Leadership is one of the most desired aspects of life. Most people envy living through and serving the people while they lead them. It seems exciting and inspiring moments, in which it inspires for good times in most people. With all the desires and admiration of leadership it portrays, most people focus less on the dark side of leadership. In most cases, people at the top have to endure the price of any decision and flawed conclusion made from the top, apart from the payment of lousy decision price, the high risk at stake that a leader has to face whenever they lead the organization through the difficult inevitable times. During these breathtaking decisions, people have to give up on loyalties, daily habits, and the mode of thinking in the organization.
A solution to adaptive challenges using a technical fix will lead to a short-term solution; however, the organization will receive a change that will bring a long-lasting solution. The leaders at the top have to turn the organization upside down. As a result, to acquire the stable solution. In such a scenario, several developments are incurred in which danger lures the organization’s leaders. Where both direct and indirect attacks from the leaders and top management. Some other episodes include marginalization in the organization leading to undermining the authority. All the tactics result from the people’s aversion created due to the bad reception of the decision taken. As a result, people try to fight change, bring struggles, and strive to restore order. However, the leaders seem to block the change. Some of the tactics suggested by the article help leaders clinch their position.
You are breaking through the cognitive hurdle. Managing substantial organizational change frequently entails dramatically reorganizing a complicated network of people, processes, and organizations that have formed a mode of operation, regardless of the appearance. The condition of the organization determines the people’s feelings of sense. No value the negative energy you feel. The other tactic is through operating in and above the fray. The ability of the leader to avoid resistance is through maintaining the perspective in the middle of any action. It’s hard to look at things from a balcony when things and people are pushing and pulling you down below. If you want to be successful, you need to have good relationships with both allies and enemies. However, the people who will make or break your chances of success are usually those who aren’t sure about your plans but don’t want to be friends with you.
The third tactic is through cooking the conflict. One of the most challenging issues a change leader encounters is managing disagreement. It’s more likely to be hidden than to be visible. Because most firms are intolerant to conflict, they see it as largely a source of danger, which it is. A leader seeking to effect substantial change must be able to manage people’s passionate disagreements in a way that limits their destructive potential while harnessing their energy constructively. Two strategies can help you achieve this. To begin, provide a safe environment in which conflicts can freely emerge. Secondly, keep the argument from boiling over and engulfing you in flames. The success of the change effort and the organization’s tolerance for heat, and then adjust the temperature accordingly. You must first get people to sit up, pay attention, and deal with the real hazards and challenges they confront before you can get them to change their behavior. Second, you must lower the temperature as needed to reduce potentially counterproductive chaos. Control the heat high enough for people to get excited, but cheap enough even to avoid a huge explosion. The last thing to do is put the tasks where it belongs. Because a lot of change needs to be made across an entire company, you as a leader need to prevent the automatic reaction of giving answers. Then, make yourself do all of the task and solve problems for others.
Despite the danger, most leaders cannot resist the urge to tackle fundamental organizational issues independently. People expect you to get in and correct problems right away, take a stand and address the issue. That is, after all, what senior executives are paid to accomplish. When you meet those expectations, people praise you and perhaps call you a leader, which is gratifying. However, it takes more courage and leadership to challenge your colleagues’ expectations.
For the internal dangers on experience. Because of our own observations and our own perceptions, we know that letting you decide what happens to you is one of the best ways for an institution to get rid of us. While you’re in the middle of being a leader and your epinephrine is pumping, it’s easy to think that you’re resistant to the flaws that other people have that can defeat them. The first way to handle this is through managing the leader’s hunger. A stressful scenario or environment can magnify an everyday need, increasing our cravings and surpassing our customary self-control. The drive for control and the desire for importance are two of the most frequent and destructive fits of hunger. Control is a source of vulnerability for certain people. Most people have a need to be acknowledged and valued by others. The risk here is that you may inflate your self-esteem and cause as a result of this affirmation.
Secondly is through anchoring oneself. It would be best to find techniques to calm and stabilize yourself to endure the choppy waters of a change initiative. Set up a safe haven in which to contemplate and mend any psychological damage from the previous day’s travel that has occurred, replenish your emotional resources, and re-calibrate your moral compass each day. Second, you require a confidante, someone with whom you can share what is on your mind and heart with no judgment fears.
Heifetz, R. A., & Linsky, M. (2002). A survival guide for leaders. Harvard business review, 80(6), 65-74.
