However solid and focused teams might be, they still need proper managerial communication for success. Savu (2019) supports this by postulating that team success relies on the team’s ability to embrace collaboration, able team leadership, and proper motivation. Aube and Rousseau (2011) further assert that teams provide a vital competitive advantage to organizations since they are very effective in achieving organizational goals in the contemporary business world. In this paper, I will talk about a soccer team that I am part of and how managerial communication and team leadership, in general, have affected our success.
I am a soccer player, playing for a men’s soccer team called Eagles United Soccer Club. The team’s primary purpose is to provide an avenue for nurturing and showcasing soccer talents through the development of competitive soccer culture. The team’s ultimate goal is to be the leading and most successful men’s soccer team in the whole of Atlanta. The team was established on the 29th of January, 2017 and has been operational for the past five years. The team comprises two board of directors; three staff members (including the club manager, assistant club manager and the club training manager); and twenty five soccer players. The board of directors plays a vital role in offering a sense of direction and facilitating the club with relevant resources. The team manager, assistant team manager and the trainer provide the appropriate leadership, training and motivation needed for team success, whereas the players collaboratively execute the team’s goal.
During the first year, Mr Jones, one of the two managing Directors, was the team manager. Mr Jones assumed the role automatically to fill a managerial void as an interim manager hiring a permanent manager. Mr. Jones was charismatic, highly focused, result oriented, principled, and assertive. His able leadership and effective communication laid a good foundation to the team. At the beginning of the second year, Mr Albert was hired as the new club manager, with six months probation before he was appointed the permanent club manager following his success on the job. Mr Albert must have been the best candidate for the role since he was selected ahead of ten other prospective managers shortlisted and interviewed for the same position. Having had a track good record in managing soccer teams, winning two major trophies for the past three years, every club member hoped that he would display the same at Eagles United Soccer Club. Mr Albert was vocal, emphatic, considerate, charming, assertive, influential, and result-oriented. He highly valued autonomy and feedback in his communication style.
The first and foremost task of the team at the arrival of Mr Albert as the club manager was to win a major trophy within two years with the available squad of twenty five soccer players. The club manager started by reorganizing the team and having every team member set their personal goals. The club manager effectively resolved any conflicts between and among the team members. He mostly approached conflict with an active-constructive approach, where he emphasized a win-win outcome in every conflict. As postulated by Le Nguyen (2011), this approach is very effective and efficient in resolving disputes where a win-win outcome is desired. In addition, the club manager was a great communicator, paying attention to detail in both verbal and non-verbal communication. Whenever anyone approached him with any issue, he would listen and keenly observe the body language while providing appropriate gestures and facial expressions and feedback where necessary.
Furthermore, the team manager clearly defined and assigned clear and definite roles to each team member, stating the expectations of the position. He provided accurate and timely information to all the team members, and he valued immediate feedback. Moreover, he was very principled and firm in his decisions. I remember a point during his first month of arrival when he suggested that I should transition from being a midfielder to a striker due to my phenomenal finishing skills. I thought about it, and through effective communication involving immediate feedback, we both arrived at a consensus, and I became a striker. We won two major trophies during the second and third season with Mr Albert as the team manager, thus accomplishing our first objective as a team before he willingly exited the club at the end of the third season. Mr Albert was an effective team manager who used his leadership and communication skills to deliver team success. He was the best individual for the team manager role.
Formed, managed and appropriately facilitated, teams have the capacity of making an organization gain a competitive edge. Team success requires an effective leader characterized by: properly executed managerial communication; and attention to detail in both verbal and nonverbal communication combined with immediate feedback. Further, a good team manager plays a central role in empowering, motivating, and directing team members towards achieving a common goal. Moreover, it is important to note that team success also requires collaboration of team members.
Aubé, C., & Rousseau, V. (2011). Interpersonal aggression and team effectiveness: The mediating role of team goal commitment. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 84(3), 565-580.
Le Nguyen, H. (2011). Partnership strategies: pro-active and pre-active approach in conflict management in international joint ventures. International Journal of Business and Management, 6(9), 38.
Savu, I. (2019). Amplifying performance in virtual teams optimizing communication strategies. Res. & Sci. Today, 17, 112.
