Swift’s Modest Proposal Sample Paper

Historical Events that Characterize the Period

In the 18th century, Ireland was in economic ruin. Swift, in the “Modest Proposal,” recognized this reality, with the following observation: “it is a melancholy object to those, who walk through this great town (Dublin)…when they see the streets, the roads, and cabin-doors crowded with beggars of female sex, followed by three, four or six children in rags (Swift 287).” At the time, the Irish peasantry was living in dire conditions. In the 1720s, the peasantry was suffering from hunger and famine due to poor harvest, while the wealthy were overexploiting the peasantry, further contributing to their destitution (Phiddian 73). The mercantilist theory that informed policies in Great Britain at the time held that colonies should be governed purely to further the interests of the colonial masters. Britain, the colonial master of Ireland, had implemented a range of restrictions on the Irish economy, with the goal of protecting English Agriculture and trade (Phiddian 73). These restrictions included trade restrictions, which meant that Ireland could not be able to trade with other European nations, with England banning the export of animals and animal products to other European countries. At the time, Ireland was a major exporter of wool, which meant that the restrictions effectively crippled the economy (Phiddian 73). The resultant event is that the peasants in Ireland were destitute and poor.

In the Modest Proposal, Swift recognizes the dire economic conditions at the time and suggests that the only way Ireland would solve its economic problems is by allowing the rich to consume the children of the poor. Such a move would not only reduce the number of children in the streets but would also provide reprieve for the poor women who were begging in the streets of Dublin. However, Swift intention was to point out the selfishness of the rich and leaders and relies on irony and satire to point out the failures of existing policies and exploitation of the poor. The goal was to ridicule the heartless attitude towards the poor and the policies that the British policies had made the economic situation in Ireland worse.

Theme or Stylistic Characteristic from the Period

The Enlightenment era was characterized by writings that valued reason and fact due to largely the rise of scientific knowledge. During the era, there was an epidemiological shift, which gave way to the rise of new forms of discourses that were based on reason and facts (Prendergast 3). These discourses had a significant influence on the use of writing genres, which were critical to the author success in the booming literary market. Some of the genres that thrived at the time included scientific writing, historiography, journalism and travel writing. These new discourses produced the impression, authenticity, truthfulness, and facticity through the use of scientific methods, reportage language, reason, objectivity, verisimilitude, measurements, geometry and statistics (Prendergast 3). For the contemporary readers at the time, these discourses created the perception of the emergence of a society that valued reality, fact and truth. Swift, in the Modest Proposal, inverts this relationship by relying on satire and irony to point out the failures of the aristocracy in Ireland and Britain. The satiric prose that he uses inverts, entwines, and entangles the linguistic codes of the time, and juxtaposes reality with fantasy, and makes truth far stranger than fiction. In this way, he subverts the common thinking of the time, that satire, while uncommon at the time, could be replaced by the scientific method that arose in the Enlightenment era.

Contributions to Humanity

Swift, in ‘Modest Proposal’, shows that satire can be used reliably to point out the ills in society. His ability to use satire and irony to point out how aristocrats contribute to the suffering of the poor and the peasantry points out the power of satire in raising concerns about the welfare of the poor and destitute. Importantly, Swift’s parodic and satirical art brings into focus the blindness of the social and political arithmetic. It provides a way of deconstructing dishonest claims, allowing people to reconsider and test their own standards. While the Modest Proposal does show how satire can deconstruct half-truths, it also provides an avenue for focusing on what is considered invisible in society. Perhaps, Swift’s most important contribution to society is that artists should be able to recognize the ills of society and use artistic forms of writing to point out those ills.

Works Cited

Phiddian, Robert. “Political arithmetick: Accounting for irony in Swift’s A Modest Proposal.” Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal vol. 9, no. 5, 1996, pp. 71-83.

Prendergast, Harriet. “Subversion of enlightenment discourse in Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels.” Master’s Thesis. 2021.

Swift, Jonathan. “A modest proposal.” Swift, Jonathan. The Works of the Rev. Jonathan Swift, D.D., Dean of St. Patrick’s, Dublin, Volume 9. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1801. 287. Print.