Synopsis Assignment: Branding Sample College Essay
The relevance of locally supported brands and enterprises has been growing significantly over the last decade. Today, youthful audiences push global brands to develop more authentic communication channels between themselves and their target audiences. Essentially, the multinational players are required to display a deeper comprehension of their markets’ preferences- the brand has to demonstrate they understand their target audiences (Ritz et al., 2019). In the case of St.Catharines, the stakeholders had to adopt policies that would aid in diversifying the local economy. Through well-developed marketing campaigns and increased public investments, the City was able to effectively retain their previously reducing youth demographic within the population, appeal to outside investors, and offer more sources of cultural entertainment (Kurylovich, 2019). The main issue addressed in the current synopsis essay is how local regions have adopted to the reality of globalization and developed post-industrial means of marketing their uniqueness or resources as opposed to global brands. Implying that it is the local populations that are up for grabs. Whichever side, either the multinational or the regional brand(s), can master how to effectively communicate with the local audiences easily wins their patronage as well (Gao et al., 2018).
The Theory of Brand Orientation
Brand orientation refers to the strategy through which all the processes of the corporation revolve around the creation, development, and protection of their brand identity while actively engaging with their target consumers (Chang et al., 2018). The primary objective of brand orientation is to obtain a lasting/ sustainable competitive advantage in an otherwise globalized market. Chang et al. (2018) hypothesized that brand orientation directly, and indirectly, influences brand success through the encouragement of consumer value co-creation. Basically, as the suppliers apply their knowledge or developed capacities to production and branding of their products, the consumers in turn utilize their capacities and knowledge in their use of said products/ services. Global corporations grasp this critical aspect of operating within the market, which would help explain the observed growth in investments toward brand orientation activities. Establishing and maintaining effective brands requires considerable resource allocation on almost all business fronts. Chang et al. (2018) drew on the Upper-echelon theory, and the resource-based view, to suggest that there were two main factors that affect the brand orientation procedures of any firm: their marketing capabilities and the management’s entrepreneurial orientation.
Entrepreneurial Orientation– or EO, represents the practices, processes, and decision-making activities that help guide entrepreneurial actions or decisions (Chang et al., 2018). Additionally, the adoption of a brand orientation is considered as an entrepreneurial undertaking. Research suggests that maintaining a brand presents plenty of opportunity costs for the respective organizations. This would help explain why some managers are still adamant on implementing brand orientation initiatives- they seem perilous to them (Chang et al., 2018). Thus, managers must first develop long-term objectives then be willing to pursue them proactively while taking significant risks at times. Implying that EO helps foster the development of innovative capabilities within firms while simultaneously identifying new opportunities for growth.
Marketing Capability– this refers to the firm’s ability to coordinate the main elements of its marketing mix with the resource inputs to develop and adopt effective marketing campaigns (Gao et al., 2018). Without this component, even with EO, its would be difficult for the firms in question to adopt and or pursue strategic initiatives such as brand orientation. According to Chang et al. (2018), marketing capability is heavily reliant on the management of market information/ data and the execution of previously made marketing strategies. Marketing capability among firms enable them to gain valuable market insights and by extension, a better comprehension of the dynamic markets they operate in. With this understanding it is not hard to imagine why scholars believe that marketing capability is positively correlated with improved brand performance (Gao et al., 2018).
Building on the resource-based theory, international marketing research concluded that market-based relations, such as ties linking international brands with local consumers, are invaluable resources for firms looking to enter local markets. However, the true power of such relational ties is that they are near impossible for the competitors to re-create or imitate (Ritz et al., 2019). Essentially, in today’s globalized market economy differentiating your brand from other competitors is crucial for positioning. Gao et al. (2018) contributed to the opinion that multinational brands ought to promptly and efficiently integrate publicly available resources, such as social media, to establish a sustainable competitive advantage as a brand within local markets. The article maintains that each global brand’s ability to utilize their social media influences effectively as incentives is unique and quite inimitable.
