The Applicability Of Psychoeducation In Treating Anxiety Disorders


Anxiety disorders are a serious global mental health issue that affects people all over the world. These illnesses’ prevalence and negative repercussions highlight the need for efficient therapies. In order to assess the efficacy of psychoeducation, a potential therapeutic approach, in addressing anxiety disorders and their treatment, current peer-reviewed papers are studied in this study. The discussion will explore the conceivable benefits, inherent drawbacks, and a thorough psychoeducational intervention designed specifically for anxiety disorders. This essay tries to demonstrate the efficacy of psychoeducation in providing people struggling with the complexity of anxiety disorders with useful insights and coping mechanisms by assessing the most recent studies.

Applicability of Psychoeducation for Anxiety Disorders

Giving people thorough information about their mental health issues, including facts on their symptoms, underlying causes, and potential therapies, is a crucial part of the therapeutic process known as psychoeducation. This proactive strategy gives people the tools they need to understand their conditions better, enabling better self-management and treatment adherence. (Baourda, 2022)In the context of anxiety disorders, which include a variety of illnesses like generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobias, the particular disorder and individual characteristics determine the effectiveness of psychoeducation.

Psychoeducation is crucial in addressing anxiety disorders, according to research. Recent research by Niles et al. in 2020 demonstrated the beneficial effects of psychoeducation given through group treatment on symptoms of social anxiety disorder. This strategy not only lessens the burden of symptoms but also fosters improved coping mechanisms, enhancing general well-being. A meta-analysis demonstrating the considerable effectiveness of psychoeducational therapies in lowering symptoms across a range of anxiety disorders provides a broader viewpoint. This shows that psychoeducation has potential as a flexible management strategy for anxiety-related illnesses. Given the complexity of anxiety disorders, the specific use of psychoeducation becomes essential. (Demertzis, 2006)Personalization is required due to the unique traits of each illness and individual variances. In order to successfully traverse the complexities of anxiety disorders, individuals need to be equipped with vital insights into detecting triggers, adopting appropriate coping methods, and exploring treatment alternatives. This information fosters empowerment, self-assurance, and proactive engagement in the therapeutic process, which leads to more favorable outcomes.

Advantage of psychoeducation

A key component of mental health care is psychoeducation, which gives patients a thorough awareness of their problems, such as anxiety disorders. The uncertainty and anguish accompanying these situations must be reduced to achieve this empowerment. With thorough information, people can get insights into the complex operations of their anxiety, enabling them to recognize triggers and reactions. This self-awareness serves as the foundation for choosing a course of therapy and implementing efficient self-management techniques. (Gerardi, 2010)The stigma attached to anxiety disorders has decreased due to psychoeducation, one of its notable effects. Isolation and prejudice might result from misunderstandings and false beliefs regarding these illnesses. More specifically, proper information transmission can be a game-changer in diseases like social anxiety, where the fear of being judged negatively is significant. Psychoeducation helps create a more empathetic and inclusive society by promoting understanding among the general populace.

Psychoeducation also gives people useful coping mechanisms to control their anxious symptoms. Mindfulness exercises, cognitive restructuring, and relaxation techniques make healthy reactions to stimuli possible. These abilities are priceless resources that people may incorporate into their everyday lives to foster emotional resilience and general well-being. The importance of psychoeducation also applies to treatment compliance. People are more likely to adhere to treatment programs and participate fully in their recovery process when they understand the rationale behind therapeutic activities. Collaboration between the patient and their healthcare professional improves treatment results and speeds up the healing process. Psychoeducation is also essential for prevention and early intervention. It urges people to seek treatment before their symptoms worsen by raising awareness of anxiety symptoms and their possible effects. This early intervention can stop anxiety problems from worsening, allowing for more efficient and less strenuous treatment methods.

Disadvantage of psychoeducation

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)-specific psychoeducational therapies take a diverse approach to address this illness’s special difficulties. (Wong, 2016) Psychoeducation has some benefits, although symptom severity, cultural variations, and cognitive limitations may impair its effectiveness. Exposure treatment or cognitive-behavioral therapy may be needed for severe symptoms. When creating solutions, cultural variations and cognitive deficits must also be considered. Ultimately, the possibility of effective anxiety treatment is increased by customizing psychoeducational procedures to each individual’s particular requirements and circumstances.

To increase its efficacy, a thorough psychoeducational intervention for GAD should have the following elements:

GAD understanding – The intervention would start by giving participants a thorough grasp of GAD. People would be informed about its defining characteristics, such as constant concern, bodily strain, and restlessness. Furthermore, defining the diagnostic standards would enable people to realize the impact of GAD in their lives.

Cognitive Strategies – Cognitive distortions have a significant role in the development of GAD. Explaining typical cognitive distortions like catastrophizing and overthinking, which feed excessive concern, would be part of psychoeducation. (Slagle, 2007)The introduction of cognitive restructuring tools would allow people to question and reframe these skewed thought processes.

