Through Piccolo’s journey for her own set of blue eyes, we learn about the main black characters and their quest for something more, and how they respond to the dominating white culture and society. Pauline Overlooked, who is Piccolo’s mother, learned about beauty and why she was not beautiful through movies and through her experiences as a black woman. She escaped to the movies as a young woman, watching the white feminine stars on the screen, where “[along with the idea of romantic love, she was introduced to another – physical beauty. Probably the most destructive ideas in the history of human thought.
Both originated in envy, haired in insecurity, and ended in disillusion” (95). Because of her viewing white femininity as the thing to strive for, she tries to conform, as do the rest of the black women, to the white ideal, despite their blackness and it leads to an internalized self-hatred. Pauline begins to see herself through the eyes of her opposite, a white woman. Pauline and other black women at the time, by trying to conform to white beauty has destructive qualities then on their communities, in the novel and during this time period.
One of the cornerstones of our modern society is the value of human beings along racial nines; the most prominent that people would see during that time period is that blackness is despised and so are the features that go along with it. There are black women in society at the time who had repressed their own heritage, their own race so they could fit in, like the character Geraldine. She had been well educated and adapted to the white society. She had tried to repress the black characteristics she had found in herself, that were not acceptable in white society.
She striver “to get rid of the funkiness” (64). Geraldine wanted to fit in so badly, she would not let her son play with black sys, and did not show him much attention, such as the way white women did not show their children much attention because they had the help for that. One of the most useful lessons she believes to teach her son is the difference between black people and colored people: “Colored people were neat and quiet; naggers were dirty and loud” (67).
She rejects all things that reminds her she is black, such as when she finds Pectoral in her house, who embodies all the negative aspects of being black: She looked at Pectoral. Saw the dirty torn dress, the plaits sticking out on her head, hair matted where the laity had come undone, the muddy shoes with the wad of gum peeping out from between the cheap soles, the soiled socks, one of which had been walked down into the heel on the shoe. She had seen this little girl all of her life.
Hanging out of windows over saloons in Mobile, crawling over the porches of shotgun houses on the edges of town, sitting in bus stations holding paper bags and crying to mothers who kept saying ‘Sheet up! ‘ (71, 72). Geraldine is used by Morrison to illustrate the people who in the time period help keep others of their race down in a way that they could not come back from without a major societal change. They were allowing the stereotype to be fueled because they comfortable where they were; much like the women’s rights movement, these black women who were comfortable where they were would not help the others.
Another character that rejects her black stereotype because she thinks she is better is than the other black girls is Maureen Peel. Maureen is a light skinned girl who thinks she is beautiful and Pectoral is ugly, which she speaks Very loudly during one scene. Morrison uses Maureen to set up the hierarchy of white beauty to black beauty and to ugliness in the relation to physical attributes. Unlike Pectoral, who is called ugly and made fun of, Maureen is treated well at school: She enchanted the entire school. When teachers called on her, they smiled encouragingly.
Black boys didn’t trip her in the halls; white boys didn’t stone her, white girls didn’t suck their teeth when she was assigned to be their work partners; black girls stepped aside when she wanted to use the sink in the girls’ toilets, and their eyes genuflected under sliding lids. (47, 48) Morrison demonstrates the difference between Maureen and Pectoral as a way to bring awareness how much others allowed Pectoral to believe that she deed her blue eyes, needed the beauty so she would be treated well and accepted.
By seeing how teachers, peers, and people in general treated a black girl with some white features, Pectoral begins to see what she is not and why she begins to hate herself. Her sadness is best seen by her father as she washes dishes in the kitchen, she was a “young, helpless, hopeless presence. Her back hunched that way; her head to one side as though crouching from a permanent and unrelieved blow. ” (161) Pectoral yearns for her blue eyes in the hope she will be loved.
