and life-changing interaction with the power of God occurs when the Holy Spirit touches us. The force and reality of the Holy Spirit’s contact are not diminished because it is not bodily. The Holy Spirit is inside us, our champion, comforter, and instructor. Humans encounter a magical touch from the Holy Spirit that extends beyond the material world and penetrates the core of all human beings(Fox,2019). The act of touching produces a powerful experience of divine presence, spiritual recovery, and rebirth. Several instances of the Holy Spirit’s influence in the Bible caused restoration. The disciples in Acts 2 were touched by the power of God and overwhelmed by the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost. They had a profound feeling of God’s affection and existence, which gave them the confidence to declare the Gospel fearlessly. This mystical encounter sparked a flame inside them that motivated them to disseminate the good news of deliverance worldwide. The first apostles were not the only ones who felt the influence of the Holy Spirit; Christians nowadays still do. Everyone is capable of experiencing the Holy Spirit’s influence in many different ways whenever they allow Him to be present and active in their lives. Anyone can experience the Spirit’s influence and work in different ways. It could be through a profound sense of calm and consolation during chaos or an upsurge in the inner being during worship or meditational prayers(Mkandla & Dreyer,2020). The Holy Spirit can bring about spiritual advances, the healing of old wounds, and even an entirely new sense of orientation. The influence of the Holy Spirit also promotes a strong bond with God the Father and other church members. The Person of the Holy Spirit resides within every Christian, providing a spiritual connection that crosses all geographical bounds.

The privilege of mediating personal contact with the residing Holy Spirit belongs to spiritual caretakers. They can establish settings in which individuals can feel the existence of God and influence in their daily lives during worship, meditation, and guidance in Prayer. It is crucial to foster an environment of transparency and sensitivity so that the Holy Spirit can work and serve the souls and minds of the people they serve. People can better interact with the internal Holy Spirit’s presence by integrating mindfulness, Prayer, and solitude into their healing ministry. They foster possibilities for transformative experiences that result in spiritual recovery, rehabilitation, and a strengthening of their connection with Christ through motivating individuals to search for the presence of the Lord and to be willing to listen to His advice and leadership.

Part 3:Healthy Touch: Benefits

  • Physical well-being

Healthy touching affects human physical well-being and healing processes in addition to its emotional and behavioural advantages. Endorphins are created by the human body as natural medications for pain relief and are released in response to touch. This feature may help with chronic diseases like fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, and headaches by reducing discomfort and offering relief.

Touch has also been demonstrated to decrease blood pressure and pulse rate, supporting heart health. Regular, suitable touch may assist with one’s immune system working better and support the body’s defences against illness and infections. Enhancing blood flow and encouraging tissue renewal can help facilitate a quicker recovery after diseases, surgical operations, and traumas. Physical health advantages may result from including good touch in alternative medical treatments like acupuncture, shiatsu, or healing through energy. These therapies use touch to reduce muscle tension, increase the range of motion, and promote general well-being. Incorporating touch-based methods throughout the healing ministry allows the professions to assist people on their paths to physical wellness. It is crucial to understand that touch’s positive effects work best when applied in a secure, considerate, and expert manner. A therapeutic setting that fosters confidence divided into convenience and welfare must respect individual restrictions, ensure informed permission, and uphold acceptable touch procedures.

  • Emotional and Psychological well-being

Healthy touch significantly affects both psychological and emotional well-being. Touch has been demonstrated in many research studies that facilitate the release of a hormone called oxytocin, sometimes called the “love hormone”. To sustain good relationships and psychological health, oxytocin fosters confidence, belonging, and calm emotions. People’s bodies produce oxytocin when they are touched, whether the touch is in the form of a tender hug, a consoling pat on one’s shoulder, or a loving handshake and an embrace. This oxytocin production promotes feelings of peace and happiness while lowering feelings of stress and tension(Healing Touch Spiritual Ministry, 2019).

Consequently, this encourages emotional resilience and may help with psychological well-being. Touch has also been shown to strengthen social connections. People are fundamentally social creatures, and harmonious connections depend heavily on touching to establish and maintain connections. Healthy touch strengthens the link between two individuals by conveying compassion, encouragement, and appreciation. It decreases emotions of feeling isolated and alone by fostering a sense of stability and connectedness.