Stress management – Since stress worsens GAD, offering techniques for efficient stress reduction is critical. Psychoeducation would help people negotiate triggers that exacerbate their anxiety by providing advice on time management, problem-solving, and stress-relieving practices.

Self-Care and Mindfulness – Using self-care techniques is essential for controlling anxiety. The intervention would offer mindfulness techniques and encourage people to cultivate present-moment awareness and accept their thoughts and feelings without judgment. This method encourages a more positive relationship with events that cause anxiety.


According to recent peer-reviewed studies, psychoeducation is a viable and useful technique for treating anxiety disorders. This strategy has several benefits, including empowering people with information, lowering stigma, enhancing adaptive coping strategies, encouraging treatment adherence, and facilitating early or preventative action. However, factors including specific anxiety illnesses, certain personal features, and the severity of symptoms may affect its effectiveness. Notably, a psychoeducational approach incorporating knowledge of the problem, cognitive strategies, stress-reduction approaches, lifestyle changes, and mindfulness exercises can effectively treat generalized anxiety disorder. In conclusion, psychoeducation serves as a key tool in the entire framework for treating anxiety disorders, improving results, and promoting overall personal well-being.


Baourda, V. C., Brouzos, A., Mavridis, D., Vassilopoulos, S. P., Vatkali, E., & Boumpouli, C. (2022). Group psychoeducation for anxiety symptoms in youth: Systematic review and meta-analysis. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work47(1), 22-42.

Demertzis, K. H., & Craske, M. G. (2006). Anxiety in primary care. Current psychiatry reports8(4), 291-297.

Gerardi, M., Cukor, J., Difede, J., Rizzo, A., & Rothbaum, B. O. (2010). Virtual reality exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders. Current psychiatry reports12, 298-305.

Slagle, D. M., & Gray, M. J. (2007). The utility of motivational interviewing as an adjunct to exposure therapy in treating anxiety disorders. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice38(4), 329.

Wong, S. Y. S., Yip, B. H. K., Mak, W. W. S., Mercer, S., Cheung, E. Y. L., Ling, C. Y. M., … & Ma, H. S. W. (2016). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy v. group psychoeducation for people with generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry209(1), 68-75.

The Role Of Emotional Intelligence In Cultivating Inclusive Leadership


In the contemporary landscape of organizations, pursuing an inclusive and harmonious work culture holds immense significance, woven together by leaders who grasp the intricacies of emotions and employ emotional intelligence to foster a profound sense of belonging among their teams. The role of emotional intelligence in shaping this culture of belonging has garnered attention due to its capacity to metamorphose workplaces into thriving environments of collaboration and optimum contribution. This introduction establishes the foundation for exploring emotional intelligence’s interplay with inclusive leadership. The evolution of the workplace, marked by diverse talents and perspectives, presents the challenge of creating an environment where each individual feels valued, respected, and included. Traditional task-centric leadership models are being challenged by the need for leaders who can address their teams’ emotional and social aspects, underlining emotional intelligence’s importance as a critical competency. In today’s globally interconnected realm, organizations recognize that an inclusive work culture offers both moral and strategic advantages, leading to improved employee engagement, innovation, and commitment. This study bridges a vital knowledge gap by investigating how emotional intelligence intersects with cultivating a culture of belonging, potentially guiding leadership programs and policies to enhance workplace dynamics. With a focus on emotional intelligence’s dimensions outlined in the EQ 2.0 Model, this research explores its connection with inclusive leadership in organizational and healthcare contexts. While acknowledging the influence of emotional intelligence and belonging leadership on organizational dynamics, it is crucial to note that they are not the sole determinants, thus recognizing the study’s limitations based on available literature and scope.

Statement of the Problem

Despite the growing recognition of emotional intelligence’s pivotal role in shaping effective leadership and fostering a culture of belonging, there exists a gap in understanding the mechanisms through which emotional intelligence translates into inclusive leadership practices and cultivates a sense of belonging among team members. While research acknowledges the individual merits of emotional intelligence and the importance of creating an inclusive work environment, the nuanced interconnection between these domains still needs to be explored. Additionally, although the benefits of emotional intelligence and inclusive leadership are widely acknowledged, there is a need for more empirical evidence to substantiate the specific impact of these constructs on organizational outcomes, especially within the healthcare sector. This study aims to bridge these gaps by investigating how emotional intelligence contributes to developing inclusive leaders who foster a culture of belonging and the subsequent implications for organizational performance and employee well-being.

Conceptual Framework

Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Its Relevance

Emotional intelligence (EI) encompasses the ability to recognize, understand, manage, and effectively utilize one’s emotions and those of others. It is a multifaceted construct that involves various dimensions, including self-awareness, empathy, interpersonal skills, and emotional regulation. EI has gained prominence as an essential leadership competency, given its potential to drive improved communication, conflict resolution, and collaboration (Munir et al., 2023). This section delves into the dimensions of emotional intelligence per the EQ 2.0 Model, exploring how each dimension contributes to leaders’ capacity to create a culture of belonging.

