Technology Changes And Their Impacts On Industrial Revolution Free Essay

Summary

In the past centuries, most of the labor was provided manually by human beings in all types of industries, such as textile and transportation. The activities were slow and required a high number of workers to contribute towards a significant output. The need to meet people’s demand for the products and movement prompted the search to find a solution. This resulted in the industrial revolution, where the production process changed from traditional to manufacturing. A subtle development significantly aided the process and changes in the level of technology. The invention and application of different techs in the manufacturing industry led to a massive increase in the rate of production and improvement in distribution. It also fostered the development of farming, communication, and people’s safety. The research will focus on how technological changes increased production by facilitating movement and communication, which influenced the industrial revolution.

Newcomen’s Steam Engine

The flooding impacted the mining industry, which made the extraction of minerals challenging. As the mines continued to get deeper, it became a challenge for miners to access the materials following the presence of water that threatened their lives. The manual techniques used by workers to pump water out were slow, tiresome, and expensive. This prompted the search into the possibility of finding a convenient way of removing the liquid from the sites.

A scientist called Newcomen invented a steam engine in 1712. The system used a vacuum developed by condensed steam to pump water from the deep mines. The engine became successful and significant in helping to drain water from greater depths (Xu et al. 2950). Therefore, it was easier to access most of the valuable minerals located underground. The invention proved to be cheaper for miners than the use of horses to remove water, and thus it led to the expansion of the mining industry.

Spinning Mule

A spinning mule is a machine that was used to spin a large number of spools of thread at the same time. Samuel Crompton developed the technology in 1779 in England. It was applied by the textile industry to revolutionize the production process by raising the amount of cotton spun at a given time. Before the invention of the machine, yarns and threads were made by a human, which resulted in a reduced work rate as they could make one every time. After the development of spinning mules, cotton manufacturers were relieved from relying on individual efforts that were expensive. Furthermore, they did not need more people to create spindles coiled with threads because only one person was enough to use the machine to make several bars at once. The technology further incorporated the techs of spinning jenny and spinning frame to enhance its productivity through producing different quality products.

The technology advanced the manufacturing process by increasing the rate of producing yarns and threads ready for knitting. It also lowered the cost of producing the materials due to the reduced number of labor requirements (Stearns 159). It became essential to the industry as similar versions were created to increase the process making it be mechanized and improved. The development changed the spinning industry from a cottage to a more developed manufacturing system.

Flying Shuttle

The growth in the textile industry called for various methods that could improve efficiency and productivity in the sector. John Kay, an English inventor, developed the weaving machine that helped in the manufacturing of clothes. The flying shuttle was significant as it lowered the labor requirement, making the process cost-effective (Gold 31). Before the invention, the industry required at least two weavers to perform the woven activity. The individuals were responsible for passing the shuttle repeatedly back and forth between them to facilitate the process.

After the invention, the flying shuttle used wheels on a track and paddles to push it from one side to the other. The advancement reduced the number of needed workers to one and increased the speed of production. John Kay then agreed to sell his patent right to France, which also used the technology to mechanize its manufacturing process. The development made the textile industry grow significantly across Europe and other parts of the world.

Cotton Gin

Cotton gin technology was invented in 1793 by Eli Whitney, an American inventor. The machine was used to remove and separate cotton fibers from the seeds. During the manufacturing process before the invention of the cotton gin, the seeds were cleaned from the raw threads manually, which made the whole process slow (Gold 31). The device helped to remove the seeds by passing the raw fibers through wire teeth placed on a cylinder that revolves. It was made up of narrow slots made of iron that could not allow the seeds to pass through with the yarn. The machine was simple and could be powered by humans, animals or water. It was quick and efficient compared to the manual removal of the seeds.

The device improved the production of cotton in the USA and other parts of the world. The demand for cotton gin also increased in the south, expanding the textile industry’s manufacturing process (Gold 31). The advancement led to booming market demand for labor that would help pick cotton from the firms for processing. The invention made cotton a profitable product which attracted many people to grow it.

Steam Engine Locomotive

The invention of the steam engine locomotive was vital in advancing the industrial revolution. The increase in demand for raw materials and finished products required faster transportation to bridge the gap. It facilitated easy travel of people and goods from one point to another. Most farmers relied on the railroads for transporting their commodities to the market. The quick shipment made it possible for the goods to reach consumers before spoilage.

