Technology And Social Media Role In Customer Service Free Essay

Technology and social media play a considerable role in defining how brands are perceived by customers and the general public. Firms not only use social media and the internet to advertise their products but also to receive feedback from customers on the performance of their products. The feedback provided is often public and can be viewed by anyone with access to the internet. Negative feedback can adversely affect how a specific brand is perceived by the general public and can require plenty of resources by firms to rectify. According to Sun et al. (2021), online customer reviews can either strengthen or weaken a brand depending on whether they are positive or negative. Brands that receive positive customer reviews are more likely to attract more customers and retain them. On the other hand, negative reviews can weaken a brand and drive down its demand. Social media, therefore, exposes any negative customer service by firms, which eventually forces them to make improvements.

Social media also forced brands to provide exemplary customer service by engaging with customers before and after purchases. According to Sashi et al. (2019), brands respond immediately to customer complaints raised on social media and clear any miscommunication that may have negatively affected the customer experience. The internet and social media have therefore made firms more sensitive to key issues that customers may face when using their products and services, which improves the customer experience. Customers can also easily make inquiries and receive useful information about a firm’s products and services through social media. As a result, customers can get timely information that can influence their purchase decision. Technology and social media have therefore made firms more accountable to customers, which substantially improves the quality of service provided.


I agree that social media is a key channel through which customers can reach brands and vice versa. Most companies nowadays are active on most social media platforms where they take questions from customers and provide answers to the best of their ability. Even high-ranking corporate leaders use social media to interact with customers and provide detailed information about the activities of their companies. As a result, firms need detailed and effective social media management strategies that can ensure they avoid possible glitches that can adversely affect their publicity. Well-trained professionals should be selected to interact with customers, which can aid in shaping the brand reputation of the company. Generally, firms nowadays cannot afford not to have a social media strategy.


Sashi, C., Brynildsen, G., & Bilgihan, A. (2019). Social media, customer engagement and advocacy. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 31(3), 1247-1272.

Sun, M., Chen, J. l., Tian, Y., & Yan, Y. (2021). The impact of online reviews in the presence of customer returns. International Journal of Production Economics, 232.

Biotechnology: The Protein Separation

Materials and Methods

GST Pull Down

The protein-protein interaction experiment produced the 6*His-USP elution fraction that was carefully transferred into a microfuge labeled USP7D. The labeled microfuge was then stored on ice. GST and GST-EBNA 1 peptide columns, which were initially loaded in the freezer, were obtained and allowed to thaw at RT for approximately 2minutes after which they were placed on ice. The lids and plugs from the peptide-loaded columns were removed and placed on#3 glass test tubes. The columns were washed twice with 1ml of 1*PBS PH 7.4.The aim of the pull down experiment was to use chromatography to find out whether there was any interaction or any biological activity between the two proteins (Hayes, Flanagan & Jowsey, 2005).

To ensure there was a positive interaction between the proteins 6*His USP7 and GST-EBNA1, two consecutive experiments were conducted. First, they were incubated for ~90 minutes in a fridge. Half of the purified 6*His-USP 7 (200ml) was dialyzed and mixed with 800 µL of 1*PBS pH 7.4 During this step, the SDS-PAGE gel was casted which took ~2hours (Reed, Holmes, Weyers & Jones, 2007).

The liquid fractions were collected and put in microfuge tubes labeled GSTE PD-UP and GST PD-UP which were then stored in ice. The liquid contained the unbound protein. The samples were centrifuged at 1000rpm for 1minute RT. Samples 7 and 8 were made by separating the liquid into two (20-µL) aliquots, which were similarly labeled. The samples were washed for six times. The sixth wash was obtained and labeled as GST-PDW and GSTE-PDW that is sample 9 and 10 respectively.

200 µL of a GST-Elution buffer were added to the samples after which they were incubated for 10 minutes. The Elutes were then transferred into microfuge tubes labeled GSTPD Elt and GSTEPD Elt and placed on ice. These tubes held the eluted fractions from the pull down extraction. They were labeled and represented samples 11 and 12 for SDS page analysis. SDS-PAGE Gel was casted and incubated. These samples were labeled as GST-PDUP and GSTE PD-UP respectively.

