Technologies Importance In Nursing Documentation University Essay Example


Prior to technology adoption, nurses would pass down information to each other verbally. Most documentation was defensive; it focused on protected the nurse or care institution from litigation, slow and difficult to access. However, with the use of computerized systems to record nursing information, it is now possible for nurses to personalize care processes. Technology has caused them to become more patient-centered and thus more effective.

The relevance of technology in nursing documentation

Application of information systems in documentation assists in increasing visibility during care provision. Technology in documentation assists in the measurement of quality of care. If data on different nursing interventions is available on information systems, then national bodies can use these repositories as standards for assessment of performance. The information eases benchmarking and thus enables health institutions to improve service outcomes.

Quality assurance cannot take place without proper methods for data collection and analysis; technology provides a solution to both these problems. In line with the above argument is the assessment of caregiver competency. Technology allows supervisors to have a basis upon which to assess nurses during care provision. They can use information systems and best practice to analyze whether a nurse is doing the right thing.

Perhaps one of the most relevant benefits of technology in documentation is time-saving. During the 1980s, most nursing professionals created work charts and sheets, in which they spent a large portion of their time recording the events of their shift. Not only was this a tedious process, which was prone to numerous errors, it was also time-wasting. Manual nursing documentation takes time away from the patient and focuses it on the documentation process.

Therefore, nurses are prevented from improving the quality of care. However, the advent of nursing informatics and digital documentation of information minimized this problem (Fuller 2). While nurses spent almost 80% of their time on documentation processes in the past, technology has substantially reduced the amount of time that they spend on this activity today. Essentially, the nursing profession has become more efficient due to this approach.

Nursing errors can have detrimental effects on all stakeholders involved. Mistakes can worsen a patient’s medical condition or even lead to death. Alternatively, they can cause litigation from affected relatives. Hospitals would have to contend with tarnished images and loss of clients. They would also have to lose a lot of income on legal fees or fines. On the other hand, nurses’ competencies would be on the line. Proper documentation is one of the solutions to nursing error.

Technology-enhanced processes are more effective in the prevention of error. Documentation processes that rely on IT would not have to depend entirely on human judgment, which is susceptible to error. Technology provides a platform for detecting errors and thus protects patients, nurses and health institutions from the challenges associated with inaccuracies (Lyden 14). It achieves this by facilitating efficient communication between healthcare professionals in the institution. It also enables them to make a plan for patient care.

Documentation of nursing processes using technology also assists in analyzing the healthcare industry. It allows nurses from different hospitals to communicate with each other and thus establish best practice. Caregivers are able to know about the status of certain nursing interventions. New methods and practices are often made available to those who need them. Medical knowledge is now easily available to nurses from around the world because different professionals are documenting their processes (Fuller 8).

The ease with which nurses can access relevant patient information is another reason why technology is imperative in nursing documentation. Staff can easily retrieve data about a certain patient or situation and thus respond appropriately. In the past, manual systems would cause nurses to waste valuable patient time in retrieving their medical records. The technology eliminates the need for such an approach and thus enables efficient data collection.

Documentation processes that rely on technology are more accessible than manual processes. Staff members can easily find what they are looking for in different locations simultaneously. In the past, file systems could only be accessed by one entity, but technology has changed this (Lyden 14).

Technology is quite useful in the development of standardized language for nursing documentation. Standardized language is a universal code that consists of common terminology for interventions, outcomes and other aspects of care provision (Rutherford 8). Having a standardized language in nursing documentation assists nurses in communicating with one another. It also leads to better visibility of the care process, comparison of care processes in different settings as well as a better measurement of outcomes.

Technology is critical in the development of standard processes because it is the platform against which standardization takes place. Here, developers volunteer to offer information to a nursing committee. The submission process takes place using known software programs. After receiving the application, the committee checks for compatibility with certain criteria. This analytical process also takes place through a database that is available to the group. Usually, they update criteria from time to time.

Thereafter, the submission will be tested for reliability and validity through the use of technology. Once again, a group of people is responsible for updating this information through the use of nursing information software. Before final approval of the submission, experts need to ascertain that terms in the application are connectable. Additionally, the ease with which they are retrieved and stored is also examined. All this information depends on computerized information systems for nurses as well as the Commission’s information systems. In this regard, it is essential to acknowledge that all the aspects of nursing language standardization depend on technology. The platform makes approval of new criteria, seamless, fast and transparent (Rutherford 22).

