Terrorism In Mumbai 2008: Before And After The Attack Sample College Essay


Before the attack, the terrorists carefully planned this operation, as it was supposed to be large-scale, ambitious, and have a powerful destructive character. They conducted reconnaissance, planning, and preparation for several days before the attack. The terrorist attack began because the terrorists landed on the territory of Mumbai from water transport. The terrorists took the lives of 174 people, and more than 300 people were injured; about seven buildings were attacked (Machold, 2017). The terrorist attacks had several consequences both for the world community and India in particular. Moreover, the attack led to some negative consequences for Pakistan and some other countries.

These events include the shortage of weapons, equipment, and armor for defenders, incorrect intelligence work, and the lack of protection for buildings that were potential targets for terrorists. Insufficient security at the time of the terrorist attack led to the fact that later thorough recruitment of the armed forces was carried out. Even though the plans set to work with weapons are apparent, still the results are not visible. A combination of several events led to the fact that India was not fully prepared for the attack.

Before the Attack

The policy of the Indian authorities before the incident was aimed at arming the police, which would be able to ensure the safety of the population. Indian intelligence learned in advance about the impending terrorist attack and reported it to the Indian authorities. Nevertheless, the Indian authorities have not decided on a more thorough preparation for the terrorist attack. Some of the attacked buildings were insufficiently reliably equipped with metal detectors and means of protection against terrorist attacks (Mahadevan, 2019). Still, one significant drawback of the intelligence work was the omission of the opportunity to track terrorists from arriving by sea transport.

During the Attack

During the attack, it was revealed that some of the equipment, including special suits for defenders of the civilian people, were not fully prepared for a terrorist act. This leads to the fact that corruption can flourish in the country. In addition, this attack demonstrated that the forces of the authorities and officials are not directed there and only create the appearance of some influence or action. In addition, the authorities allocated funds to purchase new equipment to protect civilians, and when it was received, a mass demonstration was held (Masood, 2020). This measure can be regarded as an ordinary theatrical action that means nothing to the population. The state’s policy is that the authorities only create the appearance of performing specific actions to protect the population, focusing their attention on the wrong thing.

After the Attack

Furthermore, this attack demonstrated that India would not be able to repel the attacks of the attackers due to the inability of the authorities to prioritize appropriately. After the attack, the Indian authorities began to invest more actively in units responsible for protecting the population. Still, if these measures had been taken earlier, many people would have been alive and had no serious injuries (Sonawane et al., 2020). The purchase of many weapons and military equipment led to a new series of disputes about bribery in the government apparatus.


In conclusion, the lesson that India showed everyone by not being ready to ensure security for its country costs a lot of human lives and health. Nevertheless, all states need to take out the main aspects of this incident: it is necessary to put more effort into protecting their people through the correct and competent allocation of state funds. It is also imperative that all intelligence groups closely monitor and consider all possible areas of terrorist activity. The authorities will be more vigilant about providing their combat structures with the necessary means of protection against attacks and will more carefully monitor intelligence work.

Furthermore, there may also be a more global conflict and an unprepared India may suffer huge losses, both in terms of population and in other aspects. The state made several wrong decisions and concentrated on the bad part of protecting its people, which led to the death and injury of hundreds of Indians. In addition, this case showed how important the safety of civilians is because this event occurred because of an attack by a terrorist group, and such attacks can be repeated. In the future, India needs to strengthen security measures to protect citizens.


Machold, R. (2017). Militarising Mumbai? The ‘Politics’ of response. Special Issue Global Cities, 39(3), 477-498. Web.

Mahadevan, P. (2019). A decade on from the 2008 Mumbai attack: Reviewing the question of state-sponsorship. International Centre for Counter-Terrorism. Web.

Masood, S. (2020). Accused mastermind of Mumbai attack convicted of links to terrorism. The New York Times. Web.

Sonawane, D. V., Garg, B. K., Chandanwale, A., Mathesul, A. A., Shinde, O. R., & Singh, S. (2020). 26/11 Mumbai terrorist attack revisited: Lessons learnt and novel disaster model for future. Jamba, 12(1), 915. Web.

The “Saint Mark” And “David” Sculptures By Donatello

Saint Mark and David inspired humanism, an intellectual movement of the Renaissance. During the Renaissance, artists gave up on middle-age traditions in architecture, painting, and sculptures, mainly for church decoration, and adopted humanist beliefs. They shifted their focus from religious arts to capturing detailed human bodies; this was an art revolution centered on human rather than religious beliefs. The sculptures of Saint Mark and David are significant in the incorporation of Christian beliefs and ancient philosophy (Azimjon, 2021). The influence of their sculptures played a critical role in distinguishing religion, humans, and the state.