Table 1

Gel 1 Lane 1 Lane 2 3 Lane 4 Lane 5 Lane 6
sample 1 GSTE-NI GSTE Lys GSTE Lys USP7 Lys Protein marker USPD7


Vol. µL 24 12 12 20 24

(Middelberg, 2006)

Table 2

GEL 2 Lane 1 Lane 2 Lane 3 Lane 4 Lane 5 Lane 6 7
Sample GST PD-UP GSTE PD-UP GST PD-W Protein marker 10 GSTE PD-W GST PD-Elt 5 GSTE

PD Elt

Vol. µL 24 24 20 24 24 24

(Middelberg, 2006)


The relationship between two protein produces 6* His-USP elution which was first put in microfuge (labeled USP7D) for incubation. GST and GST-EBNA 1 columns were obtained and allowed to thaw for about 2 minutes. The columns were then buffered twice with 1 ml of 18PBS pH 7. 4 (Reed, Holmes, Weyers, & Jones, 2007).

In order to ensure positive results, two respective experiments were conducted. Both setups were incubated for 90 minutes in a fridge. Part of it was dialyzed and mixed with 800 micro-liters of 1*PBS pH 7.4. At this stage, SDS-PAGE gel was casted. This experiment took approximately 2 hrs (Hong, Yu, & Kang, 2002; Atkinson & Babbitt, 2009).

15% SDS PAGE Gel GST EBNA1 appears larger in the 6th lane of the legend figure the GST PD

Liquid portions were collected, labeled and placed in ice. They were then buffered for six times and re-labeled again as sample 9 and 10. 200 micro-liters of GST elution buffer were added to the samples after a 10 minutes incubation period. They were then labeled as sample 11 and 12 for SDS page analysis. A total of 12 samples were obtained from various experiment for the SDS-PAGE experiment. The samples were placed on different wells on the gels as shown in the tables above.

From legend figure, lane 8 constituents included

  1. GST pull down
  2. GST PD-UP
  3. GST-PDW
  4. Protein marker
  6. GST-PD-Eit
  7. GSTE PD-Eit

Showing a 15% SDS-PAGE gel. (A 15% SDS Page gel running of loaded samples and a protein marker). (Reed, Holmes, Weyers, & Jones, 2007)
Figure 1. Showing a 15% SDS-PAGE gel. (A 15% SDS Page gel running of loaded samples and a protein marker). (Reed, Holmes, Weyers, & Jones, 2007)

(Assay of protein pull-down, the interaction between 6* His-USP and GST-EBNA1 was studied. The procedure aimed at examining if there was any biological protein-protein interaction between the two proteins. A blue eye prestained protein was used as the control marker).

15% SDS-PAGE gel with loaded samples and a protein marker. (Reed, Holmes, Weyers, & Jones, 2007)
Figure 2. 15% SDS-PAGE gel with loaded samples and a protein marker. (Reed, Holmes, Weyers, & Jones, 2007)

The M.V(kDA) verses the disatance traveled. (Middelberg, 2006)
Figure 4. The M.V(kDA) verses the disatance traveled. (Middelberg, 2006)

The Log of disatance travelled verses the M.V. (kDA). (Middelberg, 2006)
Figure 5. The Log of disatance travelled verses the M.V. (kDA). (Middelberg, 2006)


From the above figure 2, the lane with GST EBNA produced a larger band compared to lane 6 that contained GST PD Elt. Virtually every cell in the human body contains an enzyme called Glutathione S-transferase (GSH). The enzyme is important especially for scavenging of free radicals through the below equation (Hong, Yu & Kang, 2002; Osuna, & Casamayor, 2011; MacDonald, & Lucy, 2006; Oakley, 2011).

