The Advancements In Electric Car Technology Essay Example


Electric vehicles are steadily replacing petrol-driven ones as the world turns towards sustainability and an environment-friendly lifestyle. Emissions caused by standard fuels negatively impact climate change, and the continuing growth of the human population enables industries to seek alternatives to the older energy sources. The number of electric cars worldwide grew by more than 40% during the last three years as the consumers shifted their perception of the transport’s value and efficiency (Feng and Magee, 2020). The tendency is beneficial for the related industries, and their project management strategies must rely on the recent relevant peer-reviewed articles and energy, materials, and sustainability studies.

Research about the advancements and improvements in electric car technology is widely based on solving the issues that disrupt the vehicles’ wider distribution or negatively impact their price. Innovations are studied and reviewed in the literature related to materials mining and utilisation because the lithium used in machines, batteries and electric power for charging has not been explored well yet. Moreover, a considerable volume of research also belongs to the environment, and ecology scientists as the wide distribution of electric cars is a valuable part of the worldwide movement towards better sustainability. Lastly, different countries explore the production and utilisation of alternative energy in transport to publish reviews and reports sharing and comparing their experience (Hua et al., 2020). Reviewing the literature and studying the current findings is crucial for industrial and business project management because the awareness of issues and tendencies results in higher competitive advantage and optimal financial decision-making.

Electric vehicle technologies rapidly innovate, and studying the peer-reviewed literature for the last three years is the appropriate strategy for identifying current advancements and improvements. Electric power research is published in famous scientific journals such as “Energy,” “International Journal of Energy Research,” and “Energy Policy.” The way how the alternative resource-driven cars influence the environment and climate change issue is analysed and presented in “Sustainability,” “Atmospheric Environment,” and “Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions.” The international implementation experience and strategies the manufacturing companies create to improve materials use are explored in multiple studies. For instance, the research by Wanitschke and Hoffmann identified the problematic aspects of the industry. This literature report aims to explore the latest studies about advancements and improvements in electric cars technology based on practical, environmental, and innovation aspects and critically appraise their research methodology and relevance.

Critical Appraisal of Literature

The innovations that benefit electric cars can be explored and analysed by comparing the technology to combustion engine-driven vehicles. Indeed, the review conducted by Verma et al. in 2021 revealed that electric energy motor has a longer lifecycle than conventional one due to the use of software and renewable energy (Verma and Kumar, 2021). Furthermore, literature reviews reveal the current conditions on markets, manufacturing trends, and issues around alternative motors implementation (Feng and Magee, 2020). The researchers also concluded that the production of alternative cars has additional costs, and technological improvements should aim to reduce the volume of raw materials necessary for batteries. Differences between electric and petrol cars were also analysed in the study “Comparison of the overall energy efficiency for internal combustion engine vehicles and electric vehicles” by Albatayneh et al. in 2020. The peer-reviewed article provided evidence that the alternative cars’ well to wheel efficiency ranged from 13 to 31 percent, which is lower than the petrol motors’ (Albatayneh et al., 2020). However, electric vehicles have higher efficiency in general because of the innovations that optimise their size and materials used.

Manufacturers and scientists widely discuss electric cars’ batteries production and utilisation due to the uncertainties around the technology. In the research paper by Wanitschke and Hoffmann (2020), the influence of low-carbon solutions is discussed, emphasising that the petrol-based motors’ use is also not fully-explored. The uncertainty is the beneficial driver for technological development and future studies for electric cars advance. Electric cars’ efficiency and development are broadly studied from the perspective of physical and material science, and recent peer-reviewed literature submits the alternative energy technologies advance.

The research about fuel cell electric vehicles efficiency conducted by Muthukumar et al. (2021) suggested that the technology is beneficial for automobiles and should be used by key manufacturers such as Tesla and Volvo. An international review about cars advancements and development conducted by Sun et al. (2020) provided additional considerations regarding the future of cars, emphasising the importance of the reliability of lithium battery-driven vehicles. Electric cars production is a valuable step towards optimised resources consumption and technological improvement.

The advancements of electric vehicles are widely studied from the sustainability perspective. Their outcomes suggest that the key to the ecologically appropriate future is replacing petrol energy with electricity. Moreover, research by Müller (2019) was published in Sustainability in 2019 and explored the use of battery-electric cars in Europe, China, and the USA. The author determined the connection between citizens’ acceptance of alternative energy sources, ecological initiatives and the electric vehicles demand (Müller, 2019). Electric motors developers receive massive support from environment protection organisations as alternative energy is a proven way to reduce the emissions-related damage and address the severe climate change.