Inclusive Leadership and the Culture of Belonging

Inclusive leadership entails valuing and embracing diversity while fostering an environment where everyone feels respected, heard, and valued. Inclusive leaders proactively dismantle barriers and biases, promote equitable opportunities, and encourage diverse perspectives. The culture of belonging, an outcome of inclusive leadership, refers to a work environment where employees feel psychologically safe, accepted, and connected (Brown, 2019). This section examines the principles of inclusive leadership and the pillars constituting a culture of belonging, shedding light on how leaders’ actions influence employees’ sense of belonging.

Intersection of Emotional Intelligence and Inclusive Leadership

At the crux of this study lies examining how emotional intelligence and inclusive leadership intersect to create a culture of belonging. Emotional intelligence equips leaders with the tools to navigate complex interpersonal dynamics, engage in empathetic communication, and respond effectively to individual and collective emotional needs. Inclusive leadership, on the other hand, provides the framework for applying emotional intelligence in a manner that acknowledges diversity and harnesses it for organizational benefit (Gola & Martin, 2020). This section delves into the synergistic relationship between emotional intelligence and inclusive leadership, exploring how emotionally intelligent leaders are better equipped to foster belonging and create an inclusive work environment.

This conceptual framework sets the stage for a comprehensive exploration of how these elements interplay to shape organizational dynamics and outcomes by unraveling the connections between emotional intelligence, inclusive leadership, and the culture of belonging.

Research Questions

The following research questions guide this study:

  1. How do the dimensions and subscales of emotional intelligence, as outlined in the EQ 2.0 Model, contribute to developing inclusive leadership practices that foster a culture of belonging within organizations?
  2. How does emotional intelligence training impact organizational outcomes, particularly within healthcare settings, and how does it influence creating a culture of belonging among employees?
  3. What are the five pillars of belonging leadership, and how do they collectively contribute to establishing and maintaining a culture of belonging within diverse work environments?
  4. What are the critical traits of inclusive leaders, and how do they influence their ability to cultivate a sense of belonging among their team members?

By addressing these research questions, this study aims to shed light on the intricate dynamics between emotional intelligence, inclusive leadership, and the culture of belonging, ultimately contributing to a deeper understanding of how these factors can shape the organizational landscape.

Subscales of Emotional Intelligence – EQ 2.0 Model

According to The Emotional Intelligence Training Company, emotional intelligence, as defined by the EQ 2.0 Model, is a multidimensional construct encompassing various subscales that collectively contribute to an individual’s ability to navigate and understand emotions within themselves and others. Each subscale represents a distinct facet of emotional competence that, when integrated, empowers individuals to interact effectively, manage relationships, and create a culture of belonging within their professional environments.


The self-perception subscale focuses on an individual’s ability to perceive and understand their emotions accurately. This involves attuning to personal emotional states, recognizing strengths and limitations, and maintaining a healthy self-image. Self-perception forms the foundation of emotional intelligence, allowing leaders to exhibit authenticity and self-awareness. A leader who excels in self-perception is more likely to acknowledge their emotions and biases, making them receptive to feedback and open to personal growth (Gola & Martin, 2020). This quality contributes to establishing trust and rapport with team members, key components in fostering a culture of belonging.


Self-expression encompasses the skill of effectively articulating one’s emotions, thoughts, and perspectives to others. Leaders who excel in self-expression are adept at communicating their feelings transparent, respectful, and empathetic. This capability facilitates open dialogues, encourages vulnerability, and dismantles barriers to communication. In the context of creating a culture of belonging, self-expression enables leaders to convey genuine interest in the experiences of their team members, fostering an environment where diverse viewpoints are valued and heard.


Interpersonal skills involve the ability to understand and navigate the emotions of others. Leaders strong in this subscale are skilled at empathizing with team members, recognizing nonverbal cues, and adapting their communication styles to suit different personalities. Interpersonal competence enhances team dynamics by promoting effective collaboration, conflict resolution, and relationship-building. In the context of fostering belonging, leaders who excel in interpersonal skills can create a supportive and empathetic atmosphere, demonstrating a genuine concern for the well-being and growth of their team members.

Decision Making

The decision-making subscale revolves around using emotional intelligence to inform rational choices. Leaders with strong decision-making skills can consider logical data and emotional nuances when making judgments. This ability leads to well-informed and balanced decisions that resonate with the needs and aspirations of the team. In pursuing a culture of belonging, decision-making prowess helps leaders create inclusive policies and practices that promote equity and respect for diverse perspectives.