2 GSH (reduced glutathione) ⇒ GSSG (OXIDISED GLUTATHIONE)

GSH is one of the GST’s substrate and hence GST can bind the unusual tri-peptide present in GSH with a very high affinity. The aim of the experiment was to exploit this high affinity interaction between the two compounds. The experiment involved initial purification of the two proteiens and later a set up to study their particular intterraction through a pulldown protein assay technique.The GSH can be coupled to sepharose or agarose beads, after which the beads can be employed in the affinity chromatography. Affinity chromatography can utilize either a gravity flow purification or a batch purification. This fusion however requires glutathione to be in its reduced GSH form. The GST tag is recovered by the application of a protease thrombin, an enzyme that that lyses cleaves at the thrombin cleavage site. The protein of interest is then obtained from GST (Atkinson & Babbitt, 2009; Wu, & Koiwa, 2012).

The ubiquitin protease, USP 7 is a deubiquitylating enzyme that removes ubiquitin from its substrate. It performs an important role in tumor suppression as it supports the function of the protein p53. EBV is on the hand a virus, which is greatly associated with some forms of cancer. EBV competes with p53 for USP53. The virus EBNA1 used in the experiment has been previously associated with effects that are similar to EBV. The study tested if the protein EBNA1 and USP interact (Rath, Glibowicka, Nadeau, Chen & Deber, 2009; Board, 2011).

The blue bands on the clear background show that the procedure was perfect on figure 1. Figure 2 however has many errors, which might have been caused by contamination or by protein degradation. There is a direct relationship between a protein mobility and the log its molecular weight (Figure 5). The other drawback of such a purification is that if a protein requires post-translational modifications, the whole process definitely fails. The apparent molecular weights are most likely closer to the true protein weights. As was expected, there was reported a likely interaction between , USP 7 and the EBNA1 proteins. The standard curve requires the determination of the position of each band (Middelberg, 2006).

In conclusion, It is vey important that due to the many different proteins, any form of error be avoided during the protein sepataion. Accuracy is very important as it eliminates some of the errors that may lead to wrong results. Secondly, contaminations have to be avoided by ensuring use of sterile equipment. It is advisable to take note of the false positives and false negatives that may result.


Atkinson, H., & Babbitt, P. (2009). Glutathione transferases are structural and functional outliers in the thioredoxin fold. Biochemistry, 48(46), 11108–11116.

Board, P. (2011). Glutathione transferases. Drug metabolism reviews, 43(2), 91.

Flanagan, J., & Smythe, M. (2011). Sigma-class glutathione transferases. Drug metabolism reviews, 43(2), 194 – 214..

Hayes, J., Flanagan, J., & Jowsey, I. (2005). Glutathione transferases.” Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology, 45(1), 51 – 88.

Hong, S., Yu, J., & Kang, S. (2002). Ultrastructural localization of 28 kDa glutathione S-transferase in adult Clonorchis sinensis. The Korean Journal of Parasitology, 40(4), 173 – 176.

MacDonald, A., & Lucy, C. (2006). Highly efficient protein separations in capillary electrophoresis using a supported bilayer/diblock copolymer coating. Journal of Chromatography A, 1130(2), 265 – 271.

Middelberg, A. (2006). Biomolecular Engineering. Chemical Engineering Science, 61(3), 875.

Oakley, A. (2011). Glutathione transferases: a structural perspective. Drug metabolism reviews, 43(2), 138 – 151.

Osuna, B., & Casamayor, E. (2011). Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Protein Electrophoresis of Freshwater Photosynthetic Sulfur Bacteria. Current Microbiology, 62(1), 111 – 116.

Rath, A., Glibowicka, M., Nadeau, V., Chen, G., &Deber, C. (2009). Detergent binding explains anomalous SDS-PAGE migration of membrane proteins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(6), 1760–1765.

Reed, R., Holmes, D., Weyers, J., & Jones, A. (2007). Practical Skills in Biomolecular Science (3rd ed). Toronto: Pearson Education Canada.

Wu, X., & Koiwa, H. (2012). One-step casting of Laemmli discontinued sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel. Analytical biochemistry, 421(1), 347.