Healthy touch helps people in controlling their feelings. According to study results, touch can assist in easing psychological suffering, offer solace in situations of loss or tragedy, and encourage feelings of emotion and understanding. The caregivers allow people to gain emotional rehabilitation, affirmation, and a relationship with others by embracing healthy touch. To actively encourage holistic treatment and mental health, the Ministry can proactively integrate healthy touch into its activities by embracing its emotional and physiological advantages. Deliberate courteous touch, mainly through soft embraces, encouraging hugs, or consoling gestures, can transform encounters within and outside church organizations.

Part 4: Incorporation of Healthy Touch in Worship

People congregate in worship within a holy setting to establish connections with God and their fellow humans. Healthy connections can promote deeper relationships, promote an understanding of society as a whole and build an atmosphere of affection and assistance in Christian worship settings (Healing Touch Spiritual Ministry, 2019). To make guarantee that everybody is at ease and secure, it’s crucial that one approach contact in worshipping with kindness, reverence, and open conversation. The following are some doable recommendations for including therapeutic touch in congregational worship:

 (i) Setting Consent and Boundaries(Communication)

Building a culture of tolerance and acknowledgment of individual boundaries is critical while integrating contact into devotional events. This fate can be accomplished by having open lines for communicating and educating congregation members. Consider putting these procedures into practice:

  • Preparing the Congregation:

Educating everyone in the congregation regarding the value of permission and the advantages of healthy contact through touch as part of the preparation process. Share the purpose for including contact in devotion and stress the need to maintain one’s boundaries.

  • Intent Communication:

Before engaging in touch-based activities, it is essential to express the goal and specifics of the touch at hand. Emphasize that people’s comfort and consent come first when you explain that they can choose to participate or decline.

  • Alternatives:

Offer alternates to those who might want to avoid participating in touch-based pursuits. This can entail recommending substitute movements that express solidarity and encouragement absent touching one another, which include an acknowledgment, a giggle, or an extended hand placed over a person’s heart.

  • Educate the congregation about the value of consent and the advantages of healthy contact as part of the preparation process. Share the purpose for including contact in worship and stress the need to maintain personal limits.
  • Non-Verbal Cues:Create non-verbal indications or signs that people can utilize to show if they are comfortable or not with being touched. For instance, a hand raised or placed across the heart might indicate approval or denial of touch.

(ii)Introduction of Touch (Expressions and Gestures)

It may prove a valuable method to improve worship experiences to include touching through expressions and gestures, avoiding exhausting others who might be averse to being touched;

  • Encourage Handshake –

Urge everyone in attendance to extend their hands and shake them among each other during periods set aside for fellowship. Advise people to uphold their own personal limits and be respectful and considerate of other people’s comfort preferences.

  • Holding hands in Prayer

Encourage worshippers to gather in small groups to pray collectively whilst holding hands. This action promotes awareness of cohesion, assistance, and communal spirituality.

  • Touch on Shoulders

Ministers or other congregants can gently touch a fellow member’s shoulder as a symbol of friendship and assistance during affirmations or inspiration. This uncomplicated action might imply friendliness and connectedness.

  • Touch as Blessing

Include times when people are encouraged to stand to receive an offer of blessing by placing their hands on them or gently touching their forehead. Speaking good fortune, affirming statements, or petitions can be used with this technique.

(iii)Respect for limits and Spaces

While including touch in worship, it is essential to safeguard and acknowledge each person’s privacy and bounds. Physical contact will only be pleasant for some. Therefore, fostering an atmosphere where individual choices are respected is essential. They can be done by ;

  • Open Dialogue and No-touch Option –

Provide non-contact options for people who want to avoid contacting each other. This might be saying a prayer without making eye contact, giving an offer of blessing with no physical contact, or giving them the option of accepting a distant prayer or benediction if they so choose. The minister must encourage open discussion regarding touching during worshipping sessions among the congregation. Motivate people to express their choices, worries, and degrees of satisfaction with touch. This fosters a climate of tolerance and inclusivity and enables collaboration.