The machines were essential for transporting coal from the mines. They used wood as a source of fuel which was later replaced by coal fire the steam engines. This led to the growth of coal mines, and many individuals secured job opportunities leading to the massive advancement of the industry. The transport development also influenced the steel industry’s rapid growth since most of the products were used to establish the railroads (Gifford 122). The sector also realized a progressive advancement in employment and overall expansion following the increased demand for the materials. The invention became significant in creating room for other improvements that facilitated the industrial revolution.

Telephone

In 1876, a significant technological invention was made, when Alexander Graham Bell developed the telephone. With the increasing need to pass a message from one location to another, technology served an essential role in facilitating the process. Before the inception, people had to travel a long distance back and forth to communicate, which was expensive and tiresome (Pozdnyakova et al. 2019). The invention of the telephone made communication very simple since individuals could easily talk to each other irrespective of geographical distance. The technology promoted business as business people could transact and order products without traveling to the place of trade. Telephone enhanced communication channels which increased trade activities.

Ice Box

Perishable goods were a problem for most farmers, who frequently incurred losses. Some of the products could not stay long before reaching the market; thus, their production was limited due to fear of decay. A scientist, Thomas Moore, invented a wooden icebox lined with materials that acted as insulators, such as zinc. A huge block of ice was then placed on top of the object to provide a favorable condition to keep the food products for a longer duration. The technology made it possible for most farmers to produce and sell products when they are still fresh without fearing spoilage. The invention increased the production process of such commodities and enhanced trade among people.

Electricity

The invention of electricity became groundbreaking in the industrial revolution. Prior to the discovery and creation of the technology, the chief sources of power for industries were water and wind. The energy provided was not significant, and they could not manage to operate large and complex machines efficiently. The invention made it possible to produce a large amount of power that can be used for different purposes within the industries (Popkova et al. 25). First, the development of electric bulbs facilitated the process of production by allowing workers to work even at night which increased the overall output of the firms. Second, it promoted the decentralization of companies to different places because industries no longer depended on water to provide power. This made it possible to establish many entities across the country, enhancing factories’ growth.

Telegraph

The invention of the telegraph significantly impacted the industrial revolution. Technology revolutionized communication and made the passage of messages over distant locations simple and affordable. The machine was used to transmit coded electric information through a wire connected to two points. The development facilitated the growth in financial markets railroads and a significant reduction in the cost of communication between organizations (Pozdnyakova et al. 15). It made the channel of passing information reliable and safe for business purposes. Through technology, people minimized constant travel to acquire details from different locations because they could send electric signals and wait for feedback from the recipient. Telegraph accelerated the roles of various professionals in the economy, such as brokers and bankers.

Power Loom

Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom machine in 1785 to replace the flying shuttle technology that was being used in the cotton industry. The device was mechanized to use water power to accelerate the speed of weaving (Gold 31). The technology increased the production pace, which made the sector more productive. It made the process efficient by lowering the effort required to make clothing.

Incandescent Light Bulb

Incandescent light bulb technology played an essential part in the industrial revolution. As the demand for products increased in the markets, factories were required to improve the working hours, which extended to late nights. With the invention in place, people could easily continue their duties because they had enough brightness to see what they were doing. The technology was consuming less energy which made it efficient for use. An increased production process led to more advancement in the manufacturing sector.

Model T

Automobile technology was invented by Henry Ford around 1908. The invention facilitated the possibility of using a motor as a means of transport from one place to another because of its affordability. Model T enhanced mobility by bringing into the market machines that people could afford to purchase (Skilton and Hovsepian 25). The creation of moving assembly influenced the massive production of modernized cars. Through this breakthrough, the machine age emerged, which made Ford further lower the market price of the vehicles. The movement of people has become easier and safer across countries.

In summary, various technological changes in the past centuries increased the industrial revolution process. The invention of Newcomen’s Steam Engine facilitated mining activities by enabling miners to efficiently pump water out of the mines. Cotton gin improved the textile industry by lowering the labor required to remove seeds from the raw fibers. It, therefore, improved the production of clothing in the industry. Similarly, the creation of steam engine locomotives played a vital role in promoting the movement of people and goods from one place to another. The tech made it easier for producers to access markets and factories to transport inputs to the production sites. The discovery of the telephone and telegraph significantly facilitated the industrial revolution. The technologies made communication more accessible, thus reducing the cost of passing information over long distances simple. Business operations were easily conducted because individuals could enquire about details by sending electric signals. Lastly, the Model T automobile’s development enhanced humans’ mobility, which encouraged trading activities. The increased manufacturing of motors prompted modernization and entry into the machine age.