Stress Management

Stress management pertains to an individual’s ability to cope with and regulate their emotional responses in challenging situations, as outlined by The Emotional Intelligence Training Company. Leaders adept at stress management are resilient in the face of adversity and can maintain a composed and reassuring demeanor even during turbulent times. This skill is vital for creating a culture of belonging fostering a sense of security and stability within the team. Leaders who effectively manage stress inspire confidence, reduce anxiety, and contribute to a more inclusive and harmonious work environment.

By understanding and embodying the subscales of emotional intelligence within the EQ 2.0 Model, leaders can develop a holistic set of competencies that drive their personal growth and enable them to create a culture where individuals feel valued, accepted, and an integral part of the collective whole.

Emotional Intelligence and Organizational/Healthcare Benefits

Emotional intelligence (EI) encompasses more than an individual’s personal development; it holds immense sway over organizational dynamics, especially in healthcare. Infusing emotional intelligence into leadership strategies and the organizational fabric yields numerous noteworthy advantages that contribute to heightened performance, well-being, and, ultimately, the establishment of a culture of inclusivity. Enhanced employee engagement stands as a critical outcome of emotionally intelligent leadership. Leaders adept in EI forge profound connections with their team members, nurturing an environment of psychological security and reliance (Neong et al., 2022). This foundation aids in fostering a culture of belonging where employees perceive their voices and sentiments as valued. When employees feel their emotions and contributions are acknowledged and respected, their engagement levels surge. Such engaged employees channel their vigor, inventiveness, and dedication into their tasks, resulting in amplified productivity and organizational triumph.

Improved communication and collaboration are consequent fruits of emotional intelligence. Leaders equipped with EI possess the tools to communicate adeptly and empathically. This competency is pivotal in promoting candid and transparent communication within teams. Leaders cognizant of their team members’ emotions tailor their messages to resonate with varying viewpoints, curtailing misinterpretations and disputes. Furthermore, emotionally intelligent leaders foster an atmosphere conducive to collaboration (Ashikali et al., 2021). They recognize each individual’s strengths and inspire the exchange of ideas, yielding innovative solutions and cohesive teamwork. Effective conflict resolution also springs from heightened emotional intelligence. Workplaces are prone to conflicts, but their management profoundly shapes the work milieu. Leaders rich in emotional intelligence can navigate conflicts with sensitivity and equity. They can pacify tensions, decode the underlying emotions of opposing parties, and facilitate productive dialogues leading to resolution. By addressing conflicts respectfully and empathetically, emotionally intelligent leaders nurture an ambiance of mutual regard, thereby fostering belonging among team members (Tee et al., 2022).

Enhanced patient care within healthcare contexts hinges on emotional intelligence. Emotionally intelligent healthcare professionals can empathize with patients, convey diagnoses and treatment plans effectively, and provide solace during challenging junctures. These interactions not only augment patient contentment but also contribute to improved health outcomes. Additionally, emotionally intelligent healthcare leaders foster an environment where healthcare professionals feel bolstered and esteemed, resulting in elevated job satisfaction and retention rates (Saha et al., 2023). Therefore, in organizational and healthcare milieus, embedding emotional intelligence training and practices is interlinked with cultivating a sense of belonging. When leaders prioritize emotional intelligence, they nurture an atmosphere where employees perceive themselves as valued, heard, and esteemed. This begets a more comprehensive and harmonious workspace, benefitting all stakeholders involved.

Belonging Leadership: Understanding the 5 Pillars

Belonging Leadership

Creating a culture of belonging within an organization requires intentional leadership practices prioritizing inclusivity, respect, and collaboration. Belonging leadership involves a multifaceted approach that centers on several key pillars, each contributing to establishing and maintaining an environment where every individual feels valued and an integral part of the community (Canlas & Williams, 2021).

5 Pillars of Belonging

Trust and Transparency

At the core of belonging leadership is the establishment of trust and transparency. Leaders who engender trust create an atmosphere where team members feel safe to express their thoughts, concerns, and ideas. Open and transparent communication about organizational decisions and goals fosters a sense of ownership and involvement among employees. By demonstrating consistency, honesty, and a commitment to ethical conduct, leaders cultivate an environment where trust thrives, forming the foundation for a culture of belonging.

Inclusive Communication

Inclusive communication is a pillar that ensures all voices are heard and valued. Belonging leaders actively seek diverse perspectives and encourage participation from individuals with varying backgrounds and experiences. Effective inclusive communication involves listening, acknowledging, and integrating all team members’ insights and contributions. By fostering an environment where everyone’s viewpoints are considered, leaders demonstrate a commitment to inclusivity, enhancing the overall sense of belonging.

Empowerment and Accountability

Belonging leaders empower their team members by providing them with autonomy, responsibility, and opportunities for growth. This pillar involves delegating tasks, trusting employees’ abilities, and providing them with the tools and resources necessary to succeed. Simultaneously, accountability is upheld as a crucial element. Leaders set clear expectations, offer guidance, and hold individuals responsible for their actions. Empowerment and accountability collectively foster a culture of ownership and shared commitment, contributing to a sense of belonging where each member feels they contribute meaningfully.

