Terrorist Response Organizations Free Essay

Combating terrorism has become one of the major problems of humanity after the terrorist attack on the US World Trade Center in New York on September 11, 2001. Since then, the number of anti-terrorist and terrorist response organizations has significantly increased and cross-national links among them have also improved (Linden, 2007). The organizations started cooperating with each other, which gradually resulted in stronger protection of the country and its citizens. Responding to terrorist attacks and preventing them became the primary objective of the US government, especially after the tragedy. Currently, along with numerous anti-terrorist organizations, the country is protected by multiple specialized terrorist response organizations and single large multi-task ones which, though both these types ensure national security, still perform differently. Compared to multi-task organizations, special terrorist response ones have more benefits due to the special training which their personnel undergoes, the limited number of staff, and narrow specialization which altogether contribute to their high efficiency.

To begin with, members of specialized terrorist response organizations undergo special training which allows them to respond to emergency situations more quickly. As a rule, the agents of such organizations are selected according to numerous complicated criteria even before they are permitted to go through this special training. Besides, it includes not only physical preparation but psychological as well. Since the agents have a weapon and are always exposed to potential danger, they have to take psychological tests which show whether they have an adequate reaction to stressful situations, whether they will use the weapon only when it is indeed needed, whether they are able to evaluate a situation and find such a way out which would bring the least damage to the object and to him/herself, etc. Apart from this, there are also intelligence tests, different theoretical and practical subjects, and, of course, physical training which all should be passed before a person becomes a member of such an organization. The agents of multi-task organizations also undergo special training, but it is less specialized and demanding than that with terrorist response organizations.

Another benefit of specialized terrorist response organizations is that their staff is more reliable than that of single large multi-task organizations due to the fact that it consists of fewer employees. People get into such organizations mostly by recommendations or if they are transferred there from similar institutions. The personnel is experienced or, if they are young, they are trained to be experienced quite fast. It is not a secret that organizations with a limited number of employees have much better performance and productivity than those which consist of incalculable people. This, however, does not mean that the personnel of multi-task organizations is incompetent, but since their staffs are more numerous, there exists a danger of the leakage of information that may be difficult to trace. Leakage of information is fatal with any of these organizations, but it is indeed more likely to happen in an organization where the data are transferred from one department into another and all the employees have access to it. When it comes to terrorism, the data should be kept secret because their disclosure may result in hampering the execution of the operation.

The final benefit is a narrow specialization of smaller terrorist response organizations which makes their activities more goal-oriented. The agents of specialized terrorist response organizations are all involved in one and the same task, namely preventing the terrorist acts which they are aware of and negotiating the terrorists which make spontaneous attacks (if negotiations are possible). Large multi-task organizations, in their turn, consist of several departments dealing with different issues, such as drug abuse, criminal offenses (the departments dealing with these are further subdivided into several departments), prostitution, rights violation, etc with terrorism being only one of these departments. The difference is approximately the same as between an accountant firm and a firm having an accountant department. The organization seems to deal with the problem, but not so efficiently as the one which specializes in it. Thus, for instance, specialized terrorist response organizations operate with fewer databases that contain more exact information; this allows tracing potential terrorists more quickly than in the case with multi-task organizations’ databases for a person suspected in terrorism may be found at other databases as well, which significantly complicates the search.

Therefore, though both specialized terrorist response organizations and single multi-task ones ensure the proper level of national security to the country, the efficiency of their performance is different. The matter is that the former has three major benefits which allow it to perform more effectively, though this does not mean that the latter’s performance is much worse. Firstly, due to the special training which the agents of specialized organizations undergo, they are better prepared for emergency situations and can cope with the problem faster. Secondly, their personnel is less numerous, which minimizes the risk the information leakage. And thirdly, their narrow specialization allows them to concentrate on a specific problem and fight with it. Thus, both types of organizations perform well, but specialized ones have important benefits, which makes them more efficient in fighting terrorism.

Reference List

Linden, E.V. (2007). Focus on Terrorism, Volume 9. New York: Nova Publishers.

A Retrospect On Lessons In Accounting: What Has Been Learned

At first glance, the work of a quality assurance team member has little to do with accounting and finances. However, a closer look at the daily routine of a member of the Quality Assurance team at the Sikorsky Aircraft Company will show that my job, in fact, incorporates a range of elements that are traditionally referred to the domain of accounting and finances. Though already knowing the basic accounting procedures before starting the course, I have acquired a huge experience in accounting at a more advanced level, which will allow me in the future to deliver better results at Sikorsky Aircraft.

The course allowed for identifying the solutions to some of the most complicated financial issues that may arise in the process of an audit. There is no secret that the process of checking the quality of aircrafts may reveal major inconsistencies with the existing quality standards. As a result, the necessity to check whether the financial resources provided for the acquisition of the necessary raw material and supplies have been utilized properly arises.