Decision-Making Process And Types Of Skills


Today, the ability to solve business problems, conflicts between employees to maintain the team spirit within the team is an essential part of the functioning of the business. According to Minda, “thinking is so central to the human experience that it has been described as the essence of being” (Minda 3). However, many employers underestimate these aspects of building a business. Accordingly, various misunderstandings and conflicts can occur during the workflow. It would help understand what decision-making skills are, their types, and the possibility of improving this skill.

Decision Making Skills

Decision-making abilities demonstrate a person’s ability to choose between two or more options. People can make judgments once they have processed all relevant data and spoken with the appropriate contacts in a given circumstance. According to Heidari and Shahbazi, “knowing decision-making and applying fruitful strategies for the creation of this skill is essential” (Heidari & Shahbazi, 6). Overall, it is critical to establish methods that assist in making the best decision for the business and make a deliberate attempt to discover biases that may influence the decision’s outcome. Every day, people have the opportunity to develop their decision-making abilities by the choices they make. Many of these decisions are habitual, but just bringing them to consciousness allows for examination, analysis, and self-reflection, which may be utilized to improve these and other choices.

Indeed, learning from the repercussions of incorrect judgments will help the person improve their decision-making abilities. According to Stankevich, the “decision-making process has advanced and has become an important topic in the marketing society and literature” (Stankevich 7). However, for high-value judgments with substantial repercussions, we would like to have honed these abilities ahead of time to prevent potentially disastrous results. As a result, the objective would be to strengthen our decision-making abilities in a setting where the danger of substantial negative repercussions from incorrect decisions is minimized or eliminated.


Intuition is about making decisions and trusting instincts; instincts are based on prior experiences and the underlying values that motivate a person every day. People’s decisions are influenced by the sum of their experiences and the lessons they have learned from them. Therefore, they must link their intuition to possible actions in order to determine if their conclusion is reasonable and actionable.

The majority of individuals would admit that their reasoning is not always correct. However, even if we are not adept at using intuition, we want it to be flawless. It is magical thinking, yet intuition has nothing to do with magic. While intuition is not always accurate, we can improve it to make it more useful. People learn how to recognize, integrate, utilize, and evaluate their intuitive experiences through intuition practice. On a more exciting note, individuals still do not entirely comprehend the process that permits us to receive knowledge through correct intuition. As a result, scientists may one day find biological differences between pure intuition and other phenomena like wishful thinking, projection, and imagination.


One of the most important talents to have while making a decision is the ability to reason. Ascertain that the individual considers all of the benefits and drawbacks of the decision being considered. It is the most effective approach to reason with the present while also planning for the future while being objective and grounded. Consider all accessible and relevant data pieces to assist individuals in making decisions and deciding whom to make them with. They want to maintain their reasoning in line with the opinions of the individuals they trust, and they want to stick to their objectives.

Inductive reasoning is the process of utilizing specific circumstances to draw broad generalizations. Inductive reasoning, often known as “cause-and-effect reasoning,” is a “bottom-up” problem-solving method. For instance, the individual may notice that his or her elder sister, person’s friend’s older sister, and person’s mother’s older sister are all neat. Therefore, as a result of inductive logic, all elder sisters are neat.

Deductive reasoning is the process of making a broad statement and then supporting it with particular circumstances or data. It is a “top-down” technique to concluding. Take the phrase “all apples are fruits,” for example. When someone says something particular like “all fruits grow on trees,” another person might conclude that all apples grow on trees.

The two methods of arriving at a conclusion or proposition, inductive and deductive thinking, are opposed. Inductive reasoning starts with an observation, supports it with patterns, and then leads to a hypothesis or theory, whereas deductive reasoning starts with a theory, supports it with observation, and leads to confirmation. Patterns and trends are used in inductive reasoning, whereas facts and rules are used in deductive reasoning. Furthermore, deductive reasoning flows from general to particular, whereas inductive reasoning flows from specific to general. Inductive reasoning, for example, might be used to understand how something works by noticing patterns. On the other hand, deductive reasoning may be more helpful in defining and creating connections between two or more things.