  • Anointing /healing services

People may have the chance to engage in a profound and transforming way with the church’s Ministry by including touch in healing and anointing. People may be requested to step in front throughout these ceremonies and get prayers, anointing, and tender touches. Ensuring people are at ease and confident to engage according to their level of preparedness and willingness for interaction is crucial. Support open discussion regarding any particular requirements, sensitivity, or personal choices, and offer substitutes for people who would rather have non-contact solutions.

(iv)Training and Sensitivity/Establishing safe spaces

Deliver instruction and foster sensibility amongst church leaders, employees, and individuals volunteering to integrate therapeutic touch throughout religious worship successfully. Appropriate training, considerate touching techniques, knowledge of one’s limits, and the ability to spot discomfort or indicators of withdrawal are all topics that can be covered in workshops. To ensure everybody feels valued and appreciated in worship encounters, it is essential to be sensitive to socioeconomic and personal variances in people’s levels of intimacy with interaction(Healing Touch Spiritual Ministry, 2019). Although touch may be a potent ministerial tool, it’s critical to uphold conditions that create secure spaces that allow individuals to be acknowledged and comfortable. Adopt regulations and rules that cover permission, acceptable touch customs, and communication processes for any breaches of boundaries or complaints. The ministers should ensure that the congregation’s touch policies are consistently reviewed and evaluated to determine whether they support the values of security and reverence.

Incorporation of Healthy Touch in Healing Ministry.

Fig1: Incorporation of Healthy Touch in Healing Ministry.

Part 5:Implementing Healing Touch Across Various Stages in Life

It is crucial to spread such customs of healing touch throughout many life phases inside the congregation, along with including healthy touching in religious worship. The minister may design inclusive spaces that foster everyone’s connectedness and happiness by taking into account their particular requirements and preferences at different stages of life.

  • Among Young Children/infants

Establishing and sustaining touch as a form of healing is beneficial for young children’s or babies’ physical and emotional development. The concerned professionals should consider providing workshops on child massage for first-time or expectant parents. These workshops offer instruction and direction in caring touch methods that foster attachment, tranquillity, and healthy growth. A sense of solidarity and encouragement can be promoted by designating areas for families to interact with young ones in therapeutic touch practices.

  • Adolescents

Positive and healthy touch interactions that foster a feeling of community, mental wellness, and ties to role models and colleagues can benefit young people and their parents. This can be done by encouraging children and youth to engage in endeavours that entail healthy touch, including holding hands in groups, collaborative activities and games, or devotional sessions where people can use their hands. These professionals ensure clear information regarding participation and reverence for individual limits when these behaviours are implemented.

  • Adults/The ageing(in family setups)

Physical healthy touch can promote stronger bonds and psychological well-being for individuals and families throughout the framework of the church society. Professionals in the Ministry should Suggest setting up seminars or gatherings that feature partner therapies facilitated relaxation methods or collaborative endeavours that encourage intimate relationships, like dancing or shared meals. Through these initiatives, people may have the chance to personally witness the therapeutic benefits of touch while at the same time fostering closer bonds among the church body. Furthermore, conscious contact activities are much more beneficial for elderly adults, who may frequently feel lonely or isolated. Professionals in the Ministry should ensure that touching activities are done respectfully and with the person’s agreement while paying visits to sick people or senior citizens in nursing homes(Healing Touch Spiritual Ministry, 2019). They should give people a choice of noninvasive alternatives, such as locking hands, putting a gentle hand on their neck or shoulder, or giving them an embrace or a mild massaging. Older people, who can considerably profit from good touch encounters, can receive relaxation, psychological support, and an impression of belonging.


The recognition of touch as an essential aspect of the Christian healing Ministry, the Christians are emulating Jesus Christ as an example of extending the love of God through touch experiences. The Holy Spirit, which exists in the lives of every Christian, allows every person to experience a divine touch in varying stages of life. Touch is essential in promoting psychological and mental-wellness and a person’s physical and social well-being. In the Christian circle, touch can transform prayers and worship among the congregants. It is, however, important to educate the congregants on the importance of establishing touch boundaries to ensure that every individual’s privacy and preference are considered.


Fox, B. M. (2019). Disability and the Way of Jesus: Holistic Healing in the Gospels and the Church. InterVarsity Press.