Maureen is everything Pectoral is not and that fact that he is not beautiful enough to be loved leads to Piccolo’s downfall at the end of the novel, where she becomes mentally unstable as a young woman. However, not all the female characters were in awe of the Western view of beauty. The narrator, Claudia, embodies Morning’s warning of adopting these standards of beauty. Claudia at the beginning describes herself as indifferent to the white beauty and she wanted to know “What made people look at them and say, ‘Maw,’ but not for me? (22). She describes why she hates Maureen, not because she is beautiful, but because of what makes her dutiful “And all the time we knew that Maureen Peal was not worthy of such intense hatred. The Thing to fear was the Thing that made her beautiful, and not us” (58). This “thing” was the white standard of beauty that had been set by society, which the African American community internalized and sets the standard for that makes Maureen beautiful and Pectoral ugly.
Claudia felt comfort in her own skin and did not conform to the white vision of beauty that everyone else accepted. Claudia, as a child wonders why these people treated some as beautiful and others as not; Morning’s use of Claudia is to be the readers logic, the trader’s guide to see why this is wrong. As Claudia speaks of her own indifference towards white women, she brings up something that could be evidence to say she is not so indifferent: I destroyed white baby dolls. But the dismembering of dolls was not the true horror.
The truly horrifying thing was the transference of the same impulse to little white girls. The indifference with which could have axed them was only shaken by my desire to do so. To discover what eluded me: the Secret of the magic they weaved on others. (22). Though Claudia speaks of why she cannot figure out why people love white lolls and people like Shirley Temple, but only because she is taught it. She believed ‘the change was adjustment without improvement” (16) and the adjustment is the adjustment made by black people to want the white beauty they cannot have.
At the end of the novel, Claudia realizes that her world was a fantasy, created by black and white society: And fantasy it was, for we were not strong, only aggressive; we were not free, merely licensed; we were not compassionate, we were polite; not good but well behaved. We courted death in order to call ourselves brave, and hid like thieves from life. We substituted good grammar for intellect; we switched habits to simulate maturity; we rearranged lies and called it truth. (163) The society they lived in created roles that black people accepted, where they followed rules.
They allowed for Pectoral to become the scapegoat for her ancestral pregnancy, because black society took up white ideals for beauty at the expense for others. Whiteness in The Bluest Eye was the symbol for beauty, innocence, purity, and goodness. The black women in the novel wanted to have beauty, innocence, purity, and goodness. They wanted to be accepted. Ultimately, it mess they wanted to be white. They wanted to be loved. Morrison combining whiteness and humans creates a racial tension seen in reality and in society. People are trying to reach, to achieve nearly impossible and plain impossible things. The beauty is not the point; it is there to symbolize how oppressed and molded black people were because of white society. In society we can challenge things such as racism or hate, but no matter when we do it, the challenge could come too late for others. Racism and the need for acceptance affects and dwells within every one of us, where we can all see in society, even decades after this novel was written, a Pectoral Overlooked, a Claudia, a Maureen Peel, or a Geraldine.
Pitney Bowes Inc: Innovation Process
Euchner is primarily concerned about whether Stamp Expression was the appropriate product to introduce to the market. After examining the analysis conducted, it is evident that the Amita project had numerous shortcomings, resulting in slow initial sales and potential failure of the product’s growth. Utilizing acquisition to expand the small business segment would be a more preferable approach for Pitney Bowes. An examination of the innovation process and personnel identified a significant problem – the complete separation between product engineering and future-scanning roles.
AC&T is responsible for both concept development and commercial feasibility in Amita’s innovation process, without involving the product engineering team. However, if the product engineering team had been involved earlier, it would have provided real-time support and prevented wasted time on feasibility activities. Additionally, involving multiple individuals in the project has led to numerous iterations, resulting in increased project size and added cost. Furthermore, there is a concern regarding the recruitment of personnel to lead the company’s growth.
Neil Metviner, Dan Kohn, and Lisa Somer were all hired for the sales team, coming from a background in credit card and consumer banking. There is doubt regarding their retail experience in defining target markets and devising strategies to attract customers. AC&T’s approach to discovering new growth opportunities is rooted in “customer-centered innovation”, where customer input is valued. However, it is important to note that customers should not be solely relied upon for coming up with solutions. Rather, they should be asked about their desired functions and outcomes for a new product or service (Ulwick, 2002).
