Morals are a unique feature of the human world that had emerged with the sophistication of relations between individuals and became an integral aspect of society. Being a set of behavioral standards and principles, this phenomenon had been determining the people’s actions and the course of history. Moreover, morals serve as a specific determinant of good and evil, right and wrong, which means that all decisions, events, or significant questions will be measured regarding the existing values and representations. That is why the majority of philosophic and ethical concepts acknowledge morals as a fundamental element of society and offer various perspectives on it. The evolution of human thought in the course of history cultivated multiple changes in people’s mentalities and worldviews, and, in their ideas of good and bad things. At the same time, some notions are traditionally viewed as unethical, and telling lies belongs to them. However, the attitude to this act might depend on the general concept and the theoretical framework applied to analyze the case.
The ideas of good and evil, or good and bad things, emerge in early childhood when parents share their worldview with their child and cultivate a specific value system that will impact all individual’s actions and decisions in the future. In accordance with the classic model, children are taught that lying is unethical and unacceptable in modern society, and they should avoid it (Martin, Vaught, and Robert. 2017, 174). Nevertheless, they also acquire the idea of a so-called white lie, or situations, when rules are not so strict, and people are allowed to lie to spare feelings of a close person. For this reason, there is a certain paradox when a person has to lie to a friend to guarantee his/her happiness, as from one hand, it is unethical and, from another, it can contribute to better outcomes. The attitude to this act also depends on the ethical model that can be employed to analyze it.
The application of deontological ethics, or deontology, is one of the ways to understand if it is acceptable to lie to a friend to spare his/her feelings. The given theory introduces the idea that the morality of any action can be determined by analyzing the nature of the action itself (Martin, Vaught, and Robert. 2017, 171). In other words, the consequences of a doing are less important than the observation of the existing rules or code of ethics when making a particular decision (Martin, Vaught, and Robert. 2017, 176). Evaluating any act, it is vital to consider the existing value system, behavioral norms, and duties as they are critical for concluding whether the action is acceptable or not. Under these conditions, the given paradigm views any action through a prism of morals peculiar to society at the moment and representations of good and bad things.
In such a way, telling lies to a friend is not acceptable from the perspective of deontological ethics. The result or consequences are not as essential as the morality and virtue of actions are determined by the existing series of rules and norms. Lying has always been taken as an unethical and immoral act that can result in the deterioration of relations and undesired outcomes. This idea becomes central for evaluating the situation and concluding about its acceptability. Although it will not cause great harm to a friend, the given action should be considered undesired ones as it contradicts the existing moral norms and standards. From the deontological perspective, communication with friends presupposes absolute honesty as this virtue is cultivated by society and has always been topical for human interactions.
However, the contradictory nature of the discussed case is evidenced by the existence of the opposing view. For instance, utilitarianism states that the morality of a particular action is not a question of direct perception as it depends on a certain case and how the existing law can be applied to it (Martin, Vaught, and Robert. 2017, 84). In other words, the moral value of any action is determined by the context and utility, or benefits, happiness, pleasure, well-being, and other related concepts that can be generated due to this very action (Martin, Vaught, and Robert. 2017, 84). Utilitarianism recognizes and accepts moral laws and existing representations of good and evil as they also remain important for human beings. However, this framework considers the consequences of an action, a standard that can help to determine if it is good or bad (Martin, Vaught, and Robert. 2017, 84). For this reason, in their decision-making, people should be more focused on the result of their doings, rather than on the existing moral laws that might offer contradictory recommendations.
In this regard, the situation presupposing telling lies to a friend acquires new meaning from the utilitarian point of view. The primary cause of this action is the desire to spare feelings of a close person, and, at the same time, there will be no substantial harm caused to an individual because of the provision of false information. It means that the results will be beneficial to a person as he/she will avoid moral suffering associated with the concealed data and will remain happy (Martin, Vaught, and Robert. 2017, 86). Because utilitarianism emphasizes the increased importance of consequences and context, rather than the moral laws and rules, the given action becomes acceptable as it contributes to the achievement of better outcomes, which is vital for communication between people and their happiness.