Recognition and Appreciation

Recognition and appreciation are essential components of belonging leadership. Leaders who regularly acknowledge and celebrate the contributions of their team members create a positive and validating work environment. Recognition can take various forms, from simple expressions of gratitude to formal rewards. Such acts boost individual morale and reinforce the notion that every member is a valued contributor to the team’s success. Regular recognition and appreciation contribute to a culture where individuals feel seen, appreciated, and connected.

Supportive Organizational Policies

Supportive organizational policies form the structural underpinning of belonging leadership. These policies encompass initiatives that promote diversity and inclusion, provide flexible work arrangements, and address issues related to well-being and equity. Leaders advocate for these policies, ensuring that they align with the values of inclusivity and belonging. Such policies foster a workplace where employees perceive that the organization is committed to their overall well-being, thereby enhancing their sense of belonging.

By embracing these five pillars, leaders can actively create an environment that nurtures a sense of belonging among team members. Each pillar works synergistically to establish a culture where diversity is celebrated, individual contributions are valued, and members feel deeply connected to the organization’s mission and community.

Traits of an Inclusive Leader

Inclusive leadership is characterized by distinctive traits that enable leaders to foster a sense of belonging and create environments where diversity is celebrated and respected. These traits embody the core values of inclusivity and serve as guiding principles for leaders who aim to cultivate a culture of belonging within their organizations. Self-awareness is foundational to inclusive leadership. Leaders who possess self-awareness understand their own biases, strengths, weaknesses, and emotions. This awareness allows them to approach interactions with a clear understanding of how their perspectives may influence their judgments. Inclusive leaders continuously seek to expand their understanding of others through ongoing self-reflection, promoting open and unbiased communication that fosters belonging (Bourke et al., 2020).

Empathy and compassion are vital qualities that empower leaders to forge deep connections with others. Inclusive leadership hinges on the ability to grasp the emotions and journeys of team members, revealing authentic care for their welfare. This quality surpasses mere comprehension; it necessitates actively immersing oneself in another’s perspective, appreciating their encounters, and reacting with heartfelt compassion. Leaders establish a secure environment through cultivating empathy where individuals experience acknowledgment and significance (Malik, 2023). This emotional attunement cultivates trust and fosters a collaborative atmosphere where diverse voices are heard and respected. By embracing empathy and compassion, leaders facilitate open communication, nurture a sense of belonging, and pave the way for cohesive and empowered teams that thrive collectively.

In addition, open-mindedness is a crucial trait for effective leadership. Leaders embodying this quality welcome a variety of perspectives and concepts. They acknowledge the limitations of their viewpoints, proactively pursuing alternate angles. This open-minded approach cultivates an atmosphere where team constituents feel empowered to voice their opinions sans trepidation. By doing so, leaders stimulate inventive approaches to tackling challenges and foster an environment where ideas flow freely. This collaborative exchange of thoughts sparks innovation and engenders a culture of inclusivity, where every contribution holds significance and is treated with reverence. Through the prism of open-mindedness, leaders constructively harness diversity, propelling their teams toward novel horizons and collectively contributing to a more receptive and progressive organizational ethos (Hollander, 2012).

Furthermore, inclusive leaders possess a vital trait of adaptability that distinguishes them in fostering diverse and productive workplaces. This quality empowers them to fluidly tailor their leadership methodologies to cater to each individual’s distinctive needs and inclinations within their team. By acknowledging the innate differences amongst team members, these leaders establish an atmosphere conducive to growth, where employees can excel by harnessing their inherent strengths and preferred work approaches. The aptitude for adaptation enables leaders to embrace change, readily modifying their strategies and techniques to align with the evolving dynamics of their environment. This dexterity bolsters employee engagement and paves the way for innovation and creativity, as individuals are encouraged to contribute in manners that resonate with their unique attributes. An inclusive leader’s adaptability cultivates an environment that thrives on diversity, ensuring a dynamic and harmonious workplace that drives collective success (Bourke et al., 2020).

Lastly, courageous advocacy entails resolutely championing the principles of equity, diversity, and inclusion, even when confronted with adversity. Inclusive leaders exhibit fearlessness in questioning established norms and voicing opposition against prejudice or bias. They leverage their power and position to drive constructive transformations, advocating for measures and systems that foster a sense of inclusion. This characteristic underscores a dedication to fostering an atmosphere where every person is afforded impartial treatment and access to equitable prospects. Fearlessly confronting challenges and actively promoting change, these leaders cultivate environments where differences are celebrated, barriers are dismantled, and everyone can contribute their best, regardless of background or identity (Malik, 2023). This unwavering commitment to betterment exemplifies the essence of courageous advocacy in creating a harmonious and just collective community.