Works Cited

Gifford, Donald G. “Technological Triggers to Tort Revolutions: Steam Locomotives, Autonomous Vehicles, and Accident Compensation.” Journal of Tort Law, vol. 11, no. 1, 2018, pp. 71-143. Web.

Gold, Hazel. “Panel Introduction: Labor, Industry, and Technology.Studies in Eighteenth-Century Culture, vol. 47, no. 47, 2018, pp. 29-32. Web.

Popkova, Elena G., Yulia V. Ragulina, and Aleksei V. Bogoviz. “Fundamental Differences of Transition to Industry 4.0 from Previous Industrial Revolutions.” Industry 4.0: Industrial Revolution of the 21st Century. Springer, Cham, 2019, pp. 21-29. Web.

Pozdnyakova, Ulyana A., et al. “Genesis of the Revolutionary Transition to Industry 4.0 in the 21st Century and Overview of Previous Industrial Revolutions.Industry 4.0: Industrial Revolution of the 21st Century. Springer, Cham, 2019, pp.11-19. Web.

Skilton, Mark, and Felix Hovsepian. The 4th Industrial Revolution. Springer Nature, 2018. Web.

Stearns, Peter N. The Industrial Revolution in World History. Routledge, 2020. Web.

Xu, Li Da, Eric L. Xu, and Ling Li. “Industry 4.0: State of The Art and Future Trends.International Journal of Production Research, vol. 56, no. 8, 2018, pp. 2941-2962. Web.

Norman Schwarzkopf’s Leadership Styles

Introduction

The uncanny personal magnetism possessed by General Norman Schwarzkopf enabled him to work with a diverse group of people. His magnetic personality was due to his capability to lead a team to victory during the war. He demonstrated his effective leadership skills through different tours in Vietnam (Ucar et al., 2021). In addition, he demonstrated effective leadership when he worked as a logistics coordinator during the George Bush administration.

Schwarzkopf is commonly known for leading the military alliance that defeated Saddam Hussein in a mission called Operation Desert Storm. His leadership skills significantly enabled all the wars that he won. His leadership skills also helped him to win battles within a short duration.

Leadership Skills

Military leadership is usually measured in leadership capability to manage human resources to accomplish the assigned mission. Therefore, Schwarzkopf displayed his superb management skills when he organized and supervised victorious troops against Saddam Hussein’s army. Schwarzkopf possessed both organizational and people skills that helped them to be successful.

A military general should have people skills because they help in the leading group of soldiers to war. If generals or commanders lack people skills, they cannot connect with other individuals in the military, which will lead to failure to inspire confidence in the troops. During his leadership, Schwarzkopf used applied human skills, and this made his leadership effective (Ucar et al., 2021).

When it came to his capability and the ability of those who served him, Schwarzkopf displayed a high level of sensitivity. He was so considerate to others, which is why he valued the perceptions and values of other people in his group. Due to his considerate nature, it was easier for him to reject other people’s opinions if they negatively affected the mission.

Alternatively, he would make minor compromises if they would bring out high-performance levels in his team. Developing competence in understanding and appreciating other people’s cultures showed how he had a high level of human skill. It should be noted that he acquired human skills from his father, who mentored him when he was a soldier.

Leadership Styles

Schwarzkopf’s main leadership style was transactional because he valued group performance and compliance (Ucar et al., 2021).

Due to their transactional leadership style, he developed a strategy that defeated Saddam’s organized army. Another leadership style that he used was democratic because he was the leader of U.S. soldiers and other military groups across the world (Ucar et al., 2021).

The armies that came from other parts of the world included: Spain, Canada, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, France, the Philippines and South Korea.

Schwarzkopf used an autocratic leadership style, but he rarely applied it because it is considered strict (Ucar et al., 2021). In some instances, he used an autocratic style when rejecting opinions from his group members that he thought would compromise the mission.

Conclusion

All leaders need to have a particular leadership style to stir the growth of their organization. Schwarzkopf has demonstrated crucial leadership styles that are needed for effective leadership. Although these styles have disadvantages, it is suitable for a leader to select a style that they feel suits them.

References

Ucar, A., Alpkan, L., & Elci, M. (2021). The Effect of a servant and transformational leadership styles on employee creative behavior: The moderating role of authentic leadership. International Journal of Organizational Leadership. Web.