Terrorism Comparative Analysis Paper Sample Essay
United States’ Response to Al-Qaeda and ISIS Threat
The Bush administration applied a deterrence strategy to curb the threat of Al-Qaeda within and outside the United States. The first phase of the deterrence campaign involved warfare against the Taliban government. Two decades ago, U.S. Marines and native Afghan rebel groups removed the Taliban from power after the organization failed to cut ties with Al-Qaeda (Jenkins & Godges, 2011, p. 42). The second phase of the campaign involved instating a regime to help the U.S. and its allies suppress the Al-Qaeda threat. The strategy involved creating a favorable economic environment for the government to improve the citizens’ livelihood and welfare. According to Jenkins and Godges (2011), the U.S. and its allies focused on building a strong Afghan National Police and Afghan National Army to protect the country from terrorist threats. However, this militarization and policing strategy failed to achieve its intended goals, forcing the U.S. Department of Defense to train the two security organs from the Department of State and the German Army.
The United States Army developed partnerships with local Afghan tribes, clans and local administrations to help them fight the Taliban and their allies (Van Evera, 2006). The U.S. leveraged the locals’ resentment against the central government’s overreach on localized matters to gain their support. In particular, the U.S. created a formidable alliance with the Pashtuns in Afghanistan’s Eastern and Southern parts. Jenkins and Godges (2011) state that the initiatives put in place to ensure the alliance’s success included the establishment of a community watch program grounded on the “Shura Principle” while legitimizing the authority of local leaders to solve disputes among community members. The U.S. Army instituted quick response teams in allied regions to ensure prompt response to local attacks by the Taliban. However, the deterrence policy failed to achieve its intended goals, evidenced by the chaotic withdrawal of the U.S. Army from Afghanistan and the return of the Taliban to power.
The U.S. employed a partnership-based policy involving collaborating with new and current allies and parties with a common interest to fight ISIS (Blanchard & Humud, 2017). The subsequent U.S. administrations since the Obama era have continued to execute the strategy, leading to the neutralization of several terrorist threats. The U.S. and its partners formed a global coalition to defeat the Islamic State using different tactics such as military assaults, intelligence support to its allies, cutting off Islamic States’ income-generating sources, and preventing the flow of foreign fighters in warzones. The policy has helped the U.S. and coalition forces from Syria and Iraq minimize the spread of ISIS, including destroying the caliphate and capturing or eliminating ISIS’s leaders. However, the strategy has not ensured lasting peace in the former ISIS-controlled regions because of Islamic States’ sleeper cells.
Besides, the global coalition against Islamic State has failed to capture all the group’s leaders who are free to organize violent attacks against civilians and military personnel. The U.S. intelligence agencies warn of the re-emergence of ISIS in the future despite the group’s loss of control of their former territories (Mattis, 2018). The reconstruction process has been hampered by several factors like conflicts between rebel groups, terrorist attacks by ISIS loyalists and corruption in government. Observers and policymakers have raised concerns about the potential re-emergence of ISIS in recaptured territories because of the above challenges, arguing that the U.S. government and its partners should implement policies to consolidate power and military strength in the recaptured areas. In addition, they warn that the Islamic State is sponsoring insurgent attacks in Syria and Iraq, and thus much should be done to prevent full-blown warfare.
Propaganda and Recruitment Strategies of Al-Qaeda and ISIS
Al-Qaeda uses the ‘single narrative’ approach to brainwash its followers by whipping their emotions about specific issues through strict Islamic teachings to convince them to fight for a particular cause. Documentaries about the Al-Qaeda recruitment program indicate the type of propaganda propagated by the group to indoctrinate members. Raymond Ibrahim’s analysis of prominent Al-Qaeda leaders, Osama Bin Laden and Ayman Al Zawahiri, reveals the propaganda level in Al-Qaeda texts (Lyons, 2013). Raymond noted the speeches and writings associated with the group fit into the genres of ‘propagandist speeches’ and ‘religious exegesis.’ According to Lyons (2013), Al-Qaeda-sponsored propagandist speeches are meant to incite Muslims to action and dispirit Western nations while practicing religious exegesis to inspire and train followers.
Both genres agree that Western countries are evil because they have caused much harm to Muslims through conquests, colonialism, economic sabotage and sponsored wars. Al-Qaeda uses communication channels like the dark web and social media to spread. Al-Qaeda recruits followers through different ways, including through deliberate choice, as witnessed in the case of Adam Gadahn’s case that left the U.S.A. to join Al-Qaeda (Mohamedou, 2011). Besides, the terrorist organization has a network of sympathizers and fans who implement the group’s policies independently or after receiving instructions from the group’s leadership. For instance, the 2005 Bali bombings were conducted by Al-Qaeda-inspired terrorist organizations in the city. However, Al Qaeda’s deliberate regionalization and subsidiarity have shortcomings, including the inability to consolidate leadership.