Healing Touch Spiritual Ministry. (2019). Trinity Lutheran Church. Retrieved May 16, 2023, from

M’bwangi, F. M. (2021). A reading of the leper’s healing in Matthew 8: 1–4 through ethnomedical anthropology. HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies, 77(1).

Mkandla, M., & Dreyer, Y. (2020). Healing history, healing a nation: A prophetic practical pastoral care ministry. HTS Theological Studies, 76(1), 1-15.

Tour Genres And Target Markets Free Essay

The target market for the tourism industry is the pleasure market since many tourists participate in pleasure activities. Therefore, organizations must identify the unique needs of their customers based on the segmentation. One marketing strategy includes positioning by dedicating specific services to a specific segment. Organizations should understand the trends of the tourism industry to ensure the positioning of customers with unique needs. The selected segment includes young adults aged 18 to 25.

Psychographic Characteristics of Young Adults Aged 18 to 25

One of the psychographic characteristics of this segment includes value search and self-identity. This group acknowledge experiences or engagements that help them identify their values. Other psychographic characteristics of young adults aged 18 to 25 include adventure and innovation (Caber et al., 2020). This segment acknowledges new experiences that bring changes into their lives, including stepping out and trying new ideas. Another psychographic feature of this segment includes social relations. This segment believes in building strong and effective social relationships, including meeting and interacting with new individuals. They love socializing with friends and engaging in group activities.

Themes of Tours that Would Appeal to Young Adults Aged 18 to 25

Cultural Engagement Tours

Cultural engagement tours aim to improve individuals’ experience of different cultural values. They include activities like trying new traditional foods and engaging in cultural celebrations. It promotes intercultural understanding, gratitude for cultural diversity, and compassion for vulnerable groups. This theme comprises culinary journeys where the selected segment can explore different culinary traditions like meals to improve the tour experience. It appeals to young adults because it promotes cultural interactions, enabling them to build new relationships and improve their cultural competency skills. Cultural engagement tours allow young adults to understand their values and the true meaning of their lives (Onosu, 2021). Engagement tours help create long-lasting memories that influence young adults’ beliefs and perceptions about other cultural values.

Educational Discoveries Tours

Educational discovery tours include intellectual inspiration and investigational learning to enable tourists to improve their understanding, build new skills, and identify new academic themes. They include historical travels, such as museums and historic buildings, to allow this segment to understand the roles of history in human life. These tours also comprise environmental conservation genres that enable this segment to participate in community-building activities, such as ecological studies and conservation projects. Other genres within this tour include workshops and innovative arts, such as painting, to allow this segment to enhance their artistic capacities. Therefore, it improves self-demonstration and individual growth among young adults. This theme would appeal to young adults because it triggers their critical and reflective thinking and expands their skills and knowledge base to expand their intellect. Another reason is that this theme would allow this segment to develop and improve their practical skills by engaging in activities like community-based projects and conservational studies. Furthermore, the theme would appeal to young adults because it would allow them to build a global perspective of the issues affecting human lives and cultural competence to embrace diversity.

Adventure Expeditions Tours

This theme focuses on exploring new ideas, things, or activities like wildlife, sports, or driving. Adventure expeditions offer thrilling events and mind-blowing natural spaces to encourage tourists to explore nature and learn (Luberecki, 2022). They include wilderness hiking to allow young adults to experience various activities like conquering mountains and camping in forests. They also include water sporting activities, which are highly attractive to young adults. Therefore, these tour events help young adults to connect to nature. Another genre within this theme is wildlife safaris, which allow young adults to view and learn about endangered animals. This theme would be appealing to this segment because it encourages investigational learning to build self-assurance. It would also be appealing to young adults because it creates strong social bonds with new friends, improving their learning and networking experiences. Lastly, this theme provides a breathtaking experience away from a normal routine, offering a sense of freedom and stimulation to young adults.


Caber, M., Albayrak, T., & Crawford, D. (2020). Perceived value and its impact on travel outcomes in youth tourism. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism31, 100327.

Luberecki, B. (2022, December 21). 6 adventure travel and active tour trends for 2023. Tour Scoop.

Onosu, G. (2021). The impact of cultural immersion experience on identity transformation process. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health18(5), 2680.