Care providers can communicate with each other on the national and international level seamlessly through technology because they have standardized language on which to rely. Nurses can receive alerts concerning new interventions that are relevant to their area of study. For instance, standardized language assisted nurses in Brazil to develop protocols on caring for sexual violence victims. Other nurses learned from their experience and applied it in their own care regimens. Such information would not have been accessible to persons in different parts of the world, at a speedy rate, without technology (Rutherford 39).

Factors that undermine the effect of technology in nursing documentation

Staudinger et. al. (5) explain that most nurses understand the importance of technology in nursing performance assessment. However, few of them think of it as a tool for the enhancement of quality of care. This perception stems from the assumption that nursing is a profession that relies on close personal contact between patients and nurses. Therefore, some nurses feel that technology impedes this connection instead of enhancing it. When an institution does not address such misgivings about technology, nurses will only pay lip service to computerized documentation systems but they will not be committed to the outcomes. Institutions ought to address these reservations before they can realize any positive outcomes from technology.

The lack of skills required to use documentation technologies may also impede the positive effects of the approach. Not only do nurses require the IT skills needed to cope with nursing documentation, but they also require scientific knowledge in research and application of various models or theories of nursing. If nurses lack any of these skills, then they are likely to underutilize the potential of technology in the documentation.

Health institutions must take them through training in order to enable them to keep up with new developments. The problem of skill deficiency does not just affect individual caregivers; it also applies to entire organizations. Nursing administrators ought to select models of care that will govern practice in their institution. They must base their information technology system on this model. Administrators need to have the right technical background needed to merge nursing practice with ICT. In addition, they must know how to integrate quality assurance programs into their computerized documentation system. Deciding on the right benchmarks will be imperative in making technology work for an institution.

Some challenges in finance may also impede effective use of technology in nursing documentation. Many health institutions have rigorous cost management processes. Their administrators need to assess new projects thoroughly before they can approve of them. Most times, they examine how effectively a new initiative will contribute to better healthcare. Therefore, technology advocates must convince health administrators that computerized documentation will lead to an improvement in quality. Failure to demonstrate this trait could stifle funding and thus undermine the success of the strategy (Staudinger et. al. 17).

Poor consideration of legal issues could also come in the way of proper use of technology in nursing documentation. Institutions can face legal challenges if they do not have a proper way of documenting nursing processes. Once a computerized system has been chosen by an organization, the firm must then come up with various processes that incorporate all legal standards. A new IT documentation scheme must consider risk assessment as well as the comprehensiveness of care interventions. If these issues have not been included in the technology, then chances are that organizations will expose themselves to risk.

Organizational development issues may also become a matter of concern in the implementation of technology-assisted nursing documentation. During the beginning of the project, nurses will have to familiarize themselves with the new infrastructure. This might manifest in the form of additional workload as well as work disruptions. Daily planning must incorporate the new documentation system. Sometimes, the consecutive nature of documentation and nursing interventions may cause disruption. If an organization is quite large, then information transfer may be a complex process and could take a toll on nurses’ care processes.

They must invent a new workflow management system at the beginning of the technology process. Most companies respond to this problem by reminding nurses that the interruptions will only be temporary. They let them know that the problem will end when they fully understand the workings of the system. Administrators or IT advocates need to remind them that technology improves service provision, so any glitches they experience should be regarded as teething problems. Aside from the latter, most institutions detect potential challenges in organizational development and address them as soon as they arise.

Annotated Bibliography

Rutherford, Marjorie. “Standardized nursing language: What does it mean for nursing practice?” Online Journal of Issues in Nursing 13.1(2008): 1-15. Web.

The article focuses on the usefulness of the standardized nursing language. It identifies aspects such as improved communication and greater visibility as the key advantages of standardized nursing language. The information in the discussion is relevant to a discussion on nursing documentation because standardized nursing language relies almost exclusively on technology for implementation. Therefore advantages in standardized language also apply to the use of technology in nursing.