Decision Making Process

To choose, the individual must first determine the problem to be solved or the question to be answered. Then, clearly describe the decision; if the individual misidentifies the problem to solve or chooses a too broad problem, the decision train will be derailed before leaving the station. Finally, if the person has to reach a specific objective due to their decision, make it quantifiable and timely to know whether or not they achieved the goal after the process. Once a decision has been made, the next step is to acquire the information needed to make that decision. First, do an internal review to determine where the company has excelled and failed to choose. Also, look for information from outside sources, like studies, market research, and, in certain circumstances, paid consultant evaluation.

Identify viable solutions to the problem now that relevant knowledge is at the person’s fingertips. When attempting to achieve a goal, there are generally several options to consider. For example, if the firm wants to increase social media engagement, options may include paid social ads, a change in organic social media strategy, or a mix of the two. After the individual has selected several options, weigh the evidence in favor of or against them. Examine what organizations have done to achieve success in these areas and the organization’s successes and failures. Consider the potential drawbacks of each option and how they compare to the potential benefits. The person decides in this stage of the decision-making process. Hopefully, the individual has recognized and clarified the choice that needs to be made, acquired the necessary data, and created and examined the various options. The person is then well equipped to make a decision.

Act on the person’s decision after he or she has made it. Create a strategy for making a choice a reality. Create a project strategy for the decision and assign tasks to the team once the plan is in place. Take an honest look back at the decision after a set length of time – which person defined in step one of the decision-making process. Then, for future reference, make a note of what worked. If not, learn from mistakes and start the decision-making process all over again.

Types of Decision-Making Skills

Decision-making abilities can be the difference between making a good decision and making a bad one. The capacity to make decisions is a leadership quality that denotes the ability to think objectively and connect ideas to people’s objectives. Furthermore, the ability to make a rapid choice may aid in forming a solid relationship with all employees, which helps develop the company’s culture. Every business requires employees with a variety of decision-making abilities. Every workplace choice, wide or little, necessitates a decision-making process. Every day, even if the individual is unaware of it, they use some decision-making process. There are several sorts of decision-making procedures, none of which are included in this article. People that make decisions based on their feelings, for example, use the term “emotional” to describe their entire decision-making process.

Financial, legal, strategic, and tactical decision-making are other forms of decision-making that might be evaluated depending on the results. All are legitimate types, but people will treat them as sub-types in the context of the person or company impacted. To put it another way, personal decision-making encompasses financial, legal, and strategic sub-types of decisions that influence a person or individual.

Problem Solving

Leaders may use their problem-solving abilities to make critical business decisions. In order to evaluate the various elements necessary to make an intelligent decision, the person must consider multiple perspectives. A person must separate his or her emotions from discussions with others who may affect decision-making. The core of having good problem-solving abilities can make judgments quickly and efficiently. It necessitates conducting research and paying great attention to detail to match the scenario’s facts.

Problem-solving abilities are necessary for every profession and at every level. As a result, successful issue solving may need technical abilities particular to the sector or position. When engaging with patients, a registered nurse, for example, will need active listening and communication skills, as well as an excellent technical understanding of illnesses and treatments. In addition, as part of the solution, a nurse will often need to know when to consult a doctor about a patient’s medical requirements.

Problem-solving requires the ability to conduct research. As a problem solver, the person must first identify and comprehend the source of the problem. Then, by discussing with other team members, contacting more experienced colleagues, or obtaining expertise through online research or classes, the individual might begin to acquire additional information about an issue.


To make an intelligent choice, people must collaborate with their coworkers at some point. For example, a person may need to consult with the marketing manager on the best approach to engage with a customer and enhance the outcomes of their last quarter’s marketing effort. In this case, a person utilizes logic to break down alternatives to assist the client in improving their campaign so that a status report may provide relevant data. After that, the individual may balance the many key performance indicators that can be used to gauge the project’s success in the future. Overall, working as part of a team impacts the outcomes a person achieves and the number of individuals impacted by the team’s choice. Workplace success is dependent on teamwork abilities, regardless of sector or job title. Working effectively with clients, colleagues, supervisors, and other coworkers may help finish things more quickly while also making the workplace more pleasurable. A healthy, high-functioning workplace is generally one that promotes excellent collaboration skills.