ISIS applies a bellicose information strategy to spread propaganda about military and administrative establishments and recruit new members (Winter, 2017). The strategy’s objective is to convey misinformation to the public as much as possible to reach a large audience. Islamic State uses a ‘digital jihad’ strategy to recruit members (Lakomy, 2021). Digital jihad encompassed using digital communication channels like social media to spread propaganda. In particular, Islamic State used online magazines Rumiyah and Dabiq to propagate messages about the group’s mission and vision to Western audiences. The online magazines enabled ISIS to attract several followers from Europe and other parts of the world. ISIS mainly wrote the magazines in English to attract readership from English-speaking nations, especially from the United Kingdom. Islamic State’s online propaganda approach was effective at the beginning of the caliphate but proved ineffective after censorship from communication platforms like Facebook and Twitter.
In addition, ISIS posts online videos on social networking sites as part of their digital jihad campaign (Fernandez, 2015). ISIS propaganda videos show ISIS fighters facilitating the delivery of amenities like water to the community members and visiting injured militants. ISIS spread propaganda videos on the fall of Mosul, including a video showing the ISIS leader declaring a caliphate inside a mosque in Mosul. Islamic State members use different social media accounts to recruit new members, spread propaganda, and easily apply their beliefs to a large audience. In particular, they spread their messages via Twitter by promoting hashtags and posting links to their propaganda (Lieberman, 2017). Besides, ISIS uses computer-controlled social media accounts that send the same content simultaneously.
Terror Tactics Used By Al-Qaeda and ISIS
Al-Qaeda has affiliate groups comprising trained militants who operate temporary sleeper cells in over seventy countries (Post, 2002). In addition, Al-Qaeda uses the cells to store arms and other resources and act as reinforcement bases. Also, the group is allied to various Islamic militant and political groups based in different countries. Al-Qaeda uses the cells to conduct armed attacks and spread propaganda against their enemies, including Western nationals and collaborators. Al-Qaeda sleeper cells operate independently and only obey the organization’s chain of command (Post, 2002, p. 17). Al-Qaeda’s partnering strategy with other terror groups has enabled it to expand its operations globally. Al-Qaeda has ties to Islamic political organizations like the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LITE) and Hezbollah and terrorist groups like Harakat ul-Ansar and Egyptian Islamic Jihad based in Pakistan and Egypt, respectively.
Moreover, Al-Qaeda uses some organizations to coordinate propaganda and armed attacks in foreign countries. A-Qaeda has or used to have military bases and training camps inside countries like Sudan, Pakistan and Afghanistan. They use the training camps and military bases to train combat skills, bomb-making techniques and propaganda dissemination skills. Al-Qaeda training is divided into three courses: basic training, advanced training, and specialized training (Post, 2002). Basic training imparts military skills necessary to execute guerilla, while advanced training imparts knowledge in bomb-making, assassination and development of heavy weaponry. Specialized training encompasses training in methods of surveillance and counter-surveillance, faking and acclimating official papers and conducting marine or car-based suicide attacks.
According to Almohammad (2019), Islamic State applies the ‘caliphate’ approach founded on the “enduring and expansion” concept to achieve their goals. ISIS employs the strategies of polarization and restructuring to maintain endurance. The endurance strategies involve staging guerilla attacks on enemies within and outside occupied territories. In particular, ISIS uses propaganda to spread hate against their perceived enemies and polarize targeted populaces. Besides, some affiliates of ISIS conduct violent attacks on Western civilians to create fear and promote the group’s ideologies. ISIS uses sleeper cells to facilitate its operations within and outside Syria and Iraq. Islamic State applies the ‘securing bay’at’ strategy to expand its influence in the Middle East and other jurisdictions. The approach involves coercing, coopting or motivating other jihadi movements to join ISIS and help them defeat their enemies (Almohammad, 2019).
The strategy has failed to facilitate Islamic State’s expansion into new territories because of poor coordination and disagreements. As a result, this has forced ISIS to wage armed attacks against Jihadi movements opposing their agenda. Therefore, this shows that the strategy was ineffective in maintaining order among the local militant groups (Almohammad, 2019, p. 28). To expand to new areas, ISIS conducted extended military attacks against their enemies located far from captured territories. Almohammad (2019) argues that the strategy failed because ISIS has lost most of its captured parts, and it is now trying to regain them by activating sleeper cells. Securing the bay’at strategy was unsuccessful because it requires a lot of resources to implement, including financial support and military hardware. Besides, it was difficult for ISIS to manage the activities of the enemies within and outside the captured territories.