General Norman Schwarzkopf- 78 Today. slicethelife. (2022). Web.

Working From Home And Its Advantages

Introduction

COVID-19 has substantially altered how people worldwide perform various daily activities. The sudden changes have led to multiple issues and chaos in a number of spheres. At the same time, millions of workers worldwide have discovered the numerous opportunities that telework provides. For instance, Nakrošienė, Bučiūnienė, and Goštautaitė (2019, p. 5) state that the reduced amount of time spent on communication leads to higher productivity. Thus, the tendency to shift to working from home may become a new, highly efficient norm.

It is crucial to realize that a relatively small part of the global population has the chance to start working from home. Moreover, not all white-collar workers believe the phenomenon to be a blessing and provide various factors that undermine its perceived efficiency. Nevertheless, I firmly believe that a wide range of advantages makes telework an essential advancement that promotes enhanced cooperation, safety, and sustainability while staying available for millions of workers worldwide.

Safety and Sustainability

Firstly, there are currently numerous health issues related to the pandemic that undermine the efficiency of working in an office. The population density in multiple urban areas continues to grow dramatically, which exposes millions of people to risks. Moreover, most cities worldwide do not have an extensive social benefits system and other features of a welfare state that Europeans enjoy. Thus, in most urban areas, testing positive for COVID-19 can lead to numerous economic and social repercussions alongside health hazards. According to Alipour, Fadinger, and Schymik (2021, p. 5), nations with a high percentage of teleworkable positions faced fewer COVID-19 cases. Therefore, governments should evaluate numerous ways of encouraging working from home in times of such crises.

The COVID-19 pandemic brightly illustrates all the issues that high population density creates. Thus, policymakers and business owners should develop a sophisticated framework that promotes working from home and reliance on local businesses. Moreover, Ipsen et al. (2021, p. 4) claim that people generally had more positive than negative experiences during COVID-19 lockdowns. Governments should assist entrepreneurs in developing precise guidelines that allow for the establishment of telework as a widespread standard form of work available for employees in various spheres.

Sustainability should be considered another crucial attribute of telework, as it allows to substantially decrease the number of rides a person takes in order to make the same economic input. Numerous cities in developing countries currently lack the efficient infrastructure that can minimize digestion. Thus, encouraging millions of city dwellers to stay at home can significantly reduce air pollution and decrease the population’s stress levels. Moreover, people who stay at home during working days rapidly start to discover various local shopping and recreation opportunities, which leads to the creation of various businesses. The phenomenon can substantially increase the quality of life in numerous neighborhoods and eliminate large inefficient areas consisting solely of apartment blocks or office buildings, promoting diversity in city planning.

However, some may argue that most modern business models lack efficient methods and tools for controlling employees. Although this may be true, working from home experience gained during lockdowns and other restrictions has proven beneficial for enhancing self-reliance and showing initiative. Nakrošienė, Bučiūnienė, and Goštautaitė (2019, p. 4) state that the supervisor’s trust was among the crucial factors that determined the sustainability of telework. Thus, remote work can significantly improve the performance of workers who become more responsible due to minimal assistance and supervision, as the recent economic repercussions motivate employees worldwide to value their current positions.

Efficiency and Cooperation

Secondly, when working from home, employees have the opportunity to prioritize their activities and efforts independently, which allows for managing time in a most efficient way. The amount of time spared due to the lack of necessity to commute and attend numerous meetings can substantially enhance the quality of living. Palumbo (2020, p. 772) pinpoints that balancing daily life activities with job duties should be seriously considered by many employees. Millions of people in Western societies rediscovered various aspects of family life when they were granted the opportunity to spend more time with their relatives.

Emerging evidence suggests that modern equipment and tools help to create a proper working environment. Unlike office workers of previous decades, most modern employees do not need expensive data machines, fax machines, or printers. Moreover, the dramatic decrease in the amount of paperwork help to store all the necessary information solely in digital form, on a personal computer, or in cloud services. Toniolo-Barrios and Pitt (2021, p. 4) underline that most workers can create special home office spaces and overcome inconveniences when working from home. Thus, it has become essential for businesses worldwide to redevelop the current cooperation networks to make them more efficient whenever switching to a remote format occurs.