The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the innovations’ development and implementation worldwide, affecting electric cars production and distribution. In the article written by Arribas-Ibar, Nylund, and Brem (2021) published in “Sustainability,” the crisis’s influence on alternative energy vehicles was described to identify the strategies to deal with challenges. Arribas-Ibar, Nylund, and Brem claim that “due to the pandemic, consumers have had to rapidly learn to use and adopt new technologies, thus positively to affect their perceptions of novelties such as electric vehicles” (2021, p.1319). The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in increased interest in improving the environment and decreasing the health and ecology risks in the future.

International experience in manufacturing and utilising electric cars technology is presented in peer-reviewed literature as it provides the scientists with information for further research. The analysis of European experience on Germany’s example, conducted by Luca de Tena and Pregger (2018), suggested that by 2050, Germany will need to get 10% more energy for supporting electricity-driven automobiles, yet renewable energy will be a significant advantage for their manufacturing industries. Additionally, Guo and Zhou’s article “Residual value analysis of plug-in vehicles in the United States” explored how companies build the electric cars market to make them affordable for average citizens (Guo and Zhou, 2019). The American example emphasises that battery-electric vehicles would increase their advantages for consumers if manufactured and distributed in the same country. Asian experience, especially Chinese, is also described in recent scientific articles, and a study by Du et al. (2018) defined the governmental regulation of production as the main factor influencing the quality of electric cars. Furthermore, Asian countries have unique transportation and energy logistics; thus, their solutions are different from European and American ones.

Critical Evaluation of the Research Methods

Research methods selection is based on hypothesis and purpose; thus, exploration of advancements and improvements in electric cars technology is performed in various ways. The topic allows scientists of diverse subjects to conduct descriptive, experimental, correlational and causal-comparative studies and use a theoretical or practical approach to gather and analyse the data (Hua et al., 2020). For instance, quantitative methods can be selected to calculate the statistics of electric vehicle use in different countries, while the qualitative ones address the specific manufacturing or technological development strategies. Critical evaluation of the research methods used by the scientists to explore the advancements in electric cars technology provides additional evidence on the subject and approves the studies’ credibility.

Different research methods are used in the selected peer-reviewed articles because multiple perspectives on researching the advancements of electric cars technology were identified for a more detailed exploration. Indeed, quantitative studies analysed the economic value of novel vehicles in different countries and showed evidence of the alternative energy’s impact on climate change. Guo and Zhou’s article “Residual value analysis of plug-in vehicles in the United States” used statistical models as the principal methodology to reveal how the cars are being manufactured and distributed nationwide (Guo and Zhou, 2019). The selected strategy is beneficial and appropriate for identifying the fundamental tendencies and providing evidence-based information about the current market conditions.

Quantitative methods were also used in Arribas-Ibar, Nylund and Brem’s study “The risk of dissolution of sustainable innovation ecosystems in times of crisis: The electric vehicle during the COVID-19 pandemic.” Scientists compared statistical data of electric-battery car use and production in calm times to the challenging ones to retrieve the patterns and develop recommendations (Arribas-Ibar, Nylund and Brem, 2021). The methodology is appropriate because numerical data is perceived as valuable evidence for making predictions and identifying issues. Electric energy is claimed to be the most resource-savvy mechanism, and the study conducted by Zhang et al. applied a quantitative analytical strategy to explore how alternative vehicles work. In the article “Quantitative analysis of the energy-saving mechanism of a hybrid electric tracked vehicle by an analytical method,” the energy-saving ratio was calculated through tracked data (Zhang et al., 2021). Then, the retrieved statistics were used for defining the potential to consume less electricity (Zhang et al., 2021). The quantitative method addresses the study’s aim to count the mechanism’s capabilities, and using an analytical equation is appropriate for getting the results.

Qualitative research methodology enables scientists to work with non-numeral data and allows them to draw complicated conclusions, approve various hypotheses simultaneously, and get unexpected results. The approach is frequently used for practical studies where specific interventions are observed, or the tendencies analysed semantically rather than through statistics. Exploration of advancements and improvements in electric car technology can benefit from qualitative methodologies, and the selected articles prove the importance of such research. For instance, the study “Impact of electric vehicles on a future renewable energy-based power system in Europe with a focus on Germany” is based on the implications scenarios’ analysis (Luca de Tena and Pregger, 2018). The qualitative methodology is beneficial and appropriate for the research because it provides a non-statistical forecast of the power systems’ utilisation by 2050 (Luca de Tena and Pregger, 2018). If the quantitative data was used, it could not provide sufficient evidence to predict the outcomes.

