The American Family: Reduction In The Size Of The Family And Its Historical Factors Sample Essay

The size of the family has been reducing gradually. The reduction in the number of children has increased the proportion of elderly people in the population. Some places are experiencing a reduction in the size of the population. America is experiencing a reduction in birth rates.

This has increased the proportion of elderly people in the population. However, America has not yet experienced a reduction in the size of the population. Various historical factors contributed to the current situation. This trend started in the late eighteenth century.

In the seventeenth and nineteenth century, more than 90% of the population lived in rural areas. During this period, most households were self-sufficient. Artisans produced items that families could not produce. Artisans made hats, iron implements, men’s clothing, and shoes. Families produced most of the other items that they needed.

“Families made their furniture, dipped their candles, tanned their leather, spun their wool, and manufactured their clothes.”1 This reduced the need to work outside the home. Members of the family had distinctive roles within the home. Fathers and sons worked in the fields to produce food for the family.

On the other hand, mothers and daughters did house chores. These chores included knitting, weaving, cleaning the home, and taking care of dairy and poultry. Families sold the excess produce in the market. Therefore, the family was a cooperative economic enterprise. The expansion of the market-oriented economy in the eighteenth century necessitated members of the family to engage in commercial activities.

Members of the family engaged in various economic activities that helped in improving the family’s economy. Wives and their older children supplemented the family’s budget by spinning yarn, sewing dresses, or setting up a tavern within their home. Therefore, children helped in improving the economy of the family. A large number of children provided a great workforce for household economic activities. Therefore, most families had many children.

During the middle of the nineteenth century, the domestic division of labor started occurring. The society expected middle-class husbands to act as breadwinners of the family. On the other hand, middle-class wives devoted their time to fulfilling housekeeping duties and raising children. This separated the daily lives of men and women. This led to the separation of work and family life.

The displacement of the economic partnership of the family led to various demographic changes. One of the changes was a significant reduction in birth rates. Before the nineteenth century, marriage led to a repeated cycle of pregnancy. Women had their first children a few months after marriage. They continued bearing children in two-year intervals until they reached menopause.

During this period, women gave birth to seven or eight children. Therefore, a woman devoted most of her married life to bearing and raising children. However, this pattern changed gradually in the nineteenth century.

By the middle of the nineteenth century, women had reduced the number of children they were having. Also, there was a significant increase in the interval between pregnancies. Therefore, child rearing became the most time-consuming activity of a woman’s married life.

Due to the changes that occurred in the nineteenth century, there was a significant alteration in families’ attitude. Hence, kids stopped to be treated as economic assets.

This happened because children were no longer productive in household industries. However, children required significant investments in education to prepare them for a respectable career or marriage life. Therefore, families had fewer children. Having a few children ensured that the family had acceptable living standards.

On the other hand, having many children increased the family’s economic burden. Also, significant changes in the relationship between husbands and wives led to a drop in fertility rates. Since husbands worked outside the home, they delegated most of the child-rearing duties to their wives.

Therefore, society viewed wives as vital in the development of children. This increased the enlightenment of women. In its turn, the increased enlightenment led to the drop in fertility rates.

By the middle of the nineteenth century, there was a significant reduction in the scope of the authority of husbands. Also, women started having more rights. Women could own property, earn incomes, enter into legal contracts, or bring lawsuits. In the early nineteenth century, unmarried women who were between the age of 14 and 27 started having unprecedented income-earning opportunities outside their home.

Women started working as schoolteachers or mill girls. “Women achieved leadership positions organizing religious revivals, engaging in missionary work, establishing orphanages, and editing religious publications.”2 These opportunities increased women’s expectations for self-fulfillment. On the other hand, the daily life of wives revolved around domestic duties. This made women change their perception of marriage.

It reduced the number of women who were willing to get married. Also, it increased the expectation that women had on marriage. The increased expectations led to a gradual increase in the rates of divorce. These factors reduced the fertility rate of the population.

Changes in the family setting are the major factors that contributed to the significant decrease in the size of the family. Also, women empowerment and changes in the roles of husbands and wives contributed to the reduction in the size of the family. Women empowerment enabled society to change their perception of women.

Bibliography

Mintz, Steven and Susan Kellogg. A new economy and a new family. Edited by George Brown Tindall and David Emory Shi. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2009.

Footnotes

1 Steven Mintz and Susan Kellogg, A new economy and a new family, ed. George Brown Tindall and David Emory Shi (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2009), 12.

2 Ibid., 127.

Investing In Real Estate In Germany: Political And Legal Factors To Consider

When engaging in international business, investors must comprehensively consider the political and legal factors existing in their preferred investment countries. These factors take a central stage since they directly affect the nature of investment and its performance in the state of preference.

Political factors come in the form of unanticipated imposition of laws, regulations, and controls by governments that were neither known initially nor anticipated during the initial planning processes (Feist, 1999 p. 28). Germany extends enticing political considerations to any international investment decision since the political landscape is stable and well structured.

The capitalist ideological orientation is not capable of negatively affecting either global or local investments. Earlier on, some ideological forces such as communism and religious fundamentalism used by individuals in positions of power especially in East Germany to confiscate property owned by international investors.

However, this ideological orientation has been overtaken by events and requirements of modern society. Presently, Germany allows a capitalist system that favors international investors since it gives freedom to private enterprise and ensures that government engagement is limited to functions and roles that the private sector cannot handle.