Therefore, utilitarianism and deontology offer two different perspectives on the idea of telling lies to a friend to spare his/her feelings. The first one emphasizes the importance of positive outcomes that can be achieved by this action. In contrast, the second one postulates the critical importance of moral laws as the determinant of the value of any action. Accepting the reasoning offered by both frameworks, the utilitarian paradigm seems more defensible as it means increased flexibility and utility. There are no universal laws that can fit all situations, which means that the context acquires the top priority when making decisions and acting. That is why it is important to ensure that no harm will be done and people will benefit from the improved positions.
Altogether, regardless of existing standards of behavior, the moral value of any action depends on the perspective and the framework that is employed to analyze it. Telling lies can be viewed as unacceptable from a deontological standpoint as it underlines the critical importance of morals and existing laws. At the same time, in accordance with the utilitarian view, the positive results that can be achieved due to this act are more important than the unethical nature of the action itself. For this reason, decision-making remains contextual and depends on multiple factors that also influence our mentalities.
Martin, Clancy, Wayne Vaught, and Solomon Robert. 2017. Ethics Across the Professions: A Reader for Professional Ethics. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The Effects Of Changing The Speed Of The Motor
Abstract and Objectives
By experimenting, it was possible to address the three important objectives in this study. The first and second objectives were to determine the effects of changing the speed of the motor on the output current and voltage respectively. That was achieved by an upward and downward of the current and plotting the results on a graph with two curves, which showed the behavior of the output voltage and current. The third objective was to determine the effects of the load factor on the current and the resulting voltage to determine the behavior of the motor about the output voltage.
An electric motor is made of a magnetic circuit and pins attached to the motor and high flux density magnetic poles. When the components rotate within the magnetic field, the process converts the rotary motion into electrical energy (Nitsche and Paulus 1). The moor operates on the principles of electromagnetic induction, which were independently discovered by Michael Faraday in 1831 and Joseph Henry in 1832 (Ozturk, Alexander, and Toliyat 3). That is by the principle of conservation of energy and the laws of electromagnetic induction, which states that energy is neither created nor destroyed. The amount of electrical energy generated due to the motion depends on the speed at which the magnetic field is cut in the process of transforming mechanical energy into electrical energy (Hagiwara, Nishimura, and Akagi 4). According to Damodharan and Vasudevan, Lenz’s laws of electromagnetic induction show that the rate of change of the magnetic flux density is directly proportional to the induced e.m.f (2). The law indicates that the motion that causes the current in a wire acts in the opposite direction to the effect causing the current.
In this experiment, electrical energy was supplied to rotate the DC motor and observations were made on the effects of the current on the output voltage (Damodharan and Vasudevan 2). In practice, different motors or types of magnetic systems behave differently. However, the motor, which is made of a coil wound over a magnetic material that moves by cutting the magnetic field, creates an electric current to flow in the circuit (Hinago and Koizumi 3). The speed of the rotor was a key factor in determining the intensity of the current and the output voltage. Despite that, it was possible to adjust the speed of the motor by applying slight pressure on the switch for some minutes to allow changes in the speed of the motor to happen. It was important to adjust the speed of the motor using the 555IC based PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) to study its effects on the output voltage.
The following tools were used in the study:
- Copper wires
- DC motor
- Copper clips
The DC motor has the following components
- Pole of motor
- Field winding
- Brushes or motors
- Speed controller using NE555 timer IC
- Vero board for assembling the circuit
- 12V DC for powering the IC
In the first instance, varying the speed of the motor changed the output current and voltage accordingly. The actual speed of the motor was attained by removing the load on it (Bose 2). However, the maximum speed was as a result of the inductance of the coil and other components of the motor.
The magnetization curve shown below illustrates the effects of changing the voltage due the variations in the current generated that responds to the changes in speed of the motor. An excited state was achieved by using the shunt generator in a self-excited state. Here, by increasing the rotational speed of the motor, the output voltage was increased accordingly.
In the second instance, the button was continuously pressed resulting in a cycle of 2ms, which, when compared with the theoretical cycle of 10ms, showed a terminal voltage of 7V against the expected voltage of 9V. Variations in input current caused significant changes in the speed of the motor.