Qualitative research is also beneficial for comparison-based studies because it provides a foundation for detailed characterisation of subject matter and enables the scientists to use multiple analysis approaches. Indeed, Albatayne et al. (2020) used the methodology to contrast the technology of the electric vehicle to the combustion engine ones to reveal the former’s beneficence for sustainability. Qualitative research included the well to wheel efficiency evaluation and interventions to calculate the two types of motors’ ranges, which could not be performed if the quantitative design was selected.

The strategies to analyze how the technologies work and evolve are beneficial to be performed qualitatively as the methodology allows to collect and analyze a broader scope of information. Indeed, the study conducted by Sun et al. explored how replacing oil with electric energy to reduce air pollution drives modern vehicles’ technological efficiency and safety (Sun et al., 2020). Comparing diverse power sources and their costs for vehicles’ use and production revealed that the change towards electricity-driven cars is a driver for innovation (Sun et al., 2020). The qualitative methodology is appropriate for the research because scientists analyzed multiple variables and used various types of analysis to prove their hypothesis about the electric vehicles’ beneficence.

Qualitative methods such as observations and case studies can provide the scientists with significant evidence and data sufficient to describe and analyse electric cars’ characteristics. In the article “Insights into the characteristics of technologies and industrialisation for plug-in electric cars in China,” Du et al. (2018) conducted a comprehensive and depth-insight description of industrialisation processes. The authors identified critical characteristics of the latest electric vehicles produced in China and revealed the related issues (Du et al., 2018). While the qualitative method is appropriate in the study, it would benefit from the mixed design because the revealed problems’ prevalence and urgency require statistical calculation and approval.

Mixed research methods are the recent tendency as technological development allows modern scientists to include diverse data collection and analysis types without impacting the time or resources necessary for completing the study. Four of the selected articles about improvements in electric car technology are based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches for making evidence-based conclusions and submitting their hypotheses. Indeed, Müller’s research “Comparing technology acceptance for autonomous vehicles, battery electric vehicles, and car sharing—a study across Europe, China, and North America” is conducted with mixed methodologies. The author combined the statistics about the countries’ markets – a quantitative approach, with the analysis of citizens’ surveys about their perception of the alternative energy use – qualitative one (Müller, 2019). The use of mixed methods is appropriate for the study because it provides sufficient evidence for identifying the technology acceptance.

Mixed methods are used in more comprehensive studies and are appropriate when the scientists state multiple research questions or hypotheses to approve. In the article “Are battery electric vehicles the future? An uncertainty comparison with hydrogen and combustion engines”, the authors aimed to describe the uncertainties of technology development and compare the prevalence of electricity-based technology use (Wanitschke and Hoffmann, 2020). The quantitative aspect of research provides sufficient data to state the urgency and value of the study, while the qualitative and descriptive parts characterise the selected uncertainties. The paper written by Muthukumar et al. (2021) included mixed methods as it explored distinct aspects of electric cars technology such as the emissions reduction and the fuel cell systems implementation by modern companies. The combination of diverse data collection and analysis strategies is an appropriate strategy because it allowed the scientists to reveal current tendencies and develop recommendations for car manufacturers.

Combining qualitative and quantitative methods is beneficial for the research where a hypothesis is explored through intervention, which requires numerical analysis. For instance, the study conducted by Ramea in 2019 used a mixed design to monitor the utilization and evaluate the efficiency of hydrogen fueling stations. The research aimed to prove that a demand-focused strategy for fueling is worth developing for electric cars to improve drivers’ experience and vehicles’ energy consumption (Ramea, 2019). Mixed methods are appropriate because they allow the scientist to create an evidence-based intervention and track its results.


The topic of advancements and improvements in electric car technology has already been explored from various perspectives, and the rapid innovations in the related industries broaden the scope of subjects to study. The alternative automobile engine is widely used in China, Germany, and United States, and the companies such as Tesla and Volvo continue improving their manufacturing strategies. Researchers used different methodologies to collect data and identify the current process for technological development and address the obstacles that prevent the average use of electric vehicles. The current challenges are difficulties in mining raw materials such as lithium and international automobile production. The most efficient strategies for further development are optimising manufacturing tools and popularising alternative engine use.

The literature review report provided sufficient evidence about the benefits of using electric automobiles in sustainability and economics. Indeed, alternative energy use significantly reduced greenhouse gas emissions and was a proven efficient strategy to address climate change. However, sustainability-related studies suggested considering the hazardous production of vital elements such as batteries, as their harm to the environment is significant. In comparison to combustion engine vehicles, electric ones are capable of using recyclable energy and therefore can impact the future of the economy worldwide. Countries such as the United States and China demonstrate that the overall conditions of transporting and electricity consumption are the significant factor that can either disrupt or improve the electric cars technology development.

