Territorial Dispute In Northern Borneo Essay Example

Many of the Filipinos everywhere are wondering what this Sabah claims all about is. Maybe it was tackled all over on different history books and inside the classrooms. But they did not mentioned about what the Philippines’ stake on the northern islands of Borneo’s matter. On the other hand, Malaysians maybe angry now because there is a lot of attention being focused now to the Malaysian federation that they believed it was their since the British handed this territory in 1963.

What I was trying to say here is to bring an insight to this dispute based on what I researched of the various facts (or allegations) regarding this subject. As Filipino, our main concern in this matter is bringing this article to tell that this is part of the history of the Philippines. Sabah is the northern part of Borneo. It is bordered by Sarawak on its southwestern side and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to the south. Sabah has a coastline of approximately 800 to 900 miles and with the South China Sea in the west and north, the Sulu Sea in the northeast and the Celebes Sea in the east.

Sabah’s total land area is 76,115 sq km (29,388 sq miles). Sabah’s population is about 2. 5 million. It is 1,961 km from Hong Kong, 1,143 km from Manila, 1,495 km from Singapore, 1,678 km from Kuala Lumpur and 2,291 km from Taipei – note that it is nearer to Manila than Malaysia’s capital of Kuala Lumpur. North Borneo is much undeveloped and very rich in natural resources. One of the wealthiest oil producing countries is located in same island of Borneo, the tiny Sultanate of Brunei. Sabah is a relatively small geographic area in the north of Borneo islands. It was governed by the state of Malaysia.

They claim their full rights over this territory however the Philippines also do the same. It was set aside by the recent Filipino governments to fortify the economic and political relation with Malaysia. This issue has always been in the shadows of Philippines and Malaysia relations. Many years ago Sabah initially owned by the Sultanate of Brunei until 1658 when it was grant and ceded to the Sultanate of Sulu as a disbursement for helping the Sultan of Brunei against his enemies for the rebellion in Borneo.

In 1878, the Sultan of Sulu negotiated with the British North Borneo Co. nd signed an agreement for the use of Sabah that contains total sum of $5,000 Malayan Dollar a year. This contract has many versions depending on various languages like English, French and also Tausug. However on Tausug version of it said that the land was leased to the British North Borneo. Co. On April 22, 1903 Sultan Jamalul Kiram signed a document known as “Confirmation of cession of certain islands” under the ceded islands in the neighborhood of Northern Borneo because of this the 5,000 dollars per year was increased to 5,300 dollars a year to pay.

Malaysia was federated in 16 September 1963. The United States formally reminded Great Britain in 1906 and 1920 that North Borneo did not belong to them and was still part of the Sultanate of Sulu on the idea that Spain never acquired sovereignty over North Borneo to transfer all its claims of sovereignty over North Borneo to Great Britain on the Madrid Protocol of 1885. This is so because the Sultan of Sulu did not include his territory and power in North Borneo in signing the treaty of 1878 recognizing the Spanish sovereignty over “Jolo and its dependencies.

North Borneo was never considered a dependency of Jolo. However, the British Government ignored the reminder and still annexed the territory of North Borneo as a Crown Colony on July 10, 1946. This lease has been continued until the independence and formation of the Malaysian federation in 1963 together with Singapore, Sarawak and Malaysia. Up to these days, the Malaysians have been continuing the rental payment of 5,300 Malaysian ringgits – a 300 ringgits increased from original rent.

In 1962 during the administration of Philippine President Diosdado Macapagal, father of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, the land of North Borneo, and the full sovereignty, title and dominion over the territory were surrendered by then reigning Sultan of Sulu, HM Sultan Muhammad Esmail E. Kiram I, to the Republic of the Philippines. The cession effectively gave the Philippine government the full authority to pursue their claim in international courts.

The Philippine Government broke their diplomatic relations with Malaysia after the federation had included Sabah in 1963 but in all probability resumed it unofficially through the Manila Accordance. The Philippines made it clear that its position on the inclusion of North Borneo in the Federation of Malaysia is subject to the final outcome of the Philippine claim to North Borneo. The Ministers (of Philippines, Malaysia, etc who attended some meeting related to the Sabah dispute) agreed that the inclusion of North Borneo in the Federation of Malaysia would not prejudice either the claim or any right there under.

It was revealed in 1968 that President Ferdinand Marcos was training a group of Muslim Filipinos on Corregidor, an island off Manila Bay, known as Operation Merdeka for possible infiltration into Sabah to pave the way to an armed secession of Sabah from Malaysia. But upon knowing of the plans, the recruits have mutinied and were eliminated except for one that swam the bay and was rescued. The newspapers have called this incident, the “Jabidah Massacre” named after the operation that was given by the military.

The survivor divulged the plan and the claim was put in back burner once more. It was believe that because of the incident, the Malaysians have been aiding the Muslim separatists against the Philippine government. Some people say this distracted the attention to the claim on Sabah as the government was embroiled in containing the conflict. The claim was based on several historical facts and court judgments. The rent agreement is definitely evidence or else there will be no basis for any agreement if such ownership was not recognized at all.

The contract was between Sri Paduka Maulana Al Sultan Mohammad Jamalul Alam – representing the sultanate as owner and sovereign of Sabah on one hand, and that of Gustavus Baron de Overbeck and Alfred Dent, representing the British East India Co. lately became the North Borneo Co. , on the other as lessee of Sabah, was executed on June 22, 1878. Despite the fact that the British turned over the possession and government of Sabah to the federation, the Malaysians have not give up on paying the annual rental.