The experiment was done by pressing the witch for a long time and the results showed that 80% of the duty cycle was achieved. On the other hand, when the button was pressed in less time as compared with the first instance, the terminal voltage was noted to decrease further and the result was a decrease in the motor speed. The graph below illustrates the effects of speed on the voltage with no load applied to the system and the table shows the values that were obtained for different load conditions.
The crease in speed continued until a certain voltage was reached when the motor could not rotate any further as shown in the graph above. It is important to note that there was no load applied on the circuit.
The above graph illustrates the effects of voltage due to the generated current. The terminal voltage is on the vertical axis and the load current on the horizontal axis. External, internal, voltage drops and armature characteristics are shown on the graph. If the motor is allowed to run for some time, the armature reaction reduces significantly, which makes a voltage drop to occur. However, a constant value is attained after a certain voltage is reached.
Load factor effects
In the third case, the current was changed slowly and the effects on the voltage were observed in the presence of a load factor. The introduction of the load factor has a significant effect on the output voltage.
The curve shown above illustrates the effect of introducing load on the motor. Effects of the full voltage on the stator motor and torque output are shown in the first and the second curves.
By increasing the speed of the motor, the output voltage could grow to a new value. However, a speed limit was achieved beyond which the speed and the output voltage could not be changed upwards.
However, the magnetic field was noted to affect the speed of the motor. The DC generator is a strong load factor that affects the operating efficiency of the motor.
It is possible to note that power output from the motor depends on various factors such as the inductance of various components such as armature and the magnetic field. In addition, the load condition affects the voltage and current output so that when the load is increased, the output voltage decreases. Besides, the motor cannot achieve the theoretical speed because of the effects of the internal and external voltages.
Raising the speed increases the output voltage to its maximum beyond which no further voltage increase is experienced even when the speed increases further.
Bose, Bimal K. Power electronics and motor drives: advances and trends. Academic press, 2010.
Damodharan, P., and Krishna Vasudevan. “Sensorless brushless DC motor drive based on the zero-crossing detection of back electromotive force (EMF) from the line voltage difference.” Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on 25.3 (2010): 661-668.
Hagiwara, Makoto, Kazutoshi Nishimura, and Hirofumi Akagi. “A medium-voltage motor drive with a modular multilevel PWM inverter.” Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on 25.7 (2010): 1786-1799.
Hinago, Youhei, and Hirotaka Koizumi. “A single-phase multilevel inverter using switched series/parallel dc voltage sources.” Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on 57.8 (2010): 2643-2650.
Nitsche, Michael A., and Walter Paulus. “Sustained excitability elevations induced by transcranial DC motor cortex stimulation in humans.” Neurology 57.10 (2001): 1899-1901.
Ozturk, Salih Baris, William C. Alexander, and Hamid Toliyat. “Direct torque control of four-switch brushless DC motor with non-sinusoidal back EMF.” Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on 25.2 (2010): 263-271.
The Second Amendment: District Of Columbia V. Heller
This highly controversial Second Amendment has been viewed as potentially harmful numerous times over the past couple of decades, although the Second Amendment right remains still. According to Stevens (2019), the ruling of the Supreme Court to recognize the right to possess a firearm was “the most clearly incorrect decision.” The author argues that despite the incorrect application of the term “fraud” by Burger, it is necessary to avoid the current interpretation of the Second Amendment and instill stricter gun control (Stevens, 2019). In this paper, I would like to analyze the interpretation of the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution that led to the decision made by the Court in District of Columbia v. Heller.
The author deems that this interpretation must be accepted in order to provide a stable ground for adequate gun control rights. In his argument, the author relies on the past case that led to the prohibition of highly lethal types of firearms as a basis for his point that it is necessary to expand this restriction (Stevens, 2019). The author judges that The Second Amendment protects the right to bear arms to a certain point that is limited by the necessity of doing so depending on the presence of the militia.
In conclusion, I believe that the judge’s interpretation of the Second Amendment was correct, despite a minor overstatement regarding the fraudulent claims of pro-gun voices. The connection to military services is a reasonable prerequisite for handgun possession and lowered restrictions related to other firearms. As the number of victims of mass shootings continues to grow, it is essential for the Supreme Court to establish its position regarding this controversy, as it is highly dangerous for the lives of many Americans.
Stevens, J. P. (2019). The Supreme Court’s worst decision of my tenure. The Atlantic. Web.