Research indicates that small business operators are often required to develop, change, and evolve their marketing approach intelligence via their use of social media (Gao et al., 2018). While multinational corporations can easily recruit outside expert help to manage their websites or social media-related campaigns. By steadily working toward becoming hubs for entertainment and relaxation, most post-industrial cities market themselves to their desired targets around the globe. Following the St.Catharine’s example, the stakeholders understood that to create a vibrant and unique downtown community they would first need to offer amenities that would help improve the general quality of life. What’s more, the policy frameworks adopted helped ensure that future investments or developments within the Downtown urban fabric supported the artistic and creative concept of the Wine Region as a cultural centre (Kurylovich, 2019). According to Ritz et al. (2019), a lot of the available literature on digital marketing is concentrated on activities concerning multinational corporations and the smaller businesses are significantly overlooked in this regard.
Ritz et al. (2019) stated that interactive technologies, as well as Web 2.0, facilitate 2-way market communication channels that enhance the creation of brands, through increased consumer loyalty and optimized business performance. Despite this fact, data suggests that small businesses are less likely to invest, significantly, on their web presence as opposed to their multinational competitors. Primarily, due to their limited resources, the smaller businesses do not view having an online presence as a priority. Often, in such organizations there is a high probability that the manager/ business owner oversees the firm’s online marketing activities (Ritz et al., 2019). One of the reasons why this is not uncommon is because for the smaller enterprises there is plenty of uncertainty regarding their use of technology. As aforementioned, other financial, managerial, technical, or temporal-related concerns are more highly prioritized (Chang et al., 2018). Having said that, research indicates that stakeholder relationships are perceived as being a form of a relational resource. The relationships developed between the small firms and the local stakeholders is impossible for global competitors to mimic/ recreate. This is because such relations are all unique based on their individual historic, causal, and social undertones (Ritz et al., 2019). Thus, the main problem for the multinational players becomes merging their social media influence with their limited relational resources.
The Resource-Based Theory
The research-based theory, RBT, advances that the organization ought to concentrate on the accumulation of resources that are valuable, rare, imperfectly imitable, and supported by Organizational capacities- VRIO- to sustain a competitive advantage as well as efficient performance (Gao et al., 2018). Following this conception, global brands would need to strategically examine the value of their potential relational resources within local markets. Such evaluation would aid in the development of effective stimulus strategies to transform such valuable, latent, relational resources into proactive brand resources. For example, previous arguments or studies on RBT stressed on the theme of ownership and the control of resources. Whereas, the more recent RBT logic recognizes that numerous, potentially valuable resources reside within the public domain (Gao et al., 2018). Meaning that multinational organizations that can restructure quickly and effectively enough to integrate publicly available resources would boast of significant gains.
Social media is considered as a resource that can exist within the public domain, and it is in no way controlled or owned by the firm. However, the organization(s) in question can easily integrate social media strategies into their marketing approach. Many brands turn to social networks for the opportunity to foster closer ties with their consumers (Chang et al., 2018). Whats more, multinational brands can build relationships with individuals based on their pre-existing relations as social media users and incentives from the brands. The values, culture, and motivators for the target demographic obtained through these networks play a pivotal role in determining the incentives developed by international corporations (Gao et al., 2018). Only by doing that coherently, and consistently, can the multinational players have any hope at competing within local markets.
Criteria for Decision-Making in Future
According to Chang et al. (2018), globalization has made it possible for brands- small or large- to adopt numerous positioning policies and programs that help guide their creation of brand-related content. Consumer culture positioning, or CCP, is a crucial component for alignment as far as social media branding on the global scale is concerned. Gao et al. (2018) suggested that global CCP was viewed as a means of identifying the brand as a symbol of a given global culture. While foreign and local CCP proposed strategies for the location of a brand with a specific foreign or local culture (Gao et al., 2018). For a sustained competitive advantage, especially in the local markets, multinational corporations ought to utilize more informed or refined CCP strategies. Research suggests that the three most essential components required for the establishment of efficient CCP strategies are: aesthetic styles, story themes/ background, and language. As aforementioned, a thorough comprehension of the target market’s preferences is a core requirement for global branding.
From a managerial perspective, it is just as important to promote strategic entrepreneurship among management as it is to develop brand orientations. Naturally, however, plenty of managers are afraid of the idea of branding- specifically concerning business-to-business (B2B) brands. The two main reasons being that i) there’s a relatively high risk associated with B2B branding activities, and ii) the lack of immediate returns from such initiatives (Gao et al., 2018). Hence, to overcome the otherwise cautious nature associated with strategic decision-making, and fully realize the advantages of B2B branding, the leadership has to adopt more proactive, innovative, and aggressive operational policies. On the local market scene, it is imperative that the managers improve on their promotion/ advertising efficacy so as to deliver the brand’s message clearly (Ritz et al., 2019). Additionally, the management needs to closely monitor market trends so as to retrieve valuable insights concerning the consumers’ changing needs. Global brands are well aware of the value local brands possess through their close interactions with their consumers. In such cases, it is the managers who are central to the active engagement between the firm and the consumers- which is geared toward the co-creation of value for the local brand (Ritz et al., 2019).