The 1939 court judgments on the claim had handed ownership of North Borneo to the heirs of the Sultanate prior to the formation of Malaysian federation in 1963. The judgment of Chief Justice C. F. C. Makaskie of the High Court of North Borneo in the civil suit filed by the late Dayang Dayang Hadji Piandao and eight other heirs of the Sultan of Sulu, including the famous Putlih (Princess) Tarhata Kiram, upheld the validity of the claim of the heirs.

Being a British colony did they favored the Malaysians than returning the leased territory to its rightful owners as per 1939 court judgement? one also has to consider why did the British respected a similar treaty with China by returning Hong Kong instead of conducting a plebiscite just like the one conducted in Sabah in 1962, is the Philippines a weak nation that can be ignored? These are some questions that need to be addressed by those who have the mandate to pursue the Philippine claim.

Brain Candy By Malcolm Gladwell

Have you ever heard that too much television can ruin a child’s mind? Malcolm Gladwell proposes in his article, “Brain Candy,” that playing video games or watching television is just as important as reading a book. Gladwell is using rhetorical appeals to prove that in fact, video games are not dumbing down society. Pop culture is helping to improve test scores and knowledge. In “Brain Candy,” Malcolm Gladwell does affectively use rhetorical appeals to convince his audience that pop culture is making our society smarter.

First, Gladwell effectively appeals to logos. Gladwell appeals to logic through statistics. In the opening paragraph, Gladwell cites statistics by James Flynn: “But if you took out the recalibration, Flynn found, I. Q. scores showed a steady upward trajectory, rising about three points per decade, which means that a person whose I. Q. placed him in the top ten percent for the American population in 1920 would today fall in the bottom third. ” Statistics appeal to logic because they are reasoning applied to a branch of knowledge or study.

Also, Gladwell appeals to logic by using other researched data that has been studied and analyzed. Gladwell cites “Steven Johnson proposes that what is making us smarter is precisely what we thought was making us dumber: popular culture” (“Brain Candy”). Parents believe that television or playing a game can ruin a child’s mind; however, it helps to improve the problem solving skills that arise in everyday life. Gladwell adequately appeals to ethos by being knowledgeable about the two subjects.

Gladwell states “It doesn’t seem right, of course, that watching “24” or playing a video game could be as important cognitively as reading a book” (“Brain Candy”). Being knowledgeable in the two subjects appeals to ethics because it shows that Gladwell is well-informed about his subject and is confident in his position. Additionally, Gladwell appeals to ethics by the tone of his article. Gladwell uses formal, scientific wording. Gladwell appeals to his audience by presenting his article in a polished and professional manner.

The tone of the article appeals to ethics because he uses a tone that is suitable for the audience who are mostly well-read professionals and academics. Conclusively, Gladwell uses pathos. Gladwell appeals to emotions through vivid images. Gladwell states that “Unlike the longstanding tradition of gameplaying– which engages the child in a vivid, three-dimensional world filled with moving images and musical soundscapes, navigated and controlled with complex muscular movements– books are simply a barren string of words on the page. Gladwell is giving an extremely vivid image of someone playing a game, rather than simply reading words written on a page. This proves emotion by being able to see an idea of gameplaying and not just seeing words written on a blank page. Gladwell also appeals to emotions through properties of a book. Gladwell states that “But perhaps the most dangerous property of these books is the fact that they follow a fixed linear path” (“Brain Candy”).

This is an example of emotions because books are isolating and not open-minded because they follow a set of distinct rules. In conclusion, pop culture is not dumbing down society; it is, in fact, making society smarter. Malcolm Gladwell uses three different rhetorical appeals to prove this point. Gladwell proposes that playing a game can help a child’s mind more so than it would reading a book. Pop culture is given in many different forms, and can help a child use different parts of the brain. Therefore, too much television cannot ruin a child’s mind.

Safeguarding Adults

C1 – Explain what a social care worker must do if they become aware of an unsafe practice. A social worker must report it to their manager, senior nurse on charge or their senior carer immediately and corrective measures should be implemented as soon as practically possible to avoid harm or injury. If it involves poor working practise staff must be retrained, if they are resource difficulties the employer must provide the adequate resources and a risk assessments must be carried out to prevent further unsafe practices. C11- Describe what a social care worker must do if unsafe practice is reported but nothing is done to ensure it is corrected.

If an unsafe practice has been reported but nothing has been done to ensure it is corrected then you may need to go to the next level of management, the Care Quality Commission or the Safeguarding Team at the local Social Services department. C111 – Describe three factors that make individuals more vulnerable to abuse than others. 1 – Reliant on others – individuals who are totally reliant on others to support and care for them. 2 – Mental capacity – Individuals who may lack the capacity to understand what is happening to them. 3 – Sensory impairment. Individuals who have a sensory impairment e. g. poor hearing or sight may have communication difficulties. CV1V – Explain how adopting a person centred approach which offers choices and upholds rights can empower an individual and help to reduce the likelihood of abuse. By using person centred values you are enabling the individual to have control over their rights, make informed choices, promoting their independence and giving them the respect have the confidence and self-esteem to make a complaint if and when they feel the need to.

CV – Explain how encouraging and promoting active participation can help to reduce the likelihood of abuse. By giving the service user encouragement and promoting active participation you helping them to build their self-esteem and an understanding between individuals, when a person feelings valued they are less likely tolerate abuse and are more likely to report or share things they don’t like. CV1 – Explain how an effective and an easy to use complaints procedure can help to reduce the likelihood of abuse.

If the carers and service users are aware that there is a complaints procedure in place and if necessary in an easy read format such as Braille or audio, and is accessible to all it would make it much harder for abuse to go unreported, without an easy complaint procedure the abuser is more likely to try and get away with the abuse, as they would be more confident that the victim would not be able to do anything about it and hence less likely to take place

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