Critical appraisal of the research methods is beneficial for studying how diverse types of data analysis help scientists reveal challenges, forecast trends, and identify recent tendencies of advancing electric car technologies. Indeed, quantitatively designed articles displayed the precise distinctions between combustion engine vehicles and electric ones. Qualitative studies provided evidence about the environmental benefits of alternative cars and retrieved trends in technological advances among leading production companies. Mixed-method research combined the analysis of electric vehicles implementation with forecasting the possible challenges based on economic, ecological, and manufacturing factors.

Modern project management cannot exist without research necessary for proper decision-making and evidence-based planning. When electric car technologies are used in business plans, leaders must consider the industry’s economic conditions, current manufacturing, and countries’ experiences where the alternative engine is widely consumed. Addressing the development of alternative engine-driven automobile technology cannot be performed without solid theoretical evidence and the clarification of past practices. Consequently, the critical review of literature and research methods is essential for project management and further technological improvement.

Reference List

Albatayneh, A., Assaf, M.N., Alterman, D. and Jaradat, M., (2020). Comparison of the overall energy efficiency for internal combustion engine vehicles and electric vehicles. Environmental and Climate Technologies [online], 24(1), pp.669-680

Arribas-Ibar, M., Nylund, P.A. and Brem, A., (2021). The risk of dissolution of sustainable innovation ecosystems in times of crisis: the electric vehicle during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustainability [online], 13(3), p.1319

Du, J., Meng, X., Li, J., Wu, X., Song, Z. and Ouyang, M., (2018). Insights into the characteristics of technologies and industrialisation for plug-in electric cars in China. Energy [online], 164, pp.910-924

Feng, S. and Magee, C.L., (2020). Technological development of key domains in electric vehicles: Improvement rates, technology trajectories and key assignees. Applied Energy [online], 260, p.114264.

Guo, Z. and Zhou, Y., (2019). Residual value analysis of plug-in vehicles in the United States. Energy Policy [online], 125, pp.445-455

Hua, Y., Zhou, S., Cui, H., Liu, X., Zhang, C., Xu, X., Ling, H. and Yang, S., (2020). A comprehensive review on inconsistency and equalisation technology of lithium‐ion battery for electric vehicles. International Journal of Energy Research [online], 44(14), pp.11059-11087

Luca de Tena, D. and Pregger, T., (2018). Impact of electric vehicles on a future renewable energy‐based power system in Europe with a focus on Germany. International Journal of Energy Research [online], 42(8), pp.2670-2685

Müller, J.M., (2019). Comparing technology acceptance for autonomous vehicles, battery electric vehicles, and car sharing—a study across Europe, China, and North America. Sustainability [online], 11(16), p.4333

Muthukumar, M., Rengarajan, N., Velliyangiri, B., Omprakas, M.A., Rohit, C.B. and Raja, U.K., (2021). The development of fuel cell electric vehicles–A review. Materials Today: Proceedings [online], 45, pp.1181-1187

Ramea, K., (2019). An integrated quantitative-qualitative study to monitor the utilization and assess the perception of hydrogen fueling stations. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy [online], 44(33), pp.18225-18239.

Sun, X., Li, Z., Wang, X. and Li, C., (2020). Technology development of electric vehicles: A review. Energies [online], 13(1), p.90

Verma, S., Dwivedi, G. and Verma, P., (2021). Life cycle assessment of electric vehicles in comparison to combustion engine vehicles: A review. Materials Today: Proceedings [online], 49, pp.217-222

Verma, J. and Kumar, D., 2021. Metal-ion batteries for electric vehicles: Current state of the technology, issues and future perspectives. Nanoscale Advances [online], 3(12), pp.3384-3394

Wanitschke, A. and Hoffmann, S., (2020). Are battery electric vehicles the future? An uncertainty comparison with hydrogen and combustion engines. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions [online], 35, pp.509-523

Zhang, B., Guo, S., Lv, Q., Zhang, X., Ouyang, M. and Teng, L., (2021). Quantitative analysis of the energy saving mechanism of a hybrid electric tracked vehicle by an analytical method. Energy Conversion and Management [online], 237, p.114067.

Appendix A

Search Plan

Step 1: Identifying key words further used during the literature research process

The search for specific terms for the research was a vital first step towards retrieving the correct studies for analysis. The key words were: electric cars, electric vehicles, combustion engine, automobile industry, technological advancements, environment, project management.