The political orientation of Germany guarantees minimal interference in business and investment decisions. Indeed, measures have been put in place by the relevant authorities to reduce or do away with burdensome regulations and political interventions in the operations of business enterprises – both local and foreign.

The rules that a foreign enterprise must make provisions or set specific quotas for local labor force have been done away with to stimulate more international investment. Laws requiring international companies to have a specific composition of local ownership have also been greatly relaxed. What’s more, the political class relaxed restrictions and laws on profit disclosures and remittances in addition to other investment regulations.

Indeed, the government does not engage in any activity that can be perceived to hinder operational efficiency of foreign investments. Such activities may include mandatory unionization of employees and offering unjustified support to local competitors at the expense of international counterparts. In Germany, political power is changed in a smooth and orderly manner (Feist, 1999 p. 28).

Germany has a favorable, transparent and secure legal framework. In many European countries, the courts are rarely asked to offer their interpretations as is the case in the US. The solidified and stable rule of law allows international investors to have faith and trust in Germany’s government that it shall protect their interests while operating in the country.

Indeed, Germany is a signatory of several bilateral and multilateral trade and economic treaties and regulations that ensures the rights and interests of international investors are observed at all times. For instance, the country is a signatory to the EU Competition Policy aimed at checking various business vices such as price fixing and business monopolies.

This is the equivalent of antitrust laws in the US. In this perspective, the fact that Germany is influenced by some US laws that inarguably affect international business operations cannot be denied.

The country has also ratified major UN conventions dealing with intellectual property rights, arbitration regulations, and the Contracts for International Sales of Goods (CISG). This, therefore, means that the international investor is comprehensively protected not only by the country’s legal frameworks but also by international statutory regulations and practice (Lynch, 2003 p. 319).

Germany is a member of the European Patent Organization (EPO) and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). It is bound by the Madrid Agreement of 1891 which safeguards trademarks from misuse by industry competitors. International investors trying their luck in Germany are also protected from copyright infringements since the country is a signatory to both Berne Convention of 1886 and Universal Copyright Convention of 1954.

When it comes to taxation issues, Germany has entered into tax treaties and conventions with many other countries, simplifying the tax requirements of potential international investors. These treaties bind various governments to share crucial information about corporate and individual taxpayers.

Although Germany is known for its considerably high tax burden, investors get a reprieve through the tax write-off schemes and tax cuts. Indeed, the tax burden has considerably plummeted in the last few years.

The country has also ratified product liability regulations that hold company owners to account if their products cause death, injury or harm to users (Lynch, 2003 p. 321). All in all, the trend reveals that Germany would offer an exciting investment destination for real estate business.

Reference List

Feist, W.R. (1999). Managing a global enterprise: A concise guide to international operations. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN: 9781567201628

Lynch, K.L. (2003). The forces of economic globalization: Challenges to the regime of international commercial arbitration. Klower Law International. ISBN: 9789041119940

Management: Power, Authority, And Influence

The source of power and authority within an organization depends on certain structural conditions. A form of “dependency” always exists in every company or organization. After taking the recommended test, I have observed that I am constantly “gaining power and information” at my workplace. I have always worked hard in order to be “proficient”.

It is also my responsibility to take new initiatives and express my views to my workmates. This explains why it is my duty to support my organization. It is also my obligation to generate new activities and ideas in order to make the organization successful. I am always ready to upgrade my knowledge and skills.

It is appropriate for every company to ensure its employees focus on the targeted goals. As an employee, I always work hard to achieve such organizational. Every employee in an organization should work “smart”. This strategy is critical because it ensures every employee focuses on the organization’s mission and goals. I rarely reward my friends and workmates even after agreeing with me.

I consider it appropriate to encourage my workmates and friends. This initiative encourages my friends to work harder in order to achieve their targeted objectives. I always use a “straightforward approach” to address any issue or problem at the workplace.

It is unethical to use “demands or threats” to impose one’s expectations or will on the other employees. However, I find it hard to bargain with any individual who puts unnecessary pressure or demands on me.

The other important thing is about my “roles” in the organization. I always encourage my superiors to make the best decisions. My duty is to inform them about my decisions and expectations for the company.

However, I rarely convince my superiors about the compatibility of the importance of my goals. The best thing is to be part of the decision-making and problem-solving processes. It is also my duty as an employee to ensure the organization realizes its goals and objectives.

From the above discussion, it is quite clear that my power and influence at the workplace arises from my “personal and organizational rewards”. French and Raven’s model presents six key sources or “bases” of power. The second source of influence is “reward power”. This “source” explains how an organization gives “desirable things” to its employees.

As well, the power describes the ability to “decrease” the things that are not needed by the employees. According to French and Raven’s model, rewards make it easier for human beings to accomplish their goals. Another model is known as “Power-Dependence Theory” focuses on how leaders and managers can use the concept of “reward power” to mentor and encourage their employees.

It is necessary for every person to focus on his or her personal goals. This practice is what gives me the opportunity to realize my personal and career goals. I always address every issue that might affect my workplace. My personal goal is to realize my potentials and make my workplace successful. The important thing is to have an “intrinsic force” or “personal drive”.

My “personal inspiration” has always encouraged me to work in order in order to emerge successfully. There are different sources of power that might affect a person’s position in an organization. In conclusion, I strongly believe that my “mindset” has always encouraged me to realize my goals.

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