The hypothesis of this study posits that leaders who effectively leverage emotional intelligence to practice inclusive leadership will substantially impact the creation and sustenance of a culture of belonging within their respective organizations. It is hypothesized that the interplay between emotional intelligence and the pillars of belonging leadership will result in enhanced employee engagement, improved communication and collaboration, effective conflict resolution, and, ultimately, organizational performance and well-being.


This study operates on the following assumptions:

  1. Emotional intelligence training equips leaders with the skills to navigate and understand emotions in themselves and others.
  2. Inclusive leadership practices contribute to a sense of belonging among team members.
  3. A culture of belonging influences employee engagement, satisfaction, and performance positively.
  4. Organizational policies that support diversity, equity, and inclusion are instrumental in cultivating a culture of belonging.


Several limitations are acknowledged in this study:

  1. The findings are context-dependent and may vary across different organizational and cultural settings.
  2. The study relies on self-reported data, which could be subject to biases and variations in interpretation.
  3. The cross-sectional nature of the research may limit the establishment of causality between emotional intelligence, inclusive leadership, and the culture of belonging.
  4. The available literature and sources may only encompass some relevant aspects of the topic.


In summary, this study seeks to explore the intricate relationship between emotional intelligence, inclusive leadership, and creating a culture of belonging within organizations, specifically focusing on healthcare settings. The conceptual framework outlines the dimensions of emotional intelligence, the principles of inclusive leadership, and the intersection between the two. The research questions aim to unravel the mechanisms through which emotional intelligence contributes to developing inclusive leadership practices that foster belonging. Furthermore, the study examines the benefits of emotional intelligence in organizational contexts and the specific implications for healthcare settings. Additionally, the study delves into the pillars of belonging leadership and the traits of inclusive leaders. The hypotheses, assumptions, and limitations guide the direction of the research, acknowledging its scope and potential constraints.


Ashikali, T., Groeneveld, S., & Kuipers, B. (2021). The role of inclusive leadership in supporting an inclusive climate in diverse public sector teams. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 41(3), 497-519.

Bourke, J., Titus, A., & Espedido, A. (2020). The key to inclusive leadership. Harvard Business Review, 6.

Brown, J. (2019). How to be an inclusive leader: Your role in creating cultures of belonging where everyone can thrive. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Canlas, A. L., & Williams, M. R. (2022). Meeting belongingness needs An inclusive leadership practitioner’s approach. Advances in developing human resources, 24(4), 225-241.

Gola, C. H., & Martin, L. (2020). Creating an emotional intelligence community of practice: A case study for academic libraries. Journal of Library Administration, 60(7), 752-761.

Hollander, E. (2012). Inclusive leadership: The essential leader-follower relationship. Routledge.

Malik, S. (2023). What does it take to be an inclusive leader? Developing six signature traits to master inclusive leadership. Strategic HR Review, 22(3), 98–101.

Munir, S., Shakeel, M., & Waheed, K. Z. (2023). The Importance of Emotional Intelligence for Transformational Leaders: A Critical Analysis. Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 11(1), 332–339.

Neong, S. C., Isa, Z. M., & Manaf, M. R. B. H. A. (2022). Emotional Intelligence and Organisational Culture: A Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, 1582–1592.

Saha, S., Das, R., Lim, W. M., Kumar, S., Malik, A., & Chillakuri, B. (2023). Emotional intelligence and leadership: insights for leading by feeling in the future of work. International Journal of Manpower, 44(4), 671-701.

Tee Liang Tan, K., Voon, M. L., & Ngui, K. S. (2022). Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Effectiveness: A Critical Review for Future Research. Global Business & Management Research, 14.

What is the EQ-I 2.0 and emotional intelligence? (n.d.). The Emotional Intelligence Training Company.

The Strategic Plan Of Flair Airlines


Flair airline is a low-cost carrier Canadian airline with headquartering in Edmonton, Alberta. It focuses on offering reasonably priced air travel services to its customers. The airline was first launched on August 19, 2005, using the name Flair and has since been known for its reasonably priced fares. Flair struck a ten-year deal with Shell Energy Canada on October 7, 2013, to offer air-leased transportation services across Canada (Hutton et al., 2020). It then rebranded to Flair Airlines in 2017 while obtaining more aircraft. Flair changes its color to acid green and black in 2019 which was a representation of its slogan “Plane and simple”. Through the years, Flair Airlines has broadened its route network to serve well-known towns and areas in Canada and the United States, as well as overseas locations. This essay examines Flair airline’s business strategy, SWOT analysis, the company’s main competitors, and duplication of Flair’s airline.