Staudinger, Bettina, Oskar Staudinger, Christa Them & Herwig Ostermann. “Successful implementation of electronic nursing documentation into practice.” Canadian Nursing Informatics Journal 2.2(2007): 7-19. Web.

The authors focus on matters of organizational change that arise during the implementation of electronic nursing documentation. They identify several human resources as well as technical aspects that may arise during implementation. They also give suggestions on how these challenges can be solved. This article is quite useful in the current discussion because it addresses obstacles to effective use of technology in nursing documentation.

Lyden, Cathy. “From paper to computer documentation: One easy step?” Online Journal of Nursing Informatics 12.3(2008): 1-10. Web. 

The author talks about a case study in which the institution transitioned from paper documentation to computer documentation. She addresses key challenges in the process especially in light of the selected software. The paper is relevant to the discussion because Lyden tackles the importance of technology in her institution.

Fuller, Crystal. “Challenges in nursing informatics.” Journal of Nursing 21(2013): 1-15. Web. 

This article focuses on the case of nursing informatics. It looks at statistics in the nursing profession and why people may choose the approach. The piece is quite useful in showing why technology is indispensable in nursing documentation.

Immanuel Kant, David Hume, Friedrich Hegel: Political Discourse


This paper traces the advancement of political thought via a study of some key writers of political discourse such as Immanuel Kant, David Hume, and Friedrich Hegel. Emanuel Kant was a German philosopher, and he was well known for his enormous contribution towards shaping the modern philosophy. Hume was a Scottish philosopher, and he aimed at developing the science of human nature based on empirical evidence and careful analysis.

On the other side, Hegel was a German idealist, and he accentuated issues of freedom together with self-consent. The political thinkers’ contributions and critical in analyzing the historical political thought as they give a broad understanding of how ideas have shaped the contemporary political enlightenment. They elaborate on how political philosophy has influenced the modern world. The main objective of this paper is to establish the origin and influence of the Great Chain of Being theory coupled with how the thoughts of Kant, Hume, and Hegel fit within the enlightenment era of modern political theory.

Origin of the Great Chain of Being theory

The Great Chain of Being theory related to the medieval cultural view of the natural hierarchy. Scholars like Kant, Hume, and Hegel conceptualized the concept of the Great Chain of Being theory differently. Their views were that the theory represented how the European political philosophies related to the natural world. Kant’s focus was to develop an insight into different thinking on what entailed pure reasoning1. Kant was a rationalist, and thus he believed that life does not contain predetermined certainties and facts.

Kant criticizes the idea of Hume’s radical empiricism that what people think they know is just but assumptions. Kant examines regularity in succession. He describes the order in the sequence in which an event precedes the other. He argues that the succession leads to irreversible changes, and thus it creates a new impress on2.Kant’s idea suits the enlightenment paradigm in the view that the revolutionary changes that the western nations experienced cannot be reversed. Change in the state of affairs and thus the establishment of new laws and public involvement represent the advances in the modern political theory.

Hume argues that people learn life lessons through their senses, thus accumulating ideas in the process. Hume argues that individuals are guided by what he refers to as ‘animal faith’3. In Hume’s argument, he says that people just develop a feeling that, for instance, the sun will rise tomorrow or it will rain, and it happens. Hume suggests that people’s sense of something happening develops out of reoccurring experiences of the same events. However, there is no available evidence implying that one situation caused another. Hume’s argument can only be based on faith that what will happen in the future will be similar to past events.

However, there lacks solid empirical evidence to support his verifications. Hume’s sense of causality is challenged in the enlightenment era of modern political theory since the future does not necessarily resemble the past. For instance, the enlightenment era is characterized by free-market courtesy of capitalism as opposed to feudalism. People develop a sense of self-actualization and alter the status quo through revolutions. Hegel states that things or events do not just happen to exist as people see them, but they develop through several stages to be what they are. This evolving period indicates how things work. Hegel further states that for things to become what they are, they depend on other situations.