Technological Advancements And Doughnut Economy Free Sample


Industrial Revolution played an essential role in the changing of the business world. Technological advancements keep creating a demand for the growth of many businesses worldwide, helping them adapt and shift to fit in the changing competitive market (Manish, 2015). The current business world revolves around a knowledge-based economy rather than a trade-based. Technology does affect not only the business factors but also the employees in the corporation. Recessions affect businesses in different forms and factors tied to the technical elements in the industry. Economic downturns affect both small and large companies. Economic recessions are when a company makes its decisions from past lessons (Sanz, 2021). Technology is one crucial factor that outlines and helps revive the financial market for any business. It is essential to understand that it is possible to build up the economy while considering environmental stability.

Technological advancements

Technological advancements have revolutionized and changed how different companies operate and conduct their activities. Most leaders use technology to ensure effective operations are running through the competitive world. Technological factors that govern and impact the business world include communication resources, logistics, marketing, production techniques, and e-commerce technologies (Ferreira, Teixeira, & Rammal, 2021). The elements are essential as they affect its operations, consumers, competitors, and suppliers. Technological advancements have played a vital role in the growth of different companies worldwide. Productivity, Technology and Economic Growth

Innovation changes how a business conducts business. However, workers are esteemed by a partnership. Quite a long time ago, people were appreciated for having the option to know a specific exchange. With the Industrial Revolution, individuals saw their communication and work esteem seriously reduced as machines could perform routine assignments at a speedier, more productive speed (Manish, 2015). The business environment transformed from a trade-based to an information-based economy. In this better approach for leading business, workers were esteemed for the mind. As innovation keeps advancing, so too should organizations keep an upper hand. Business leaders must learn various ways to incorporate technology in their business strategies.

Technological advancements in economic growth

According to Josi Billingshurst, technological advancement forms the best part of the growth of an economy (Billinghurst, 2021). Some of the digital tools that entrepreneurs in business innovation use include application program interface, digital twinning, artificial intelligence, database operations, and server virtualization. Technological progress is essential to ensure development and economic growth in society. The more available advanced technology helps to ensure the improvement of the global economy. Technological advancement plays a critical role in determining economic growth (Ark , Kulpers, & Kuper, 2013). The fast pace of development can be accomplished through a significant degree of innovation.

Researchers saw that technological advancement is the primary determinant of economic advancement (Christiansen & Ulku, 2017). Yet, if the degree of innovation becomes consistent, the course of development in the organization stops. Subsequently, the innovative advancement keeps the economy moving (Ferreira, Teixeira, & Rammal, 2021). Creations and advancements have generally been answerable for fast financial development in developing nations. Economics agrees that technology is the primary growth driver in most cities, regions, and countries; technological progress will ensure efficient production of better goods and services for prosperity.

Technology plays a role to ensure that businesses remain connected to their consumers and keep up wih the trend to march the competitive orld. Indeed, the idea of technology itself, just as the individual and social capacities needed for its advancement, can be learned at a considerably more acceptable level prompting potential commitments that might affect advanced education, work creation, and financial development (Christiansen & Ulku, 2017). There are interrelationships which include economic growth, development, training, and innovation.

Doughnut Economy

Before the recession, Doughnuts company was under collision due to the environmental disaster. The model was designed by co-founder Kate Raworth which helps to encompass human sustainability and human prosperity. The recovery period played an important role in rebuilding a better economy with environmental sustainability. A beginning stage of Doughnut Economics is that 21st-century financial aspects will probably be polished first and estimated later. Doughnut Economics Action Lab was established in 2019 to help and associate the arising local area crisis with the overall ideas of transforming these thoughts into effective practice.

This is a social environment that, since the worldwide pandemic, is becoming quicker than any time in recent memory (Vandenhole, 2017). One of the most excellent characteristics is that it naturally arises from different training fields, from instructors to policymakers, local area coordinators to experts. This way, DEAL is going where the energy is, at first working across five key subjects: Government and policy, Communities, places, and Cities and Places, Education and Research, Government and Policy, Business and Enterprise; however, with interest stretching out past these bunches, for example, in human expression and innovation, there’s no realizing how this may look in a year (Raworth, 2017).

The primary recovery method helped ensure that they had built a system that could support human living standards without affecting the environment. Doughnut economies play a role in providing an intuitive way to help think about the economy (Shorter & Sanz, 2020). The doughnut economy focuses on social freefall and economic development. Political and economic growth will provide a way that ensures companies are developed and factors of healthy, social, political, and good participation. (Sanz, 2021) The unsustainable impact on the environment exists outside the doughnut. The model aims to help people live under economic means without affecting the planet’s ecological needs. The safer space belongs inside the doughnut. Economies describe society’s allocation of scarce resources.