Step 2: Identifying Platforms for Research

All data for the research analysis and critical appraisal was collected through online libraries. Mainly, keywords were entered to Google Scholar to explore further the articles at sources such as ScienceDirect.

Step 3: Examining the Literature Results

The primary approach for examining the selected literature’s credibility was to check if it has DOI and has been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. Furthermore, each article was analyzed considering their relation to the subject and research methods used.

Step 5: Managing the References

The literature was the peer-reviewed scholarly articles published between 2018 and 2022 because electric cars development is novel and rapidly innovates. Furthermore, newer references were retrieved and included to clarify if the research methodologies in selected literature are appropriate and subjects are relevant.

Appendix B


Quantitative studies: Arribas-Ibar, Nylund, and Brem (2021) – battery use statisitcs, Guo and Zhou, (2019) – statistical models of manufacturing tendencies;

Qualitative studies: Albatayneh et al., (2020) – well to wheel efficiency range evaluation intervention; Luca de Tena and Pregger (2018) – current practices’ descriptive analysis;

Mixed Studies: Muthukumar et al. (2021) – distinct aspects of electric cars technology combined and compared both in terms of their contents and statistically; Wanitschke and Hoffmann (2020) – description of the uncertainties of technology development and comparison of the prevalence of electricity-based engine use.

Hegel’s Account Of Freedom And The Modern State

German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel is recognized for shaping contemporary philosophical thought. Hegel’s view of freedom was that it was a human entitlement, not a person’s right, but merely a product of human logic. Hegel comprehensively explains his viewpoint in the books, Outlines of the Philosophy of Right and Elements of the Philosophy of Right. To be free did not mean to be able to act whenever one pleased. Instead, it meant to be in harmony with a collective drive for happiness. When humans started acting as moral intermediaries, conflicts stopped, and they started working toward the same goals. The citizens could reconcile the household ideals and the requirements of economic life by relegating their being to the state. Hegel’s conception of the state opposes patriotism as a social institution since it makes other parts of society dependent on it and incorporates society members into communal actors that do not promote universal goals like individual freedom.

To grasp Hegel’s explanation of freedom and its fulfillment in the current state, it is crucial first to interpret his theory of the state. Hegel contends that the creation of the modern state makes it possible for humans to achieve the maximum level of freedom. In the past, the state’s will was said to supersede the choices of individuals, stifling individual liberty. Hegel contends that nowadays, people claim their thoughts, will, and conscience, which is a hallmark of liberty (Hegel 2008). The contemporary state resolves the conflict between state will and the individual will since the obligations and rights of people correspond perfectly inside it. Since the state’s establishment is the only requirement for the achievement of specific objectives and benefits, fulfilling one’s responsibility to the state entails affirming an individual’s right to the freedom to seek those goals.

For Hegel, this contemporary state perspective is the foundation on which he builds his concepts of patriotism and the obligation a citizen has to the state. Patriotism can only be defined as the subject’s normal conduct, which supports Hegel’s claim that patriotism is an outcome of behavior (Hegel 1991). If the subject realizes that working inside the state’s systems gives them the freedom to seek their interests, they will realize that responsibility and rights are inseparable. This fosters in the subject confidence in establishments and the consciousness that his “interest, both substantial and particular, is contained and preserved in another’s (as in the state’s) interest and end…” (Hegel 2008, 240). As a consequence of this association, rather than being a separate entity, the state now looks to be an extension of the person. This means that obligation is seen as a person’s free will.

As history unfolds, it tells a tale of the cyclical development of individual liberty, which is realized in state organs in various situations along the way. The sum of these entities inside a state is the politico-administrative constitution of that state. Thus, patriotism reveals a tendency to freedom ingrained in the state’s systems to the degree it prevails in any government. To summarize, Hegel’s initial explanation of patriotism is that it is a propensity toward the specific entities of a state since membership in those bodies reinforces the person’s welfare. Hegel maintains that the uniqueness of a state is comprised of the many modes wherein freedom is created and expressed within its establishments (Hegel 1991). Nevertheless, irrespective of whether the constitution of a government is seen as genuine by its residents, a state’s uniqueness does not exist until it is acknowledged by other groups, for instance, other republics. This exaplian why states may clash with one another in the absence of a worldwide governing body.

Furthermore, Hegel contends that the state’s personality is a growing self-negation mechanism. In other words, the state’s uniqueness arises from how specific needs are subordinated to the general, conceptual freedom of the state and its agencies (Hegel 2008). This evolution manifests as a succession of conflicts with external, contingent occurrences or conflicts for acknowledgment with other governments. When the state’s distinctiveness is threatened, sacrificing on its behalf “is a universal duty” (Hegel 2008, 308). In other words, people who value institutions and consequently the uniqueness of their states are obligated to protect such organizations at any expense. The connection between the state and the citizen seems to stress the former’s total authority over the latter since people’s lives must be sacrificed for the nation’s benefit.