Technology Use by Al-Qaeda and ISIS
Al-Qaeda has leveraged new information and communication technologies to facilitate interaction with its network of members worldwide (Brachman, 2006). The organization has integrated the technologies into its communication system to convey information to a large audience. As a result, persons using computers and other digital communication gadgets can easily access information transmitted by Al-Qaeda. The organization uses an internet-based activism approach to reach its target audience regardless of geographical boundaries. Internet-based activism involves using social networking sites like YouTube, Facebook and Twitter to spread information about an organization. Al-Qaeda uses the internet and other technologies to indoctrinate youths and others into the organization, including creating social media pages for posting content for radicalizing the population. Besides, Al-Qaeda uses websites to spread hateful propaganda against the West and recruit new members.
Al-Qaeda’s jihadi web has the same features as other normal organization websites but is unreliable (Brachman, 2006, p. 151). Al-Qaeda manages several web forum sites like the “Al-Hesbah Discussion Forum” to spread information, communicate with its members, and recruit new followers. The organization uses the websites to inform the audience about the organization’s activities and achievements and post links to attack videos from active jihad campaigns. Besides, the audience can learn more about Islamic teachings and the organization’s mission through the jihad websites. In general, Al-Qaeda uses the internet to plan and execute violent attacks against civilians, government officials and military personnel and discuss topics related to the movement. Besides, internet-based activism helps the organization disseminate propaganda, informative and training materials. Lastly, they use the websites to gather information about their opponents and use it to their advantage.
Islamic State uses internet-based technologies like social media to spread propaganda and recruit new members (Tønnessen, 2017). The organization uses encrypted apps and social networking sites like WhatsApp and Telegram to conduct misinformation and recruitment campaigns. The platforms enable the organization to send and receive end-to-end encrypted messages without hacking, exposing the content to third parties. Apart from that, secure communication via such apps has encouraged ISIS members and sympathizers to communicate and recruit new members online. Islamic State uses cybernetic financiers and computer-generated plots to groom and micromanage possible aggressors through different social networking sites. ISIS relies on its network of online sympathizers who create social media accounts and use them to post-instruction manuals and guidelines to internet users.
For instance, the organization created a telegram channel six years ago for training and study. ISIS mainly used the medium to recruit skilled personnel to help them maintain, repair and make weapons for the fighters (Tønnessen, 2017, p. 105). The educational videos posted in the channel and other platforms enabled ISIS to design and produce drones. During the war, ISIS used commercial drones modified for military use to perform surveillance and gather intelligence on their enemies’ activities. The organization established several drone production facilities in areas like Mosul and Ramadi, where they manufactured surveillance and attack drones.
From the paper, Islamic State and Al-Qaeda apples apply internet-based activism to communicate with its members, spread propaganda and recruit new followers. Both organizations use social media platforms like Telegram to spread misinformation and incite members against their perceived enemies. Also, the organizations use guerilla warfare and suicide attacks to neutralize their enemies. The U.S. government has employed military intervention through global coalitions to fight the terrorist groups and their allies. Still, U.S. intelligence agencies warn of the return of Al-Qaeda now that the Taliban are back in power. Although the U.S. strategy has been largely successful, more work needs to be done to eliminate Al-Qaeda threat permanently.
Almohammad, A. (2019). Seven Years of Terror: Jihadi Organisations’ Strategies and Future Directions. International Center for Counter-Terrorism.
Blanchard, C. M., & Humud, C. E. (2017). The Islamic State and U.S. Policy. Congressional Research Service Washington United States.
Brachman, J. M. (2006). High-tech terror: Al-Qaeda’s use of new technology. Fletcher F. World Aff., 30, 149.
Fernandez, A. M. (2015). Here to Stay and Growing: Combating ISIS Propaganda Networks: The Brookings Project on U.S. Relations with the Islamic World. Center for Middle East Policy. Retrieved February, 18, 2018.
Jenkins, B. M., & Godges, J. (2011). The long shadow of 9/11: America’s response to terrorism. Rand Corporation.
Lakomy, M. (2021). Recruitment and incitement to violence in the Islamic State’s online propaganda: Comparative analysis of Dabiq and Rumiyah. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 44(7), 565-580.
Lieberman, A. V. (2017). Terrorism, the internet, and propaganda: A deadly combination. J. Nat’l Sec. L. & Pol’y, 9, 95.