Another example of the use of the information, which I have learned over the course specified, the utilization of cost analysis tests should be mentioned. As a member of the quality assurance team at the Sikorsky Aircraft Company, I often have to evaluate the costs that have been taken and compare them to the ones that the company would have supposedly taken if other types of materials, supplies and methods of transportation had been chosen.

Consequently, it becomes possible for me to determine the options that the company will benefit from most once I adopt the Overhead costs and volume variance calculations to the analysis of costs (Baker and Baker “Estimates, Benchmarking, and Other Measurement Tools” 219), as well as actual costs and budget variance analysis, to the overall assessment of the financial policy of the company. By correlating the costs and the quality of the final product, I will be able to design the strategy for resources utilization (Baker and Baker “Understanding Investment Terms” 231), which will allow the Sikorsky Aircraft Company to benefit greatly and witness an impressive increase in tits net revenue.

More to the point, the information that I have learned can be used in my future career. With the skills of a quality assurance specialist and the ability to carry out basic accounting calculations, I will be able to define a new method of improving a company’s performance based on new methods of enhancing security of the company’s products and, thus, enhancing safety of the customers.

Despite being aware of the basic accounting processes in the Sikorsky Aircraft Company due to audits, which are to be based on accounting reports, during this course, I learned a lot of information that will help me rationalize my work.

Even though my job may not involve the necessity to file all accounting reports, I still have to do with a number of those in order to carry out audits properly. Now that I know the mechanics of accounting and am capable of carrying out the key calculations, I will be able to improve the audit process a few notches. Being equipped with new and important knowledge, I will be able to make a difference in quality assurance and make Sikorsky’s products safer and more efficient.

Works Cited

Baker, Judith R. and Richard W. Baker. “Estimates, Benchmarking, and Other Measurement Tools.” Health Care Finance: Basic Tools for Nonfinancial Managers – with Access Code. 4th ed. New York, NY: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 2014. 215–224. Print.

—. “Understanding Investment Terms.” Health Care Finance: Basic Tools for Nonfinancial Managers – with Access Code. 4th ed. New York, NY: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 2014. 225–234. Print.

Legalizing Euthanasia: Pros And Cons

Introduction

Many consider the preservation of life to be the higher purpose of humanity’s existence. Thousands of doctors graduating each year take an oath to use their considerable skills to assist those in pain and prolong their existence by all means possible. However, the question of survival becomes more complicated when the patient in question is experiencing unimaginable pain or feels like the remaining time is not worth experiencing. Some posit that providing such people with a safe and legal way to end their suffering is a humane, rational thing to do. Others oppose legalizing the practice on the grounds due to serious legal and medical obstacles. Nevertheless, euthanasia is a necessary addition to the standard end-of-life care practice because it will give patients the power to make conscious decisions about their fate.

Main body

To begin with, one must take into account the opinions of people who are in the unfortunate position of considering whether to end their own lives. Euthanasia is a simple choice to make, so relying on the perspective of those who never had to ponder this question seems shortsighted. Interested in researching the feelings of the terminally ill, Chapple, Ziebland, Mcpherson, and Herxheimer (2006) conducted a qualitative study on the subject. According to their findings, patients cited such reasons as pain, indignity, cognitive impairment, and the loss of control among the reasons to opt for assisted suicide (Chapple et al., 2006). For them, the opportunity to die safely in the time of their choosing surrounded by friends and family was preferable to suffering for an indeterminate period. Therefore, terminally ill patients, the people for whom the question of assisted suicide is of utmost importance, agree that euthanasia should be a legal practice.

Naturally, people nearing the end of their existence are not monoliths and exhibit a variety of opinions on the subject of assisted suicide. Some cite religious views for opposing the practice. For instance, a survey conducted by Sharp (2019) demonstrates that those who believe in life after death are considerably less likely to have positive opinions about euthanasia. Nevertheless, these findings only mean that religious persons themselves should not be subjected to euthanasia, not that it should not be an option available to the general populace. Medical professionals should take spiritual beliefs into account when holding consultations with patients and their families. However, the theological concerns of some individuals are not enough for instituting a blanket ban on the practice.

Moreover, many medical professionals, another group whose opinions are of high relevance, agree that euthanasia is sometimes the only option available when treating a terminally ill person. At times, it is no longer possible for the physician to help in any other way but heavily medicating the patient to alleviate pain. The person is hardly conscious or aware of their surroundings. They do not feel that they can fully control their own body and the direction of their life. Doctors should not have to inflict even more suffering upon the people entrusted in their care. Legalizing euthanasia would allow patients and medical professionals to work together to develop an end-of-life care plan, regardless of whether that means prolonging life or organizing an assisted suicide. As a result, physicians will be confident that they are acting in their charges’ best interests.