Consequently, Hegel implies that these two concepts of patriotism are antagonistic. He compares his definition of patriotism in the initial version with the claim that being a patriot merely requires preparedness for extraordinary sacrifices and acts (Hegel 2008). He claims that although this is undoubtedly a component of patriotism, it ignores the reality that the ground for all these compromises is the constant understanding that “the community is one’s substantial basis and end…” (Hegel 2008, 241). However, the second explanation is focused on the general need to forgo that person’s benefit in favor of the state’s interest. Indeed, it is on this basis that Hegel considers it essential for individuals to transcend the civil society-based conception of freedom.

Hegel argues that confusing the state for civil society and seeing its ultimate purpose as protecting human life and property results in a completely erroneous view of it (Hegel 1991). However, in the first interpretation, the sense of patriotism resulted directly from the state’s commitment to upholding civil society. Accordingly, there seems to be a conflict between the roots of nationalism and its obligations. Nonetheless, this conflict dissipates with the complete formation of patriotic tendency. Patriotism stems from the state’s power to safeguard specific interests; however, its need for personal selflessness empowers the citizen to surpass the quest of interest and achieve a deeper type of liberty.

Essentially, Hegel argues that people must differentiate between the usual and exceptional situations of the republic, comprising peacetimes and wartimes. He contends that the state’s status has major mental effects on its inhabitants. Patriotism is the mentality that civil society is one’s main foundation and goal in the connections of an individual’s everyday lives and within normal circumstances (Hegel 1991). Nevertheless, although normality fosters such a tendency, it is frequently simply at a semi-conscious stage. As a result, patriotism begins in the person, manifesting deep feelings of satisfaction with the state.

The basis of the modern state is that the common is closely associated with the total freedom of its citizens and with individual welfare. Thus, the household and civil society should focus on the republic; however, the unifying goal cannot be achieved without the awareness and determination of its participants, whose liberties have to be protected. In contrast, the exceptional circumstance of war has the reverse impact. Hegel explains that the moral of the hopelessness of devotion to material commodities, which clergyman frequently conveys, does not ring true in everyday settings. Instead, he contends that everybody believes they will preserve their composure no matter how impacted they are by what they hear (Hegel 1991). However, the immediate possible destruction of the state that war presents eventually causes the citizen to understand this lesson.

The capacity to recognize freedom greater than the liberty to follow one’s unique interest arises when the state’s identity is threatened and the commodities the citizen had ignored are rendered unstable. The heroic sacrifice of oneself in the service of the state enables the nationalist to exert a greater degree of freedom than the quest for personal interests. Here, Hegel claims that bravery is a substantive attribute on two grounds:

  1. It is the ultimate conception of freedom from all specific purposes, belongings, pleasures, and existence (yet it contradicts them in an external and actual); and
  2. their isolation or abandonment (Hegel 2008, 309).

According to Hegel, a voluntary act of sacrificing one’s physical or financial well-being for a goal can be an act of virtue. This bravery act is only noble to the degree that it is motivated by a legitimate cause. This honorable justification defines the amount to which the act of bravery is beneficial. For instance, these are not genuine manifestations of bravery if a person demonstrates courage to get sustenance or to achieve honor (Hegel 1991). True bravery, which is also the ultimate manifestation of liberty, is the readiness to sacrifice oneself for the republic’s survival.

Hegel believes that, in this case, connecting oneself with the general is more essential than displaying one’s courage. In a compromise on behalf of the nation, a human transcends their concrete existence and transforms into a symbol of the ultimate total. In this manner, the diverse people within the state confirm their devotion to the government, establishing a genuine relationship as residents. However, it must be correct that the civilians express their freedoms in this compromise to be valid that sacrifice for the modern state’s sake is the individual’s shared responsibility. The results of real heroism show that obligation and right can converge in sacrifice. It has previously been said that a state’s charter, which the subject gets oriented towards, is that government’s representation of individual liberty. This symbol of freedom is threatened whenever two states clash in a quest for legitimacy.

By exhibiting genuine bravery, voluntarily opting to act for the state’s benefit notwithstanding material and physical hazards, the citizen willingly consents to the reality of freedom as codified in these establishments. Thus, Hegel notes, “this determination, wherein the rights and interests of persons are posed as ephemeral, is simultaneously something positive, i.e., the positing not of their contingent, changeable uniqueness, but their personality in and of itself” (Hegel 2008, 305). Consequently, the ultimate type of freedom is only feasible during times of conflict. Only then is there a chance for genuine bravery, and people can only learn the folly of merely caring about their desires.