AC&T has sought input from various professionals, such as anthropologists, designers, and engineers, to better understand the unexpressed needs and values of customers. However, the decision to include certain functionality, such as the ability to connect the machine directly to a telephone jack or PC, was based on the input of only one client in a focus group. It would be more advisable to consult a larger group of interviewees with diverse backgrounds to avoid personal bias. Additionally, AC&T is heavily influenced by MIT professor Eric Von Hippel, who believes that observing lead users can provide valuable insights for further product improvement and idea generation.
Even though removing important features from the product to cut manufacturing costs may be true, this choice might not satisfy the requirements of regular users and non-customers. An example of a feature being removed is the capability to create colored images, which has had a detrimental effect on the product’s potential. This is because stamp.com, which already holds 85% market share, already provides this functionality. It is always challenging for a company to enter a market that is controlled by a bigger competitor.
To guarantee product success, it is vital to have competitive functionalities and introduce innovative features that can be used as selling points. However, in Amita’s case, their product falls short compared to stamp.com. COO Murray Martin failed to consider the potential future growth of this industry and whether investing in innovation is worthwhile considering the growth rate.
The U. S. Postal Service reports that there is an increasing number of delivery points for residential customers, while the number remains constant for businesses. This suggests that residential postage service is likely generating more revenue compared to business service. However, Pitney Bowes aims to target small businesses with its postage meters and Amita project. Investing capital in a segment with limited growth may not be an ideal strategy. Thus, it is recommended that Pitney Bowes concentrates on their core business of producing and leasing postage meters.
To decide if Pitney Bowes should innovate within its existing business or explore more innovative ideas, several factors need to be considered. Specifically, the following aspects should be reviewed under the assumption that innovation should be closely aligned with the core business: the personnel of the project team. It is crucial to involve staff from diverse backgrounds in the development of innovative products. In particular, the innovation project team should include members from the sales team who possess an understanding of the industry and customer needs.
The company’s target segments and whether this product aligns with the company’s value propositions are known by them.
Similar to the AC&T team, the engineering and technology team is responsible for innovative thinking. They determine the important features that this product can offer, whether it is a completely new offering or designed to meet market demand.
Acting as a bridge between the technology and sales teams, the product management team plays a crucial role. They gather insights from the sales team regarding product features that can fulfill market needs and customers’ price range.
In the role of managing product cost, they communicate with the engineering team to understand the required features of the product. This is a crucial responsibility as they assess innovative products from both a business and management standpoint. Although the technology team may develop exceptional products that capture the market’s attention, it is up to this team to ensure that the product can be delivered to clients at a reasonable cost. In the case of Stamp expressions, product engineering only becomes involved after the feasibility analysis conducted by AC&T.
The involvement of the product engineering team at an earlier stage can help identify major obstacles, as discussed earlier. It is also important for the company to restrict any additional requirements on the project, excluding the three main team players mentioned. This helps control the project scope and prevent unnecessary cost escalation. In addition to team composition, recruiting personnel with the appropriate skill-set should also be considered. A candidate with retail experience, preferably with a background in postal services, would be highly suitable for driving the product to market as a member of the sales team.
Pitney Bowes should have conducted cost-benefit analysis on the various features of Stamp Expression. The company should have addressed the following questions:
1. Which functionalities are essential? The company should have gathered input from clients through discussions. Neglecting any of these functionalities may result in customer attrition.
2. Which functionalities are desired or innovative? This step would assist Pitney Bowes in making informed decisions when considering the trade-offs between different functionalities.
A cost-benefit analysis can be conducted to evaluate customer demand and the potential benefits of a feature, as well as the additional costs it may incur. This analysis helps AC&T determine which features to include in their product based on the maximum cost set by the sales team. If there is a value proposition that AC&T deems essential, they should examine its commercial viability and conduct market research. This information should then be communicated internally within the company to obtain support from senior management.