Hegel’s dialectic work presents people’s life expectations in politics as coming up positive, diverting at some point, and being negative as well. After this process, a resolution of mixed ideas is reached with both positives and negatives. The idea advanced by Hegel is highly practical in what individuals experience in life. For example, during the pre-enlightenment era, the mighty rulers of the monarchy created ranks, which ensured that the riches were limited to them, and thus they did not reach the subjects. This aspect ensured dependence, hence compliance of the subjects to their masters. After a process of conflict and resolutions later during the enlightenment era due to revolutions in Western societies, the era of repressive leadership ended.

Historical influence

Hegel’s political philosophy was based on several aspects that influenced persons on how he viewed the state. For instance, Hegel talked of formal freedom, where he noted that for freedom to be achieved, the state had to provide the ethical structures of society4. He argued that formal freedom was achieved through the enlightenment of the American and French revolutions that helped to safeguard personal rights from oppressive leadership. On the contrary, substantial freedom brings unification and ends the conflict between individuals and the state.

If an individual does not reconcile to the ideals of the institution, then that person lives in alienation. Hegel advocated political democracy and emphasized the need for a state to have a constitution. He emphasized the need for the central government and the constitutional structures protecting the wellbeing of the people across the European continent. Hegel’s political philosophy was an advocacy tool for agents of change during the transition from the pre-enlightenment era to the enlightenment period. His idea of substantial freedom was echoed by many scholars as crucial to the way humans interacted with the authorities.

In his theory of knowledge, Kant talks of how the mind dictates what nature should be5. He claims that the political world provides things that people sense, and their minds articulate the events and give the order to the world. For the establishment of the self, one has to experience the external world. German idealism was developed from work written by Kant. His religious thinking was borrowed by Britain during the 19th Century to stop a possible decline in Christian faith and beliefs.

Influence on modern thinkers

Kant’s works are widely accepted as well as criticized, and his influence on later philosophical thinking is unparalleled. For instance, Kant was accused of the depreciation of the Christian beliefs, and thus he was discouraged from interfering with religious beliefs. His influence is reflected in Marxism among other social and behavioral disciplines. For example, Kant expressed certain measures that were necessary for solving wars and establishing long-term solutions such as introducing constitutional republics.

He elaborated on the republican government and international organizations without supporting the idea that democracy could bring peace. Instead, he saw direct democracy as the exercise of power by the many against the minority groups, which do not agree. Kant’s influences go further when he identifies democracy and republics as the most favorable forms of government. Kant developed several ideas, which are used in modern philosophy such as the principle of reasoning.

Modern scholars identified the principle of reason as a key to shifting from the enlightenment period to the post-enlightenment era through the invention and creation of better policies. Modern political thinkers aimed at improving the available socio-economic structures to fit the increasing need for equality, which was ignored in the pre-enlightenment period.

The enlightenment era

The era of enlightenment influenced scientific, cultural, and intellectual realms. This period spurred the revolution in the United States and France. According to Kant, “it was the moment when humanity self-actualized from an immature state of ignorance and the state of liberation of individuals’ minds from the dogmatic level of understanding”6. Bertrand Russell argues that enlightenment emerged at a time when the Protestants revolted against the Catholic dogmas7.

The Protestants wanted to break from the Pope as they were against monarchy. The idea behind the enlightenment was to achieve specified political goals. Kant generally views the enlightenment as the freedom to express own ideas and use them to achieve the intended goals. Hume considered reason and freedom as the key to modern political thought. Through reason, human beings developed laws. Many philosophers differed in many ways, but for the sake of the wellbeing of humanity, they agreed that reason was the key to human liberty.

Philosophers criticized Christians who opposed science. Christians believed in reward of good actions or retribution for bad actions in the life after death. People had belief in the monarchs to change society from the top and bring hope to the European society, but this hope never actualized, as the rulers remained conservative8.

Kant, unlike many enlightenment thinkers, highlights that democracy might not always represent humanity, but it can be means of achieving basic personal desires at the same time pursuing collective ends. During the enlightenment period, rulers were encouraged to adopt better forms of governance, which were inclusive of different arms having the mandate to watch over each other. This approach ensured that the society was protected and well represented in decision-making.

Hegel’s political philosophy on how the individual related to the state was later reflected in the modern political thought. Societies experienced relief from the oppressive authorities, increased concern for human rights, and religious independence. Gender inequality, racial discrimination, and marginalization of minority groups were also addressed.