Lyons, D. K. (2013). Analyzing the effectiveness of Al Qaeda’s online influence operations by means of propaganda theory. The University of Texas at El Paso.
Mattis, J. (2018). Summary of the 2018 national defense strategy of the United States of America. Department of Defense Washington United States.
Mohamedou, M. M. O. (2011). The rise and fall of Al Qaeda. Lessons in Post-September, 11(3), 4-38.
Post, J. M. (2002). Killing in the Name of God: Osama bin Laden and al Qaeda. USAF Counterproliferation Center Maxwell A.F.B. al.
Tønnessen, T. H. (2017). Islamic state and technology–a literature review. Perspectives on terrorism, 11(6), 101-111.
Van Evera, S. (2006). On every front: A strategy for the war on terror. How to make America safer: New policies for national security, 47-59.
Winter, C. (2017). Media Jihad: Islamic State’s Doctrine for Information Warfare. London, UK: International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence.
The American Health Care Act Of 2017 University Essay Example
The AHCA is a bill that was introduced in the US house of representatives in 2017. The bill was a reconciliation bill that would repeal the budget and financial sector of the Affordable Care Act. The Act repealed the penalties initially imposed on a person for the failure to maintain health coverage. The income-based tax credits for insurance purchasing would stop and the federal funding for the states that expanded Medicaid. The Act has its own penalty for individuals who do not adhere to the insurance payments.
The first part of the Act states the patient’s access to public programs. The Act amended the PPACA (Patient Protection and Affordable Act), which provides for investment and improves health care from growing costs. Under the bill, insurers will not be able to deny coverage for treating patients with pre-existing conditions. The bill will also stop federal funding for one year for services such as Planned Parenthood. The bill also enhanced the Medicaid program. The bill amends the Social Security Act to limit the Medicaid eligibility of a person. Other features of the Act include; repealing employer and individual mandates, an individual has to continue their coverage without gaps in payments, or they risk facing a one-year 30% premium surcharge (RAND, 2021). The Act also converts Medicaid funding into a per-capita funding allotment. It replaced the remittance of subsidies to be in that they increased according to age and also changed the ACAs banding from 3:1 to 5:1.
Additionally, the amendment also includes waivers and additional funding for states financially supporting high-risk enrollees. According to an analysis conducted by RAND Corporation (2021), the AHCA, by 2020, would reduce healthcare enrolment by 14 million people. Adversely, the loss of insurance would increase by 20 million in 2026. Older adults would also have to pay higher premiums because AHCA’s tax credits do not age with premiums.
The American Health Care Act of 2017 has been defined by Blumberg et al. (2017) as the Act that would repeal some sections of the Affordable Care Act. The researchers wrote a review paper when congress was considering passing the Act. They write that the Act will bring about changes in the federal taxes because it would eliminate almost all of the ACA’s revenue provisions. The Act would also introduce significant changes in the Medicaid programs (Blumberg et al., 2017). For data collection, the researchers used the Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Centre Microsimulation Model and the Urban Institute Health Policy Centre’s Health Insurance Policy Simulation Model (HIPSM) to allocate changes in taxes and federal health benefits across families grouped by income. The findings were that the American Health Care Act of 2017 had healthcare benefits that were regressive. The study showed that an average low-income family would suffer under AHCA, and an average high-income family would significantly benefit, taking into account both tax deductions and reductions of benefits from ACA. The average low-income family would lose more than 30% of the family income in 2022, and the average high-income family would gain 1.1 % income on their wealth (Blumberg et al., 2017). Families that have above 200% of the federal poverty level (FPL),would experience loss. In comparison, families with FPL above 300% would gain under AHCA, while families exceeding 600% would receive the greatest gains.
Another research conducted about the AHCA was done by Adler, Fiedler & Gronniger (2017). They analyzed the 2011 Medicaid programs and how a per capita would have affected the Medicaid program if it had been initially implemented in 2004 based on 200 spendings. The researchers demonstrate how a per capita like the one AHCA has would have significantly reduced the Medicaid funding in more than half of the total number of states at the same time not providing any funding to any states. They also demonstrated how the tendency of some states to begin a period with relatively lower spending would have generated large and hard to account for spendings. The findings of the study showed that a per capita cap would have reduced spending significantly in Medicaid. Also, under AHCAs per capita cap, a 1% per year increase in Medicaid spending would have nearly doubled the reduction of federal funding (Adler et al., 2017). In contrast, a similar reduction in spending growth would not have diminished federal funding in the same degree.