Therefore, in the future it is evident that more and more organizations are going to seek out branding opportunities and partnerships globally. As the global firms seek to increase their market share on the local arena, local corporations are working at establishing and maintaining their success as household names within the local community. From the covered literature on the topic, brand orientations are designed to encourage the management to devote more time and resources into their branding efforts (Chang et al., 2018). I would recommend that in future, both local and the multinational players enhance their efforts to engage with their consumers or stakeholders via joint information sharing, strategic planning, and decision-making procedures. As the local businesses invest in their online presence, it would be important for the multinational organizations to step-up their grass-root promotions and initiatives. For instance, the local media outlets have an easier time generating the relevant data from the population in St. Catharines compared to any global brand. Such data enables them to better comprehend consumer purchase patterns, business growth trajectories within the area, emerging cultural trends and so on. Multinational firms require such insights to gain any meaningful competitive advantages in a highly dynamic global market. My final position on the raised issue is that because local businesses have effectively adopted to their post-industrial reality, they have the upper hand as far as reaching marginalized/ local populations within the global economic market. The only stakeholder I completely agree with is the consumer, after all, it is their demands and preferences that determine the success of brands.
The main issue addressed in the current synopsis essay is how local regions have adopted to the reality of globalization and developed post-industrial means of marketing their uniqueness or resources as opposed to global brands. Implying that it is the local populations that are up for grabs. Whichever side can master how to effectively communicate with the local audiences easily secures their patronage as well. Brand orientation refers to the strategy through which all the processes of the corporation revolve around the creation, development, and protection of their brand identity while actively engaging with their target consumers. Research data suggests that brand orientation directly influences brand success through the encouragement of consumer value co-creation. Because, as the suppliers apply their knowledge or developed capacities to production and branding of their products, the consumers in turn utilize their capacities and knowledge in their use of said products or services. Based on the RBT, international marketing research concluded that market-based relations, such as ties linking international brands with local consumers, are invaluable resources for firms looking to enter local markets. The true power of such relational ties/ resources is that they are near impossible for the competitors to re-create. The RBT advocates for the organization to concentrate on the accumulation of resources that are valuable, rare, imperfectly imitable, and supported by organizational capacities. Only then can they hope to sustain a competitive advantage and have efficient production. Social media is considered as a resource that can exist within the public domain, and it is in no way controlled or owned by the firm. However, the organization(s) in question can easily integrate social media strategies into their marketing approach. Many brands turn to social networks for the opportunity to foster closer ties with their consumers. From a managerial perspective, it is just as important to promote strategic entrepreneurship among management as it is to develop brand orientations. The St.Catharines example, shows the stakeholders had to adopt policies that would aid in the diversification of the local economy. Through well-developed marketing campaigns and increased public investments, the City was able to effectively retain their previously reducing youth demographic within the population, appeal to outside investors, and offer more sources of cultural entertainment. Lastly, the management needs to closely monitor market trends so as to retrieve valuable insights concerning the consumers’ changing needs. Global firms also need such insights to gain some competitive advantages in a highly dynamic global market. Thus, the multinational brands are well aware of the value local brands possess through their close interactions with their consumers.
Chang, Y., Wang, X., & Arnett, D. B. (2018). Enhancing firm performance: The role of brand orientation in business-to-business marketing. Industrial Marketing Management, 72, 17-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2018.01.031
Gao, H., Tate, M., Zhang, H., Chen, S., & Liang, B. (2018). Social media ties strategy in international branding: An application of resource-based theory. Journal of International Marketing, 26(3), 45-69. https://doi.org/10.1509jim.17.0014
Kurylovich, D. (2019). Deindustrilization and Economic Development in St. Catharines, Ontario. Retrieved from https://qspace.library.queensu.ca/bitstream/handle/1974/26604/DmitryKurylovich_MRP_FinalDraft_Sept18.pdf?sequence=1
Ritz, W., Wolf, M., & McQuitty, S. (2019). Digital marketing adoption and success for small businesses: The application of the do-it-yourself and technology acceptance models. Journal of Research in interactive Marketing. https://doi.org/10.1108/JRIM-04-2018-0062
Level Systems Required At Different Levels Within An Organization Writing Sample
Organizations are mainly divided into three types of information systems: strategic, management and operational which provide different information on an organization’s needs. The levels mentioned above are further divided into the production and manufacturing department, marketing and sales department, and human resources department. The systems are built to cater for the different organizational interests (Jankowicz,2006, p.481).