Flair’s business strategy

Flair airline uses the Ultra-low-cost carrier business strategy. The ULCC focuses on providing cost-effective fares to attract price-sensitive customers (Ovesy, 2023). The airline accomplishes this by using a low-cost operating technique at all levels of its operations. The mission of the company is to enable air travel to be inexpensive and easily accessible that connects people to the world. In addition, Flair airline uses route optimization as a low-cost business strategy by selecting routes depending on the season and demand. When compared to large airports, it frequently concentrates on underutilized or secondary airports, which can result in lower landing fees and operations costs.

Flair airline makes money through ancillary fees and services. According to Shaw et al., (2021), Ancillary services are sources of revenue other than the basic plane tickets. They include services such as bag check-ins, food, priority boarding, and better seats. With these services, Flair enables its clients to customize their traveling experiences by paying for the services and products they need. Additionally, Flair airline makes money through operational efficiency (Naik et al., 2023). The company operates by minimizing costs. This involves taking steps like sticking with a single kind of aircraft such as Boeing 737s to reduce maintenance and training, using digital and machine-learning techniques to expedite operations, and maximizing aircraft utilization to boost revenue production. Operational efficiency allows them to reduce costs and attract more customers.

The company’s sources of success come from its affordability. Flair’s cost-efficiency fares allow the company to attract more travelers compared to its competitors. Additionally, by providing a wide range of ancillary services that cater to a wide range of customers, Flair can make more revenue (Shaw et al., 2021). The company’s market demand is a solid source of its success. Today, Flair airline is among the top three airlines in Canada. Its strategy, the ultra-low-cost carrier business strategy aligns with the market demand allowing it to attract more customers (Taplin et al., 2023). In addition, the company’s operational efficiency helps it to maintain its competitive pricing edge.

Flair’s SWOT analysis

Strengths Weaknesses
Cost Efficiency– This enables the airline to maintain low expenses and provide affordable tickets.

Ancillary Revenue– These services act as a major source of income.

Customer Segmentation– The ancillary services give customers the experience they want.

Digital Operations-The company’s technology in checking-in and ticketing reduces costs and enhances the customers’ experience.

Service Quality Concerns– From Flair’s business strategy, the quality of service can be a concern and can lead to customer dissatisfaction.

High dependency on Ancillary Revenue– if the ancillary fees are perceived as expensive by passengers, it can lead to dissatisfaction (Shaw et al., 2021).

Concentration on specific Routes– This can limit Flair’s market reach, particularly from passengers traveling to other diverse destinations.

Threats Opportunities
Competition– The Airline industry is expanding with more domestic airlines entering the market.

Regulatory challenges-

Weather– Weather changes such as hurricanes and storms affect business operations.

Instability in Fuel Price– The fluctuation in price can affect Flair’s operating costs and profits.

Tourism industry growth– with the growth of social media and technology, people are more alluding to traveling.

New Partnerships– entering new partnerships with other Airlines will expand Flair’s market share.

Enhanced Customer Experience– A good customer experience in all aspects of the airline can be different from other Airlines with the same business strategy

Flair Airlines’ main competitors

The company’s main competitors are those that offer the same low-cost services and a strategy based on routes, fare prices, and customer experiences in Canada. Flair’s main competitors in the Canadian market as shown in Appendix 1 include:

  • WestJet- It is a Canadian Airline company that offers low-cost and full-service options to its customers.
  • Canada Rouge- This airline has specific routes where it offers lower-cost fares that attract cost-sensitive travelers.
  • Swoop Air- The Company uses an Ultra-low-cost business strategy and offers both ancillary and cost-effective services.

The foundations of Flair’s competitive advantages contribute to its position in the industry as an Ultra-low-cost carrier airline company. First, Flairs Airlines cost efficiency: The Company being able to operate at a low cost without incurring losses is a vital factor for its competitive advantage (Dresner et al., 2021). It emphasizes minimizing expenditures through an organized operation structure. It is difficult to imitate cost efficiency because, it requires a company to enhance several operational procedures, secure advantageous contracts, and uphold a price-sensitive culture.

Second, Flair’s Ancillary revenue such as food and beverage fees, change of seats, luggage, and check-in fees acts as a foundation for the company’s competitive advantage. This approach enables the airline to offer low-cost fare prices and makes additional revenues while enabling travelers to get the experience they want (Dresner et al., 2021). It is difficult to imitate because the success of ancillary services depends on the passengers’ willingness to pay additional fees and their market preferences. In addition, dependency on ancillary revenue also requires airlines to establish a balance between ancillary fees and flight fares

Third, Flair focuses on specific route selections that are underserved which reduces its operation costs and reduces competition from its main competitors. Other Airlines might find it difficult to imitate this approach because it limits a company’s market size for those passengers with diverse destinations. In addition, securing routes and airport agreements takes time (Dresner et al., 2021). Fourth, the company caters to its customer segment giving it a competitive advantage. Flair’s market preferences are those passengers who are cost-sensitive allowing it to establish loyal customers. This is difficult to imitate because customers’ preferences can change

Duplication of Flair’s business model

Flair’s competitors can duplicate its business model. However, the extent of their success in the duplication process depends on several factors such as:

  • The complexity of Flair’s cost structure: The ULCC business strategy of Flair is based on strict cost management and operational effectiveness. According to Figure 1 below, duplicating this cost structure requires streamlining numerous airline activities, negotiating deals with vendors, and upholding a cost-conscious mentality. Competitors may find it difficult in cases where their current cost structure is different from that of Flair Airline.