The enlightenment period is described by rising empiricism, freedom, democracy, and the principle of reason among other basic values of society and the elimination of authoritative rule by kings. This approach leads to elaborate scientific methods, democracy, and religious freedom. The rise of modern nation-state and the emergence of capitalism steered individuals towards independence and self-awareness.

Although democracy was the key to people’s freedom, many governments adopted republics as democracy was seen as the rule of the majority. Modern political thought drew inspiration largely from the enlightenment isms, which advocated individualism vis-à-vis capitalism and this form of economic structuring was believed to be the drive behind innovation. This assertion is evident today in countries like the US, which quickly adopted the enlightenment philosophies.

The separation of the church from the state was yet another step towards modern political perspective. This era also saw the collapse of the monarchical system of governance where leadership was predetermined and only through birth that people could expect a change in leadership9. However, with democracy and republics, citizens can elect leaders of their choice for a given period.

The majority of Europeans and Americans openly expressed racism towards people of different affiliations. Slavery was still rampant which saw Africans as inferior people. During the enlightenment period, these slaves were alienated alongside other marginalized groups like women. However, with time and maturity of the enlightenment era, Africans were freed from slavery and advocacy against racism was embraced across the modern western philosophies.

Implications of Enlightenment era in the modern society

The enlightenment resulted in the irreversible changes as earlier indicated by Kant. The Western societies became dynamic and people started appreciating their leaders. The public was highly involved in economic and political activities. Leaders were motivated by reason rather than greed to pursue national and international agendas10.

The law emphasized respect for humanity and equality to all regardless of gender or race. The enlightenment era did not occur at once. This assertion means that regions that opened up early took advantage of the other regions that were yet to experience enlightenment. For example, Western countries were informed, which meant that they benefited from the collective undertakings such as the international law. This aspect enhanced dominance, thus creating regional imbalance.


After a wide assessment and analysis of the enlightenment transition in respect to the views of Kant, Hume, and Hegel, one can conclude that enlightenment radically transformed the Western world massively. The idea of reason was developed and modern political philosophies initiated. The ancient powers of the monarchy became irrelevant and they were replaced with democracies, which suited the general need of the people to exercise freedom.

As Hegel indicates, modern nation-state manifests a sense of self-consciousness of its perceptions of nature and objectives of modern political implications such as actualization of freedom. Even though different ideas came from the three philosophers, their concepts contributed to the enlightenment period and the development of the modern political theory. They have achieved this by changing the tradition of thinking about the nature of political rule by establishing the root of political oppression and developing a way out of domination.


Lively, Jack, and Andrew Reeve. Modern political theory from Hobbes to Marx: Key debates. New York: Routledge, 2013.

Tampio, Nicholas. Kantian courage: Advancing the enlightenment in Contemporary political theory. New York: Fordham University Press, 2012.

Zafirovski, Milan. The Enlightenment and its effects on Modern Society. New York: Springer, 2010.


  1. Nicholas Tampio, Kantian courage: Advancing the enlightenment in Contemporary political theory (New York: Fordham University Press, 2012), 137.
  2. Nicholas Tampio, Kantian courage: Advancing the enlightenment in Contemporary political theory (New York: Fordham University Press, 2012), 109.
  3. Jack Lively and Andrew Reeve, Modern political theory from Hobbes to Marx: Key debates (New York: Routledge, 2013), 83.
  4. Jack Lively and Andrew Reeve, Modern political theory from Hobbes to Marx: Key debates (New York: Routledge, 2013), 88.
  5. Nicholas Tampio, Kantian courage: Advancing the enlightenment in Contemporary political theory (New York: Fordham University Press, 2012), 97.
  6. Milan Zafirovski, The Enlightenment and its effects on Modern Society (New York: Springer, 2010), 95.
  7. Jack Lively and Andrew Reeve, Modern political theory from Hobbes to Marx: Key debates (New York: Routledge, 2013), 111.
  8. Milan Zafirovski, The Enlightenment and its effects on Modern Society (New York: Springer, 2010), 100.
  9. Milan Zafirovski, The Enlightenment and its effects on Modern Society (New York: Springer, 2010), 142.
  10. Jack Lively and Andrew Reeve, Modern political theory from Hobbes to Marx: Key debates (New York: Routledge, 2013), 83.