SECTION 1: Operational Level Systems
Transaction Processing Systems
Operational level systems are made up of Transaction Processing Systems whose main purpose is to surveil simple straightforward operations and transactions in an organization, for example, cash deposits, sales, payroll, credit decisions, receipts and the flow of materials in a firm. The key role of systems at the operational level system is to give answers to accustomed questions like for example parts of an inventory and track the flow of different types of transactions within the organization. Transaction Processing systems play a key role in the management of an organization as discussed below (Layne. K and Lee. J, 2001, p.129).
The system that is the Transaction Processing System plays a key role in supporting the transactions and operations of an organization by processing the company’s business transactions. The system is used is in the sales and marketing department to be specific in order processing. A good example is an online electronic store where order processing takes place; the sorting, packaging, movement and delivery of the packed electronics to a shipping carrier after the order has been placed successfully. The System is crucial here for the analysis of the transactions in play ranging from orders from customers, invoices, receipts, and payments, to the precise processing of the operations such as data collection, modification, editing and storage of data (Nevis, E.C., et.al, 2006, pp.54).
The Transaction Processing System is also crucial in the manufacturing and production department and specifically the Material movement Control. The Transaction Processing System aids in the management of the basic stages of handling; collection of materials, manufacturing and product distribution by keeping detailed inventories and reports that summarize and simplify the transactions within the manufacturing and production department. Other transactions may involve data retrieval from a database involving any stage of handling in the department or checking for missing data items, for example, production records.
The Transaction Processing System is also key to the finance and accounting department of any organization and specifically in terms of payroll and accounts payable. The Transaction Processing system plays a major role in providing information on the different types of accounting systems for example the payroll accounting system which supplies information to the organization’s general ledger system which in turn is in charge of managing records of the organization’s expenses and income and hence providing reports like accounts payable, profit and loss statements, and balance sheets.
The Transaction Processing System also plays a crucial role in the human resources department and mainly in employee record keeping. The system is responsible for updating employee reviews, contact information, disciplinary forms, employee awards, training records and termination letters which are all key in employee record-keeping for analysis of performance and growth in the organization.
SECTION 2: Management Level systems
Decision-Support Systems and Management Information Systems
Middle managers’ monitoring, decision-making, controlling, and administrative operations are all aided by the Management Level Systems. They provide information on operations on a regular basis rather than in real time. The Systems are made up of the Management Information System (MIS) and the Decision Support Systems (DSS). At the management level, Management Information Systems play a key role in planning, managing, and making decisions. The Decision Support System on the other hand is critical in making unique decisions that are constantly changing and difficult to predict in advance.
The systems play a key role in the sales and marketing department and specifically in the analysis of sale management and sale region analysis. The Decision Support System and the Management information system in marketing are systems used to identify and venture into different scenarios by the manipulation of preexisting data from past events. They include system tools, marketing data, and modelling capabilities. These tools aid in the prediction of outcomes from different marketing strategies and scenarios. Both systems provide information on business performance for example in this situation sales where the systems do it continuously and update the information about long-term trends.
A crucial role is played by the systems in the Manufacturing and Production department, specifically in inventory control and production scheduling. The systems have powerful software platforms which track the production of raw materials into finished goods. The systems help in the control of various variables; from the inputs to the support services, to machines and finally the personnel. The systems are also responsible for the movement of inventory from one workstation to another. The main role of the systems is to provide information key to decision-makers in the facilitation of the smooth running of operations within the department.
The Systems are important in the Finance and Accounting Department, specifically in the annual budgeting and profitability analysis. The systems facilitate the automation of computerized procedures in public financial management. The measurable functions of the systems include budget formulation, accounting, implementation and reporting, cash/ debt management, profit analysis, treasury operations among others. The Strategies within the systems are enhanced to significantly promote equity and quality in the organization’s operations and provide a huge potential for greater enhancement openness and accountability. A good example of a leading provider of financial and accounting information is the World Bank.