Emotional Intelligence

People with emotional intelligence are more aware of their feelings and may communicate them to promote action. Their emotions should serve as a foundation for their motivation for a specific cause or purpose that inspires them. However, how well-informed people are when reaching a final judgment is determined by interpreting facts on the issue. The capacity to recognize and comprehend human emotions is referred to as emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence may be used to work and interact with others as well as with oneself. Emotional intelligence may aid in the development of professional relationships, job completion, and goal achievement. While emotional intelligence may appear to be a hazy or complicated term, there are precise strategies to improve this ability. People utilize emotional intelligence in many aspects of their lives, but there are particular ways they may apply it at work with their coworkers, clients, and bosses.

During the workweek, devote some time to paying close attention to the interactions that surround the individual. Observing how individuals express and react to emotion might help people improve their empathy. While seeing people and their relationships can be beneficial, monitoring and responding to feelings can also help a person become more emotionally aware. For example, when a person is stressed, a person could find that he or she is irritable with people. Likewise, when people are unhappy or dissatisfied, their shoulders may sag, and their heads may point downward.

Logical Reasoning

Competitive examinations have a logical reasoning portion. It includes a variety of reasoning questions used to assess a candidate’s analytical and logical thinking abilities. Questions about logical reasoning might be vocal or nonverbal: The concepts and issues in verbal logical reasoning are conveyed in words. Candidates must read and comprehend the supplied text or paragraph before selecting the correct response from the alternatives provided. Concepts and issues are conveyed via figures, pictures, or diagrams in nonverbal logical reasoning questions, and candidates must comprehend them before selecting the proper answer from the alternatives provided.

A candidate’s capacity to grasp and rationally work through concepts and issues conveyed in words is referred to as verbal reasoning. It tests the ability to extract and deal with the bulk of the text’s meaning, information, and consequences. The reasoning is stated orally, and the explanation must be understood before the questions can be answered. A candidate’s capacity to grasp and rationally work through concepts and issues provided in pictures, diagrams, and other visual aids is referred to as non-verbal reasoning. It assesses the ability to extract and work with the meaning, information, and consequences of the provided images or diagrams. The reasoning is conveyed nonverbally in this case, and the person must first comprehend the rationale before solving the problems.

How to Optimize Decision-Making Skills

Any member of the organization can identify an issue. Depending on the severity of the situation, they should be reported to a department manager or human resources. If it is linked to the long-term goals they have set, the executive team may also be notified. Before reporting to the rest of the company, hold a meeting with all stakeholders involved. In front of the group, write down all possible answers to the problem. To actively engage in this process, they should list solutions in front of their colleagues at a meeting. Keys should also be given an email so that they can keep track of it. List potential action items for all team members to execute the agreed-upon choice once people have stated their solutions.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages thoroughly to determine which choices can move on to the decision-making step. Then, take time and carefully weigh the benefits and drawbacks to evaluate if it aligns with objectives and determine its success. Consider the decision as having both an immediate and long-term influence. The good news is that people always learn from their mistakes, so keep note of how well this option worked out and compare it to the benefits and drawbacks.


To summarize, by defining what decision-making skills are, employers and employees can understand how to solve problems within a business and conflicts between employees. Decision-making abilities demonstrate a person’s ability to choose between two or more options. People can make judgments once they have processed all relevant data and spoken with the appropriate contacts in a given circumstance. Further, having described the types of decision-making skills, people can improve this skill. Decision-making skills are an essential part of any modern company or person; people should consider this topic.


Heidari, M., & Shahbazi, S. (2016). Effect of training problem-solving skills on decision-making and critical thinking of personnel at medical emergencies. International journal of critical illness and injury science, 6(4), 182.

Minda, J. P. (2020). The psychology of thinking: Reasoning, decision-making and problem-solving. Sage.

Stankevich, A. (2017). Explaining the consumer decision-making process: Critical literature review. Journal of international business research and marketing, 2(6).

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