The two figures correlate with their detailed body sculptures, which is significant to the Renaissance Humanism period that embraces and distinguishes human and religious beliefs. Initially, scriptures were presented in the art without the biblical figures. Donatello pioneered the new art of presenting them in sculptures, an idea inspired by Rennaisance Humanism.

The difference between the two figures is the presentation of David as a naked boy and Saint Mark covered in clothing. David’s sculpture is in the Accademia Gallery of Florence, while Saint Mark’s is in Orsanimichele, both in Florence, Italy.

The nakedness symbolizes his youthful body presence of God in David, unlike Goliath, whom he later killed (Totally History, n.d.). Saint Mark’s clothing symbolizes modern times in the Bible where people were clothes. In addition, he held a bible to imply that the fight was no longer physical but through the scripture.

The artists used common human attributes to signify their dignity and something they could relate to. Their focus was to use art to enhance the understanding, significance, and distinction of human needs and religious beliefs. This was achieved since the sculptures’ presentation reflected their cultural reality.

The sculptures are informative, and they are something I can relate to since they reflect my culture. It has helped me identify and delineate my needs from absolute religious beliefs; I can distinguish my human and spiritual needs. Initially, I could not have liberal thoughts; now, I can think without religious inclination.


Azimjon, A. (2021). History of Development of Humanistic Ideas. Neliti.

Totally History. (n.d.). David. Totally History.

Leopold’s “A Sand County Almanac” Reflection

A Sand County Almanac: With Essays on Conservation from Round River is a classic writing on nature and ecology by an American ecologist and forester Aldo Leopold. It was first published in 1949 but achieved prominence twenty-odd years later, in the 1970s, when the so-called environmental awakening took place (Kahler). What particularly amazes me when reading it today is that A Sand County Almanac seems more relevant than ever: the issues Leopold described almost eighty years ago are the issues people deal with today. The purpose of this work, it seems, is to open the reader’s eyes to a wonderful world around them and make them think about the way humans treat it.

The book impressed me profoundly: after having finished the last sections of its first part, I realized that I did not look at the world around me the same way anymore. Perhaps, it is a phase that will pass as soon as the effect that this work had on me begins to wane. However, when looking at a swamp, a tree, or a dog, now I see much more than I used to see; I see the form of life that is mysterious and incomprehensible to us. Leopold draws one’s attention to how much is going on in nature at any given moment. It might seem insignificant, but in reality, as the author shows, can teach a person important lessons about life and death, change and loss.

I share the author’s main idea that is a unifying thread in the book’s narrative: a person is responsible for the land on which they live. Leopold calls for recognizing this responsibility not only before the nature, but before those who will come after us as well. It prompted me to consider my approach to living, especially in times as turbulent as now, when climate change, extinction of precious flora and fauna and other global challenges demand change. Evidently, Leopold could not have foreseen that; however, he believed that the ethics that give direction to our relationship with the environment have to constantly evolve. These ethics are perfectly summarized by a single line from the foreword to the book: “When we see land as a community to which we belong, we may begin to use it with love and respect” (Leopold, 18-19). If more people had seen land this way, we might be living in a better world right now.

When it comes to the author’s writing style, I would describe it as moving and inspiring, which is a bit surprising considering how he was not a writer in the usual sense of the word. However, I believe that it was an intentional choice of his, not to write this book as a scientist, but to do it as a poet: this way, it affected many more people than it would have otherwise. As per Blomberg, Leopold’s writing style pushes one towards “personal acts of interpretation”, and, as per Horst, his descriptions “linger in the back of [one’s] mind”. Scientific language and numerical data cannot be out of the ordinary when speaking about ecology and environmentalism, yet they would have distracted the reader from Leopold’s underlying message. This underlying message targets a person’s logic as much as it targets their feeling, and therefore, the approach chosen by the author was that successful.

Works Cited

Blomberg, Ken. “A Story Behind Every Bush: Leopold’s Writing Life.” Aldo Leopold, 2017.

Horst, David. “A Good Read.” Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 2020.

Kahler, Kathryn A. “Environmental Awakening.” Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 2020.

Leopold, Aldo. A Sand County Almanac: With Essays on Conservation from Round River. Ballantine Books, 1970.