Some thinkers cite the Hippocratic Oath as the reason why healthcare professionals should not be assisting during suicides. According to them, this foundational principle of medicine clearly states that physicians should not harm their patients. However, the pledge created over 2,000 years ago does not reflect the intricacies of modern end-of-life care. Hippocrates’ contemporaries were not capable of prolonging life, mostly because they lacked relevant knowledge and tools. Moreover, their sense of morality does not reflect many of the current views. Their opinions on women’s rights, slavery, and many other issues are no longer mainstream, and neither should be their view of physicians’ responsibilities. Lastly, there is no longer a single version of the Hippocratic Oath. In fact, many countries and even medical schools within one nation use their own versions that reflect their values, so modern graduating doctors can adjust the wording to express their perspective on euthanasia.

Of course, the biggest obstacle to legalizing the practice is whether it fits within the country’s existing laws. After all, most nations prohibit killings and punish those who commit such heinous acts. However, assisted suicide is not comparable to murder as the practice is the realm of professionals working with the full consent of the people willing to end their lives. Furthermore, one could argue that euthanasia is already legal by implication, according to several nations’ laws. For instance, Article 21 of the Indian Constitution guarantees the country’s citizens the Right To Live with Personal Liberty and Human Dignity (Vyas, 2017). Additionally, the fundamental human rights, as listed by the United Nations, advocate for an existence free of torture where everyone may express their beliefs and opinions. Prolonging the life of a patient who is suffering against their will contradicts these rights, suggesting that everyone should be allowed to commit suicide if they desire to do so consciously (Vyas, 2017). As demonstrated, in some cases, human rights and fundamental laws advocate for clear a legal framework for assisted suicide.

Additionally, laws should serve the people; if the population of a country decides that they want to have a right to euthanasia, the government should not be able to deny them. For example, Oregon passed a law allowing assisted suicide through popular vote. It demonstrates that the citizens agree on the subject and want to make informed choices about their end-of-life care. On the opposite side of the spectrum, the article by Khaleeli and Cocozza (2017) recounts the problematic experiences of the people in the UK where euthanasia is not yet legal. In this case, the laws of the country are actively preventing its citizens from making decisions and perpetuate their suffering. Thus, the legalities surrounding end-of-life care and assisted suicide should reflect the desires of the population.

Despite its apparent benefits, legalizing euthanasia is a complicated process that requires considerable care in implementation. For instance, the opponents of the practice believe that it can be weaponized to harm vulnerable groups. The history of healthcare is rife with examples of medical professionals misusing medical procedures. Just as many indigenous and disabled women underwent sterilization against their will, people of color and other minorities can suffer from imposed assisted suicide. However, this argument underlines only that euthanasia legislation should be implemented prudently with all possible fail-safes. After all, sterilization is a necessary procedure that many people require. Similarly, assisted suicide should be made available with the power to choose whether it is the right option placed in the hands of the patient. The fear that euthanasia laws could harm vulnerable populations is valid but only emphasizes that the relevant legal framework should benefit those suffering from a disease.

Another popular concern regarding the issue is economic in nature. Opponents argue that financial constraints might force patients to end their lives despite them not being willing to. Some countries approach the state of egalitarian utopia or have government-sponsored universal healthcare, so it is hardly a concern there. However, in other nations, such as the United States of America, a prolonged illness can mean bankruptcy or life-long debt for the patient and their family. In this case, money can indeed act as an incentive for a person to end their life rather than ruin their loved ones’ future and financial security. Despite how awful such a decision may seem, it would still be the patient’s right to make it. The possibility of such a situation is a condemnation of the current American healthcare system rather than the right to assisted suicide.

Conclusion

Euthanasia should be a fundamental right because it gives patients the power to make conscious decisions about their fate. Many terminally ill people want to end their lives with dignity, and the government should not deny them this option. Moreover, medical professionals must always strive to provide the best care possible even if it means conducting assisted suicide procedures. It is essential to construct the relevant legislation with care and attention to detail to prevent abuses, but laws should ultimately reflect the desires of the people.

References

Chapple, A., Ziebland, S., Mcpherson, A., & Herxheimer, A. (2006). What people close to death say about euthanasia and assisted suicide: A qualitative study. Journal of Medical Ethics, 32(12), 706-710.

Khaleeli, H., & Cocozza, P. (2014). Assisted dying bill: ‘I want to control how and when I die.’ The Guardian. Web.

Sharp, S. (2017). Belief in life after death and attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. OMEGA – Journal of Death and Dying, 79(1), 72-89.

Vyas, D. (2017). Painful life or peaceful death- An look out. Research Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 8(1), 81–88.

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