In another study by Rosenbaum (2017), she conducts a review of Medicaid and AHCA. Medicaid is a big program; the more people it covers, the more extensively poverty is in the US. Medicaid houses and covers children, people with physical challenges and disabilities and the elderly people who need life-time care in nursing homes. Therefore, it implements advanced technology and adopts a program that has always been pursued by lawmakers (Rosenbaum, 2017). Considering per capita basis, Medicaid is effective and efficient as it costs lesser than most forms of insurance cover. It is considered vast because it is always used first hand in dealing with high-risk factors in patients of all ages.
Population Impacted: During enactment, the Act will create employment and economic growth, but in 2018 and 2019, the Act would create federal deficits (Ku, 2017). In the later years, support for healthcare would reduce, causing negative economic effects. By 2026, almost 924 000 jobs would be lost, and businesses would go under loss. More jobs would be in the healthcare sector. The states that adopted Medicaid expansively would experience financial hardships due to a decline in memberships.
The analysis demonstrated how AHCA will cause a massive loss of jobs by 2026, nearly one million jobs. According to Ku (2017) an addition of 23 million Americans will be without health insurance per the CBO. When AHCA became an Act, the Trump administration released a budget proposal. It proposed an additional $610 billion in Medicaid reduction (Ku, 2017). These big cuts would have a huge impact on employment and economic damage as discussed in this study.
Health Outcome: During full implementation, the Act will reduce uninsured Americans by more than half, making more Americans be insured. The Act will also result in health insurance coverage by a total of 94% of the population in America. Uninsured people will reduce by almost 31 million, increasing Medicaid enrolment by 15 million people (Rosenbaum, 2011). This will ensure that health care will be more accessible.
Legislature: The bill was passed to become the American Health Care Act with a vote of 217 in favor of the bill against 213. The House Representatives were voting to repeal the Patient Protection and Affordable Act on May 4, 2017
The Nursing Role
The process of making health legislation in the US is a rather complex process that needs all hands on deck, from policymakers all the way to healthcare providers. When a bill is introduced in Congress, it is passed through various committees before implementing and putting in action. After the bill is voted for, it is passed as an Act and becomes law after it is signed by the president (Mason et al., 2015). Nurses have the ability to influence this process because of their connections to the healthcare organization.
Nurses can first impact the implementation and passing of legislation through their electorate districts as individuals. They can be actively engaged in passing bills to become law. The second way is through nursing bodies and organizations such as the American Nurses Associations, which can work with congress directly (Mason et al., 2015). As members of these professional bodies, nurses can support a bill with other advocates, which boosts their collective power. These efforts are reflected in the passing of a bill.
Also, nurses can play a role in advocating for their patients and hence bring about legislative change by becoming politically active and taking up leadership in the healthcare systems or keeping in contact with political leaders about healthcare system issues. They can also take up formal training classes in the field of politics in order to be able to integrate their nursing and political aspects to be able to be involved in committees, city councils and running for local office positions (American Nurse, 2016). Simply voting will also go a long way in legislating a healthcare policy.
At the healthcare level, the nurses can ensure that the healthcare policies are implemented and followed at the health center. They can educate themselves on the new laws so as to be able to improve patient outcomes and ensure that patients receive the care they deserve and are paying for. It is also important that patients are also informed about the Act and how effectively it can improve their medical care and healthcare.
Blumberg, L. J., Buettgens, M., Holahan, J., Mermin, G., & Sammartino, F. (2017). Who Gains and Who Loses Under the American Health Care Act. Washington, DC.
Adler, L., Fiedler, M., & Gronniger, T. (2017). Effects of the Medicaid per capita cap included in the House-passed American Health Care Act. White Paper. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. About the Center.
Rosenbaum, S. (2017). The American Health Care Act and Medicaid: changing a half-century federal-state partnership. Health Affairs Blog.
Mason, D. J., Gardner, D. B., Outlaw, F. H., & O’Grady, E. T. (Eds.). (2015). Policy & politics in nursing and health care (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Health Sciences.
American Nurse. (2016, September 22). The nursing profession’s potential impact on policy and politics. https://www.myamericannurse.com/nursing-professions-potential-impact-policy-politics/
Ku, L., Steinmetz, E., Brantley, E., Holla, N., & Bruen, B. (2017, June 14). AHCA economic and employment consequences for states. Commonwealth Fund. https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/issue-briefs/2017/jun/american-health-care-act-economic-and-employment-consequences
Rosenbaum, S. (2011, January). The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Implications for public health policy and practice. PubMed Central (PMC). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3001814/#