Doughnut economy

Figure 1.1 Doughnut economy

The need for New economic vision

The idea of donut financial matters resulted from the longing to make another monetary model that considers the planet and focuses on the necessities of every one of its occupants. Ms. Sanz said in the 21st century; we are seeing the demise of the natural environmental world (Sanz, 2021). The world has experienced a crisis over the 2008 financial accident, environmental calamities, and the present pandemic. These emergencies have featured worldwide disparities in power, wealth, gender, and race. Ms. Sanz states that,

“Last century’s economic models focus on supply and demand, price and the continual growth of GDP above a thriving planet. This framework is outdated for our current times and has brought us to the crises we are experiencing today.”

According to Ms. Sanz, the planet has limits, and those human beings are well connected, which calls for people to create new economic movements that will help the world that is safe for the species and human beings (Sanz, 2021; Shorter & Sanz, 2020). Doughnut economies entail social foundations on the definition of basic needs. Basic needs are defined by community networks, social equity, peace, community networks, and housing, work, education, and food.

Ms. Sanz cited numerous urban areas that have executed the regenerative monetary model in different ways: Seattle raised its lowest pay permitted by law to over $10 each hour, Medellin has made new stream parks all through the city to introduce its regular habitat once again, Amsterdam has focused on around development methodology wherein it will lessen its dependence on new natural substances by half by 2030 (Sanz, 2021). For Ms. Sanz, one instance of executing regenerative economies inside urban communities is to make enduring responsibilities and associations among financial backers and organizations.

Importance of Doughnut Economy

Over the years, the environmental and economic crises have caused a bad and good impact on the economic environment. Raworth has helped people change their perspective on who they are and what they stand for political-economic factors. A sustainable environment will ensure that economic growth supports people’s lives and daily activities. In Doughnut Economics, Kate Raworth distinguishes seven basic manners by which routine financial matters have driven us off track and sets out a guide for bringing humanity into a perfect balance that addresses the issues of all inside the method for the planet (Raworth, 2017). In transit, she deconstructs the ‘reasonable financial man’ personality and clarifies what truly makes us tick. She uncovers how a fixation on harmony has left financial experts powerless when confronting his present reality economy (Shorter & Sanz, 2020). She features the risks of overlooking the job of energy and nature’s assets – and the broad ramifications for financial development when we consider them. Also, all the while, Kate makes a new, state-of-the-art economic model that is good for the 21st century – one in which a donut-molded compass guides the way toward human progress (Raworth, 2017). Ambitious, extremist, and thoroughly contended, Doughnut Economics vows to rethink and redraw the eventual fate of financial aspects for another age.


Technological advancements in the current business world play an essential role in ensuring high participation in enabling a sustainable environment. Technological progress helps to ensure that the business world is sustainable with efforts that will provide a leading-edge because of the availability of information and other essential factors that prevent economic backlash. Doughnut economy is critical to ensure that people trade in sustainable economic growth. Employing a Doughnut economy will help avoid a significant recession in the economy. The primary purpose of the economy type is to balance the existing openness by ensuring integrity in the economic practices.


Ark , B. V., Kulpers, S. K., & Kuper, G. H. (2013). Productivity, Technology, and Economic Growth. Springer Science + Business Media, LLC. doi:10.1007/978-1-4757-3161-3

Billinghurst, J. (2021, 10 21). Events hub. Retrieved from Bonus Session – TECHNOLOGY SHOWCASE – Stories of Digital Innovation: https://web.cvent.com/hub/events/2ab19b77-3ab9-4fe6-bf48-a4afae000689/sessions/1c9dcddf-f07a-4a48-9f9c-999b1fcd308b

Christiansen, B., & Ulku, Y. (2017). Technological Integration as a Catalyst for Industrial Development and Economic Growth. London: Library of Congress Cataloging.

Ferreira, J. J., Teixeira, S. J., & Rammal, H. G. (2021). Technological Innovation and International Competitiveness for Business Growth: Challenges and Opportunities. Springer Nature.

Manish, W. (2015). Technology, Innovation, and Enterprise Transformation. Hershey: Salem State University.