8 S’s Model In Human Resource Management

The sustainability of organizations depends on various factors that shape different aspects such as the motivation of employees, their commitment to business goals, attitudes of clients, productivity, and so forth. It is possible to consider the so-called 8 Ss model that can illustrate the attributes that are important for successful enterprises. Much attention should be paid to such factors as strategy, systems, structure, staff, shared values, skills, style, as well as spirituality. To a great extent, the components of this model can be useful for improving the sustainability of a business. This framework should be considered by various stakeholders, such as HR managers and senior executives. These are the main details that should be discussed in greater detail.

At first, it is important to mention such a notion as a strategy or long-term and high-level goals that an organization should achieve. These objectives should be clear and appealing to various stakeholders, such as senior executives, frontline managers, and employees. Additionally, much attention should be paid to the role of structure. This element is supposed to describe the methods in which tasks are allocated among different employees. For instance, an organization can be divided into units, departments, or divisions that can be engaged in various economies. Moreover, the term structure is supposed to depict the power relations among employees and managers.

For instance, in some companies, employees have more opportunities to taking independent decisions. Yet, very often, workers are deprived of this opportunity. Thus, the key task of managers is to make sure that the organizational structure best fits the needs and objectives of a business. It is also necessary to examine the role of systems, which can be regarded as the set of procedures and rules that facilitate the interactions among various stakeholders. In this case, one can speak about performance appraisal methods, training programs, or cost-accounting procedures. Systems can significantly increase the efficiency of the enterprise and strengthen the commitment of employees.

Much attention should also be paid to shared values, which are important for the commitment of employees and their improved performance. Among these shared values, one can distinguish integrity, attention to quality, and responsibility. Furthermore, the workers should understand that the improved performance of the company can benefit them as well. Moreover, they need to share the vision of managers. It is also critical to examine the managerial style. This term can be often applied to describe the relations between people who occupy different positions in the workplace hierarchy. In some cases, managers can act in an autocratic manner and impose their decisions on the workers. In contrast, other executives may be more willing to consider the opinions of workers and empower them. This is one of the details that should be taken into account. Overall, it is important to select the most appropriate style that best corresponds to the needs of a particular organization.

Another component of the 8 Ss model is usually known as staff. In this context, this term incorporates several elements, such as the motivation of workers, their beliefs, and attitudes. It is necessary to understand the attitudes of employees because, in this way, one can better pinpoint the origins of the problems that a company may face. This issue should be taken into account by HR managers who must gain in-depth insights into the behavior of employees and their main motives.

Furthermore, researchers also focus on skills or the competencies of the employees as well as the organization, in general. Managers should continuously work on the development of people’s skills because, in this way, one can significantly increase the resilience of a company to various stressors such as the changes in demand or the threats posed by new competitors. Therefore, one should help workers achieve professional growth because it can be vital for the sustainability of the company in the long term. This issue should also be the main priority for HR managers who need to develop appropriate training programs for workers. This element of the 8 Ss model should be vital for professionals who are responsible for the recruitment of employees.

The last component of the 8 Ss model is spirituality. This concept should not be interpreted only from a religious perspective. More likely, this term can be defined as the willingness of the management to consider the inner world of employees, their emotional needs, and aspirations (Tourish & Tourish 2010, p. 211). In the past, this element has often been disregarded by managers. Nevertheless, the findings of researchers suggest that companies try to focus more on this issue because the spirituality of leaders is important for gaining the trust of employees (Tourish & Tourish 2010). Additionally, spiritual leaders are able to change the values of workers and make them more committed to organizational goals. This is why this component of the 8 Ss model should not be overlooked.

On the whole, this discussion indicates that the study that 8 Ss model can be useful for identifying the factors that can influence the performance of any organization. While analyzing the functioning of an enterprise, one should consider each of these elements because they are useful for evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of this business. Moreover, this model is important for developing long-term policies for the company. These are the main points that can be made.


Tourish, D & Tourish, N 2010, ‘Spirituality at Work, and its Implications for Leadership and Followership: A Post-structuralist Perspective Leadership’, Leadership, vol. 6. no. 10, pp. 207-226.