A vital role is played by the systems in the human resources department and specifically in the relocation cost control and contract cost analysis. The systems perform a cost-benefit analysis on the human resource department through the relocation of cost control and contract cost. The reasons for these human resource costs are for measuring overall success and impact, monitoring departmental costs, calculating a return of investment (ROI)and predicting future costs. The cost-benefit analysis in this department makes clear the data from the Human resource department more clear, rational and systematic (Jankowicz.D,2000, p.480).
SECTION 3: Strategic Level Systems
Executive Support Systems
Systems at the strategic level aid in the management of strategic and long-term trends in the firms and external environments. The system tries to align changes in the external environment with organizational capabilities already in place. The systems are made up of the Executive Support System which is intended to include information about external occurrences, for example, competitors or new set tax laws and further draws summarized information from DSS and MIS. (Deschouwer. K, 2006, p.295)
The Executive Support System plays a key role in the sales and marketing department and specifically trends for example 5 years of trend forecasting obtained from the sales and marketing department. The System filters, compresses, and tracks data in the sales and marketing department and the software within the system provides graphs and data necessary for the analysis of different trends in the department hence aiding in decision making. It further does acquisitions on the cyclical trends and swings in the department and hence provides easy to use interface graphics for further analysis.
The Executive Support System also plays an important role in the manufacturing and production department for example in the creation of a 5-year operating plan in the department. The system addresses strategic issues in the department and comes up with both the firm’s and the environment’s long-term trends, which further aids in the development of an operating plan necessary for smooth running of operations within the department for a specified period for example, in this case, 5 years.
The Executive Support System also plays a key part in the finance and accounting department specifically in profit planning. The system acts as a tool in finance by providing an algorithm meant to run and analyze profit costs, installation costs keeping in mind other external factors outside the firm. The system can lead to profile improvement within the department through the optimal creation and analysis of profit planning models necessary for decision making by the managers within the firm. The system uses principles of a technique used for obtaining and optimizing the indicator characteristics within the department to come up with a standard profit planning model necessary for the smooth running of operations within the firm. The system also allows for employees to convert enterprise data into executive-level reports that are easily accessible such as profit planning reports.
The Executive Support System also aids in some activities within the human resources department specifically in personal planning. The system puts in place a software platform that acts as a focal point for the connection of employees within the organization. The system also enhances personal thinking and decision-making and thus personal planning. It further promotes competitiveness within the human resource department thus promoting work morale and determination among employees and thus personal planning. (Moliterno, T.P. and Mahony, D.M., 2011, p.451).
The systems named above all integrate and co-relate to perform various functions within an organization. All of the other systems rely on data from the transaction processing system which is the main source of data. All data from the lower-level systems is sent to the Executive Support System. Many of the other systems choose to exchange different types of data with one another. As noted, information sometimes might be interchanged among the systems which in most cases may be performing different functions in different areas within a firm.
It is therefore critical to integrate all of these systems within an organization in order to improve the easy flow of information across different levels of the organization and so offer management with an enterprise-wide view of how the business is operating. This helps curb the major challenges common to many organizations which are typically saddled with thousands of consuming and complex systems. As a result, any organization should balance its needs for various integrating systems while keeping in mind the difficulties of establishing large-scale systems with integration effort in mind. Finally, organizations should critically consider when choosing a level system because it’s a reflection of the firm’s organizational structure.
Nevis, E.C., DiBella, A.J. and Gould, J.M., 2009. Understanding organizations as learning systems. In Knowledge, groupware and the internet (pp. 43-63). Routledge.
Deschouwer, K., 2006. Political parties as multi-level organizations. Handbook of party politics, pp.291-300.
Jankowicz, D., 2000. From learning Organization’toAdaptive Organization’. Management Learning, 31(4), pp.471-490.
Layne, K. and Lee, J., 2001. Developing fully functional E-government: A four-stage model. Government information quarterly, 18(2), pp.122-136.
Moliterno, T.P. and Mahony, D.M., 2011. The network theory of organization: A multilevel approach. Journal of Management, 37(2), pp.443-467.
Swerissen, H. and Crisp, B.R., 2004. The sustainability of health promotion interventions for different levels of social organization. Health promotion international, 19(1), pp.123-130.