The effects of the Ultra-Low-Cost Business model in US airline industry

Figure 1: The effects of the Ultra-Low-Cost Business model in US airline industry

  • Ancillary Revenue Strategy: Flair highly depends on Ancillary revenue. Other competitors can duplicate this strategy; however, its success will depend on the airline’s customers’ preference and acceptance of additional fees (Wang et al., 2021). It will also depend on their ability to balance between ancillary services pricing and low travel fares.

: Flair’s market position between US and Canada

Figure 3: Flair’s market position between US and Canada

  • Brand positioning strategy and customer loyalty: Flair Airline has positioned itself as a cost-friendly carrier and focuses on customer preferences. According to Figure 3, Flair has earned a position in the United States and Canada markets. Other competitors can duplicate this business model. However, they will need a well-planned and researched strategy to build the same brand identity and customer loyalty (Zaki & Rodriguez, 2020). In addition, the level of competitive threat here hinges on how well rivals can appeal to consumers looking for low-cost travel options.

Flair Airline Route selection

Figure 2: Flair Airline Route selection

  • Specific route selection model: According to Figure 2, the Company has specific routes that are not well diverse in terms of overseas destinations. This can be challenging for competitors to duplicate. This is because, entering and securing agreements with airports for new routes takes a lot of time and resources (Safety & Region, 2021). However, any competitor that wants to venture into Flair’s routes strategy and it aligns with their customer’s preference and enter the market and compete.

Canadian ULCCs

Figure 4: Canadian ULCCs

The competitive threat level is high as its main competitors are using the same business strategy (ULCC) as shown in Figure 4. Additionally, competition in the Airline industry depends on the pace at which Flair’s main competitors can adapt, their organizational structure, and the overall market dynamics (Campan, 2020). Flair has competitors who are constantly enhancing their services and taking advantage of opportunities to expand their market share. The Ultra-low-cost strategy has become popular with an increase in customer preference. As a result, more airlines are considering adapting this strategy to attract more passengers and offer affordable travel options (Hutton et al., 2020).


Flair Airlines has broadened its route network to serve well-known towns and areas in Canada and the United States, as well as overseas locations. The company uses an Ultra-low-cost carrier business strategy that focuses on providing cost-effective fares to attract price-sensitive customers. Flair’s ancillary services allow it to make money and give sit a competitive edge advantage from its competitors. The company’s success and competitive edge also stem from its affordability and operations efficiency and focus on customer preferences. As competition continues to increase among ultra-low-cost carrier airlines, Flair Airlines will continue to enhance its technology, innovate and improve customer experience to maintain its position in the industry.


Campan, G. (2020). A Sound Competition Approach Supports Air Canada’s Acquisition of Air Transat. Montreal Economic Institute.

Dresner, M., Gualini, A., Martini, G., & Valli, M. (2021). Airline competition and LCCs in the North Atlantic market. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy (JTEP)55(4), 261-282.

Hutton, S., Rowe, L., & Stirling-Moffet, S. (2020). Year in Review 2019: Competition Law in the Digital Age. CCLR33, 111.

Naik, S., Sony, M., Antony, J., McDermott, O., Tortorella, G. L., & Jayaraman, R. (2023). Operational excellence framework for sustainability in the organisation: a design science approach. Production Planning & Control, 1-17.

Safety, D., & Region, N. (2021). Transport Canada. Online at: www. tc. gc. ca/pacific/marine/marine. safety/menu. htm (accessed 1 December 2003).

Shaw, M., Tiernan, S., O’Connell, J. F., Warnock-Smith, D., & Efthymiou, M. (2021). Third-party ancillary revenues in the airline sector: An exploratory study. Journal of Air Transport Management90, 101936.

Taplin, D., Kuby, M., Salon, D., & King, D. (2023). Analysis of Airports Served by Ultra Low-Cost Carriers. Transportation Research Record, 03611981231164081.

Ovesy, N. (2023). An empirical examination of the Canadian air passenger market: distinguishing the impact of LCC and ULCC market entry (Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia).

Wang, K. K., Wittman, M. D., & Bockelie, A. (2021). Dynamic offer generation in airline revenue management. Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management20, 654-668.

Zaki Ahmed, A., & Rodríguez-Díaz, M. (2020). Analyzing the online reputation and positioning of airlines. Sustainability12(3), 1184.


Appendix 1

Air Canada