Hegel emphasizes the significance of the two ideas of the citizen-state interplay, which seem to be at odds with one another. The superiority of genuine bravery over the liberty to follow one’s interests could sometimes imply that a state seeks conflict, although this is demonstrably wrong. Hegel’s emphasis that protecting a person’s freedom to pursue their interests is the cornerstone of patriotism demonstrates how perpetual conflict would undermine the state’s credibility (Hegel 1991). Conversely, a permanent peace is undesirable as he suggests that “with peace, civil life increases ceaselessly; all its fields become securely entrenched, and people stagnate over time…” (Hegel 2008, 307). Citizens will lose vision of the boundaries of their self-interest and the ties of citizenship strengthened through sacrifice if the instability of commodities is not made apparent to them, as it is in times of war. Ultimately, this will culminate in the degeneration of genuine political society into a civilization ruled by self-interested individuals. A constraint on human ability results from this development of economic life and the breakdown of political and civic life conceptions. Hence, the need for each component of nationalism advises against eternal peace or unending war while in favor of the virtue of occasional moments of conflict.

Correspondingly, Hegel separates himself from the core tenet of the liberal tradition. He argues that there is no genuine contradiction between the free state’s growing emphasis on protecting citizen rights and the idea that sacrificing one’s life in service of one’s nation is a responsibility of citizenship. Nonetheless, at least two concerns remain following his apparent harmonization. First, whether Hegel is right that long spells of peace are harmful, it seems shockingly unethical to go to war merely to stimulate political life. Other liberals might see this behavior as an irresponsible hazard and a pretext for rebellion. Secondly, one can question whether or not countries founded on liberalism and market economics would deteriorate at such a rapid rate when there is no conflict.

Overtly, one may assume that participating in politics would provide a particular group of people the chance to dedicate themselves to the upkeep and expansion of the constitutional democracy or the accomplishment of freedom within the republic. It is conceivable to propose that the importance of political decisions plays a similar, though less striking, role in the journey of growing awareness as the potential of conflict does and that the action of making decisions in politics may be seen as the unconstrained yearning of freedom. Therefore, Hegel concludes that freedom is primarily political and social and not individual, with the assertion that liberty in the absence of structured social institutions is both a rational and an experiential paradox.

To summarize, Hegel implies that the state is an organic whole that maximizes individuals and societal interests and includes all life-sustaining institutions. In contemporary times, the state is the realization of freedom in line with the notion of will, as opposed to the personal whims of individuals. Hegel believes that war is a measure of the relative strength of states, with the most logically ordered nations winning over less morally well-structured governments. Undeveloped states are ones in which the concept of the state is largely obscured, and its specific decisions have not fully achieved self-sufficiency. Therefore, proactively engaging in political affairs may render the advantages of conflict redundant or less significant. Contrarily, Hegel’s thorough analysis of the dual character of patriotism helps readers to address and perhaps start to grasp the link between conflict and the roots of the modern state.


Hegel, George. (1991). Elements of the philosophy of right. Edited by Allen William Wood and translated by Hugh Barr Nisbet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hegel, George. (2008). Outlines of the philosophy of right. Edited by Stephen Houlgate and translated by Thomas Malcolm Knox. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Racial Inequality In Modern Society

The issue of racial inequality is an urgent problem for modern society. Despite the high level of progressiveness and the spread of awareness about the importance of inclusion and diversity, a large number of people are facing the consequences of slavery in the colonial period. Many researchers have studied the phenomenon of racial inequality, which provides different points of view on what the state of this problem is at the moment. Thus, this essay aims to support the opinion that the United States of America has failed to solve the problem of the American Paradox of the relative popularity of people in the country.

Thus, it is necessary to consider in more detail the issue of racial inequality and the point of view of researchers who have made a unique contribution to this topic. For example, scientists such as Audrey Smedley, Michael Omi, and Howard Winant believed that race is the cause of structural inequality in society. This is due to the influence of the history of the United States, in which slavery is one of the critical points (Huhndorf 21). Hence, until now, many people associate belonging to a non-white race as a sign that is not favored in society (Horsman 2). It is worth emphasizing that this applies both to representatives of the black community, as well as to Asians and indigenous people.