Raworth, K. (2017). Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist. Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing.

Sanz, C. (2021, 10 27). Hub events. Retrieved from Keynote Presentation – Doughnut Economics: from a radical idea into transformative action: https://web.cvent.com/hub/events/2ab19b77-3ab9-4fe6-bf48-a4afae000689/sessions/dd89b638-c953-4d41-bd00-bdfaa6046eca

Shorter, R., & Sanz, C. (2020). Systems Change Alliance. Retrieved from Doughnut Economics: from a radical idea to transformative action: https://systemschangealliance.org/doughnut-economics-from-a-radical-idea-to-transformative-action/

Vandenhole, W. (2017). Ecological Economics and Doughnut Economics.

Technological And Institutional Solutions To Ensure Water Reliability And Security Free Essay


Difficulty accessing water of suitable and sufficient quality for domestic, industrial, and agricultural needs has become an issue of growing concern in various parts of the world. There is an increased demand for water and short supply, significantly caused by underinvestment in water supply system infrastructure and water pollution; this has raised doubts about the efficiency of the centralized water treatment and distribution system used in many modern countries. This paper will discuss the challenges affecting water reliability and security and how technology and institutions can work hand in hand to solve them.

Water scarcity

Environmental water can be defined as any legally available water through various allocation and legislative means (Horne et al., 2018). Environmental water management encompasses the allocation process, determination, implementation, and management of environmental water. It operates based on a spectrum between Passive, Active, Legal rights for the environment and Conditions on others. Horne et al. (2018) state local nuances; however, environmental water is allocated Legally or Hydrologically. When different decisions on environmental water are required due to changes in the seasonal condition and water availability, active management is preferred as it is a more flexible approach. In contrast, in passive management, environmental options are limited and thus must be determined prior and set as rules.

The 2014 sustainable groundwater management act is a prime example of how environmental water is managed legally. The act directs local water consumers to settle their water basins into long-term balance before the onset of the 2040s to prevent groundwater scarcity in California (Ayres & Hanak 2021). The government of California is implementing efficient water use measures to improve consumptive outputs and save water through relocation of water with priority given to the higher-value uses (Ayres & Hanak 2021). Water banking and trading require approvals to ensure that the shifting of water is harmless to the people and the environment. Processes of water banking and trading should be streamlined and smart while maintaining the protection rights of the environment and the user. The upgrading of infrastructure allows for the efficient navigation and distribution of water at the correct times.

Decentralization of treatment and reuse of sewage and rainwater reduce water scarcity by supplementing conventional water supply and ensure equal water distribution. Zodrow et al. (2017) show that the surplus water from reclaimed wastewater and rainwater coupled with the distribution of the reuse facilities locations will improve the water infrastructure resiliency such as the quick recovery from or disruption in regular operation such as equipment failure or flash floods. Decentralization boosts system resiliency as any breakdown in the system would only affect a limited Populus (SSZodrow et al., 2017). The concept of efficiently using environmental water is still novel. In most applications, there has been a particular emphasis on the use of infrastructure to allocate environmental water; thus, smaller volumes of water can stretch their ecological use.

Unequal distribution of water

In other places, unequal water distribution warranted a solution that addresses the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of both current and future water supply system infrastructure by integrating decentralized treatment and reusing facilities that ensure the treated water quality matches the intended use. The treatment facilities are integrated into existing water networks closer to the end-users (Zodrow et al., 2017). The integration significantly reduces the energy, supply cost, and distance required to transport water over long distances. Despite this, the approach struggles due to inadequate funding to maintain and upgrade worn-out water infrastructure, as well as technological and institutional inhibitors. These include utilities’ risk prevention and potential political, regulatory, and social barriers exacerbated by the financial difficulty of maintaining and upgrading worn-out water infrastructure. Zodrow et al. (2017) show that there have been several developments in treatment processes, modern and network science that promote reevaluating and improving the resiliency and efficiency of water infrastructure. The results support hybrid distributed water supply systems and fit-for-purpose water treatment facilities. Still, they rely on optimization to achieve treatment goals, comprehensive system designs, improved infrastructure, and enabling technologies.