Moreover, teamwork has changed substantially recently, as numerous ingenious software solutions, including mobile apps, allow various teams to continue interacting at any time. Some may argue that the absence of clearly stated working hours and the ability of an employee to stay online throughout the day substantially undermines the benefits that are traditionally associated with telework. They claim that people working from home tend to feel constant pressure and never experience freedom from their job duties, as managers may suddenly call and ask to do extra work.

Although this may be true, recent cases featuring the above-mentioned diminished quality of working conditions can be attributed to the lack of experience in telework. Companies that have long been relying on numerous employees working from home have all the necessary policies and regulations that protect workers’ rights concerning the number of hours. Remote work used to be a new and utterly irrelevant phenomenon for most companies three years ago. Thus, they are yet to develop new strategies that allow for efficient cooperation between managers and other employees.

Availability

Thirdly, the number of workers worldwide that can switch to a remote format is substantial and continues to grow. According to Gottlieb, Grobovsek, and Poschke (2020, p. 3), 40% of the urban population in rich countries can work from home. At the same time, Bonacini, Gallo, and Scicchitano (2021, p. 305) claim that it is crucial to distribute benefits from telework more equally among workers. In contrast, some may argue that not all workers may use the opportunity to work from home, as their presence is often desperately needed.

Although this may be true, the structure of the world economy rapidly changes, with the number of white collar-workers constantly increasing. Moreover, college graduates have more opportunities to work from home than other types of workers (Hatayama, Viollaz, and Winkler, 2020, p. 3). Thus, telework becomes another essential factor that promotes higher education, which helps the economy to benefit from human capital. Moreover, the worldwide shift to remote work will encourage hundreds of millions of people in low-wage countries to learn foreign languages and coding, which will lead to multiple benefits for the global economy.

Conclusion

In conclusion, working from home is destined to become the norm. Although a large percentage of employees will not have such an opportunity, the growing popularity of the new format points to remarkable advances in the structure of the global economy. The above-mentioned phenomena prove that telework is a broadly available form of work that promotes new types of cooperation while representing a safe and sustainable alternative, which is highly valued during current turbulent years.

The new format can lead to the introduction of new ingenious solutions. For instance, Waizenegger et al. (2020, p. 430) claim that digital team collaboration has been enhanced rapidly due to recent lockdowns. Therefore, increased productivity is a significant factor that immediately makes telework a viable solution in purely economic terms. Policymakers and entrepreneurs should cooperate in order to develop a sophisticated framework that encourages working from home by making it a convenient option for millions of employees worldwide.

Reference List

Alipour, J. V., Fadinger, H. and Schymik, J. (2021) ‘My home is my castle – the benefits of working from home during a pandemic crisis’, Journal of Public Economics, 196, 104373. doi: 10.1016/j.jpubeco.2021.104373

Bonacini, L., Gallo, G. and Scicchitano, S. (2021) ‘Working from home and income inequality: risks of a ‘new normal with COVID-19’, Journal of Population Economics, 34(1), pp. 303–360. doi: 10.1007/s00148-020-00800-7

Gottlieb, C., Grobovsek, J. and Poschke, M. (2020) ‘Working from home across countries’, Covid Economics, 8, pp. 71–91. Web.

Hatayama, M., Viollaz, M. and Winkler, H. (2020) Jobs’ amenability to working from home: evidence from skills surveys for 53 countries. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 9241. Washington DC: World Bank Group.

Ipsen, C. et al. (2021) ‘Six key advantages and disadvantages of working from home in Europe during COVID-19’, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(4), pp. 1826–1842. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18041826

Nakrošienė, A., Bučiūnienė, I. and Goštautaitė, B. (2019) ‘Working from home: characteristics and outcomes of telework’, International Journal of Manpower, 40(1), pp. 87–101. doi: 10.1108/IJM-07-2017-0172

Palumbo, R. (2020) ‘Let me go to the office! An investigation into the side effects of working from home on work-life balance’, International Journal of Public Sector Management, 33(6/7), pp. 771–790. doi: 10.1108/IJPSM-06-2020-0150

Toniolo-Barrios, M. and Pitt, L. (2021) ‘Mindfulness and the challenges of working from home in times of crisis’, Business Horizons, 64(2), pp. 189–197. doi: 10.1016/j.bushor.2020.09.004

Waizenegger, L. et al. (2020) ‘An affordance perspective of team collaboration and enforced working from home during COVID-19’, European Journal of Information Systems, 29(4), pp. 429–442. doi: 10.1080/0960085X.2020.1800417

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