The works of Michael Omi and Howard Winant elaborate on the topic of racial formation and its reflection in society. Hence, they consider the concepts of how race affects people and, at the same time, how individuals form the concept of race. Thus, it becomes a two-way process, as a result of which the way people understand race and how they are represented in various spheres of society is formed and shaped. Moreover, special attention is paid to the historical aspect since scientists believed that the events taking place in society had a substantial impact on its views and worldview.

Thus, history determines how people see race, where they put racial inequality as a problem of society, and what ideas they have about its representatives. All these factors are proof of why racial disparity still exists, which is also reflected in accessibility to various aspects of the political, economic, social, or health spheres. Henceforth, Michael Omi and Howard Winant consider race in close connection with society and its influence, which determines how people will relate to and see representatives of different cultures, nationalities, faiths, and traditions.

Further, the problem of racial inequality is a deeply ingrained issue in society. At the present stage of development, many people face discrimination and neglect on a daily basis. Stereotyping has also become so firmly embedded in the public consciousness that many labels that are put on representatives of different races are no longer considered harmful or destructive and are completely wrong. Thus, based on the works of Omi and Winant, it is necessary to create a new public vision of this problem in order to form new views on the analyzed issue.

Racial discrimination and the inequality caused by it in relation to representatives of any non-white community is the most critical problem of modern society. It is reflected in the varying degrees of people’s access to various resources, power, and economic aspects. Despite the fact that colonial America has long been liquidated, the country is still experiencing the consequences of this period. To this day, many representatives of black or indigenous people cannot get similar access as the representatives of the white population.

Thus, regarding historical development, the non-white population has constantly experienced the oppression of racial inequality. In addition, Frederick (2) stated that “oppression makes a wise man mad.” They were the ones who were first colonized and taken into slavery, and now they are struggling with uneven access to many things (Morgan 320). At the same time, the white population has never been characterized by such problems. The introduction of the concepts of diversity and inclusion into society and the spread of awareness about the importance of these phenomena significantly improved the situation that prevailed among people. However, the United States is still struggling to completely change the shared vision, as it still has not managed to entirely limit the effects of the colonial period.

Researcher Edmund Morgan has created great interest in the American Paradox for this scientific work. It lies in the fact that in American society, slavery and freedom have existed simultaneously throughout the history of the country’s development (Fredrickson 141). In other words, the scientist determined that the more the rights of non-white people were infringed upon, the more the rights of the white population of the country were strengthened. Thus, it can be determined that the more vital the role of slavery in the history of American society, the higher and more valuable the role of freedom and democracy in it became.

The concept of the American Paradox helps to better understand many aspects of the functioning of the past and modern society, offering a unique way of dependence on various kinds of phenomena within it. Moreover, the first acquaintance with Morgan’s theory contributed to a new wave of interest in studying the role that history and prolonged slavery in America played in the formation of racial inequality.

Thus, opposition and slavery are the main characteristic features of the historical development of the United States and are overlooked at any stage of the formation of American society. Therefore, the concept of the American Paradox confirms these conclusions. It is worth noting that at the same time, equality has always been a problem for people in America, and the country has been making attempts to change this situation for many years. However, not all changes and initiatives meet with success, which is a consequence of a long process of colonization and then decolonization of communities in the country.

Therefore, based on the above information, it can be concluded that the United States of America is still struggling with solving the problem of racial inequality. Moreover, this problem applies not only to the black population but also to all representatives of non-white communities, for example, Asians or indigenous people. Thus, the long history of slavery, violence and opposition affected the country (Waldrep and Bellesiles 113). It caused the formation of such a phenomenon as the American Paradox, which Edmund Morgan derived. In his concept, the scientist showed the relationship between slavery and freedom in the United States and that one developed and flourished at the expense of the other.

Moreover, many scientists define race as a motivation for the division of society due to the fact that historical events greatly influenced people’s vision of national characteristics and formed a negative attitude towards them. This has been reflected in the fact that many individuals of the non-white community cannot get full access to a large number of resources and power in areas such as economics or politics. Despite the seriousness of the problem, it can be solved by creating a new public vision of race that encourages diversity and inclusion.

Works Cited

Frederick, Douglass. “What To the Slave Is the Fourth of July?”. Mass Humanities.

Fredrickson, George M. White Supremacy: A Comparative Study of American and South African History. Oxford University Press, 1982.

Horsman, Ragina. Race and Manifest Destiny: Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism. Harvard University Press, 1986.

Huhndorf, Shari M. Going Native: Indians in the American Cultural Imagination. Cornell University Press, 2001.

Morgan, Edmund S. American Slavery, American Freedom. W. W. Norton & Company, 2003.

Waldrep, Christopher and Michael Bellesiles. Documenting American Violence. Oxford University Press, 2006.

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