The current water infrastructure allows independent centralized water and wastewater treatment systems. These antiquated systems distribute water for diverse use then collect and treat wastewater for later release after treating freshwater to potable quality. Zodrow et al. (2017) assert that centralized infrastructure is cost-effective if it is adopted to a well-preserved water source, an effective distribution network, and healthy surface water bodies to receive treated wastewater. Since the current centralized infrastructure faces high energy demand and water quality deterioration associated with transporting potable water across an extensive, often faulty pipe network, it is exacerbated by insufficient investments in system maintenance and expansion (Zodrow et al., 2017). These developments are increasingly necessary as the aging water infrastructure endangers public health. Efforts to preserve economic development and quality of life are negatively affected by the undependable supply, high water cost, or the high energy cost required to treat and deliver it.

Local operation centers can improve oversight over distributed treatment facilities and synchronize with centralized facilities to meet fluctuating water needs to address this challenge depending on local wastewater and stormwater (Zodrow et al., 2017). Wastewater and stormwater from a small area would be collected, treated, and disinfected at the same distributed treatment facility, according to the local nonpotable water requirements (Zodrow et al., 2017). Centralized facilities differ from the current treatment approach as different systems collect and treat various influent streams. In this case, better infrastructure for treatment and distribution is necessary.

Water contamination

Technological means (such as the integrated water and solid treatment plan in Tuas) are used to curb water pollution, reduce water-related risks, increase economic welfare, enhance social equity, and attain long-term sustainability. According to Zodrow et al. (2017), access to water of sufficient and suitable quality for industrial, domestic, and agricultural purposes is a growing issue globally. In Tuas, located in the western region of Singapore, the government is constructing its first integrated water and solid waste treatment facility that will help maximize optimal resource, energy, and land use. The integrated facility boasts energy self-sufficiency through harnessing synergies from both facilities (the water and solid waste treatment facilities), thus reducing Singapore’s annual carbon dioxide output (Lim 2020). The plant receives wastewater streams from domestic and industrial areas via two separate deep tunnels for treatment, enabling efficient treatment of industrial wastewater for industrial use, thus preventing cross-contamination. Lim (2020) states that the enhanced wastewater treatment protects downstream ecosystems by reducing contaminant discharge into the environment. The water reclamation plant comes equipped with the largest membrane bioreactor, which makes it more energy-efficient via eliminating the need for a long sea outfall, thus conserving and reducing energy consumption.

The ministry of environment and water resources has put in place various plans to overhaul the used water supply systems to meet the growing water needs and ensure efficient, effective, and safe water supply and sewerage systems. The minister of environment and water resources launched the deep tunnel sewage system (DTSS), which will convey wastewater to the Tuas facility and ensure that every drop of used water is reused (Teh 2019). The DTSS will benefit Singapore’s economy since it will provide about 150 hectares of land by phasing out the older water reclamation plants and pumping stations.


Water is a crucial resource required in almost every aspect of daily life, from simple drinking water to the water needed for agricultural purposes. Water reliability and security are thus of utmost importance but come under constant threat from various challenges such as water scarcity, contamination, and unequal distribution of water. There are several technological and institutional methods of solving these challenges, such as the decentralization of water supply systems, formation and implementation of new policies and legislation that aid with water distribution and conservation, the construction of modern wastewater reclamation facilities, and the construction of contemporary wastewater reclamation facilities uphauling water supply system infrastructure. These technological and institutional methods work in tandem to ensure water reliability and security and that water is used efficiently and effectively.


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Hoekstra, A. Y., Buurman, j., & Van Ginkel, K. C. (2018). Urban water security: A review. Environmental research letters, 13(5), 053002.

Horne, A., O’Donnell, E., Loch, A., Adamson, D., Hart, B. & Freebairn, J. (2018). Environmental water efficiency: Maximizing benefits and minimizing costs of environmental water use and management.

Lim, J. Work begins on Singapore’s first integrated water and solid waste treatment plant in Tuas. 8 Sep. 2020, https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/environment/work-begins-on-singapores-first-integrated-water-and-solid-waste-treatment.

The, C. Tunnelling begins on underground sewage superhighway. 4 Apr. 2019, www.straitstimes.com/singapore/tunnelling-begins-on-underground-sewage-superhighway.

Zodrow, K., Li, Q., Buono, R., Chen, W., Daigger, G., Dueñas-Osorio, L. & Alvarez, P. (2017). Advanced materials, technologies, and complex systems analysis: Emerging opportunities to enhance urban water security.