Only senior support is needed to protect the critical value proposition of the product. The target market for Pitney Bowes to enter the market should be Stamp.com users because Stamp.com holds 85% of the market share. Stamp.com charges a premium of 130% over the postage value for full-colored self-adhesive stamps. One possible strategy for Stamp Expression is to target customers who require fewer featured stamps and prefer to pay less. Pitney Bowes can only gain business from existing Stamp.com customers if they enter as a lower-cost supplier. As mentioned in the analysis, the residential service segment is growing. Pitney Bowes should investigate whether Stamp Expression is suitable for this segment and its requirements. Additionally, low-cost meters that are currently in inventory due to short-term rental agreements can be offered to residential families at a minimal price. For example, during Christmas when families send cards to others, offering these meters can potentially lead to a seasonal profit for Pitney Bowes. The sales channel should also be considered.
Based on the slow initial sales observed, it may not be effective to use telemarketing as a sales channel for Stamp Expression. Pitney Bowes should consider trying retailing as an alternative channel. While retailing did not work for older postage meters due to the process customers had to go through, the company can still showcase the product in retail spaces as a demonstration and to attract customers’ attention. The crucial aspect is to develop a commission scheme for retail sales in order to drive the product’s success. Should we innovate or explore new ideas?
In summary, the suitability of Stamp Expression as a solution for core business growth should be evaluated. Pitney Bowes needs to assess the expenses associated with the Stamp Expression project and the anticipated revenue, taking into consideration that it can only be marketed as a disruptive innovation. One option worth considering is the cost of acquiring Stamp.com. If the cost of the Amita project is high, acquiring Stamp.com may be a more appealing solution, allowing Pitney Bowes to capture the entire market share of stamp.com.
In contrast, Pitney Bowes capitalized on the growth in the direct mailing business by employing open innovation. This involved acquiring various companies and utilizing their products or technology to create a vertical integration known as Mailstream. This strategy proved successful, resulting in over $250 billion of marketplace opportunities. If Pitney Bowes takes a different approach for products, such as acquiring stamp.com, and continues to utilize open innovation for Mailstream, it has the potential to generate a significant amount of revenue. However, this is not meant to discourage AC&T.
Innovation plays a crucial role in both societal advancement and commercial success. This is particularly true in industries such as postage, where profit margins are slim and new technologies like the internet pose a threat. To ensure that any innovation has a significant impact on the market, extensive investigation and feasibility analysis must be conducted. (Reference: 1. Christensen, C and Yu, H. 2006, Piney Bowes Inc, Harvard Business School. 2. Ulwick, A. W. 2002. Turn Customer Input into Innovation. Harvard Business Review, January 2002. Pp 81-87)
Throughout history, many talented writers Hagiographas have reflected the clip period in which they lived in. Often the overall tone, and attitude of the novel is due to factors, that they have been born with, such as the environment they grew up in, who raised them, or moral morals were instilled into their manner of thought. Richard Wright is an Afro-American writer whose Hagiographas greatly reflected the clip period in which he lived in.
Native Son and Black Boy are two authoritative illustrations of Wright’s works that are deeply influenced by the epoch in which he lived. Wright was born on September 4, 1908, in Natchez, Mississippi on a little farm much in the same mode that his hero, Bigger Thomas, began his life. Deprived, hapless, and segregated against, Wright spent much of his early childhood in hurting, fright, and shame.
He was repeatedly beaten by his female parent and grandma for seeking to contend back at the segregation imposed upon him. He was besides beaten by Whites to whom he had to turn for occupations and he was resentful of the Jim Crow regulations by which he had to populate. In Black Boy, Wright’s autobiography, he recalls a familiar childhood event: “I would experience hunger poke ating my ribs, writhing my empty backbones until they ached. I would turn dizzy and my vision would dim. ” ;
In Black Boy, Wright used his ain life to represent what qualities of imaginativeness and mind are necessary of a southern Afro-american in order to understand the significance of his life in the United States. Blacken Boy besides reveals it’s ‘ writer hero’as a adult male controlled by an absolute certainty of his ain virtuousness. The morals of life Jim Crow require that Wright be obedient and silent.
So although he was non a slave, he in kernel was. He shared the same emotions as the slaves and emphasized for them. Yet everything we cognize about his character has prepared us to anticipate rebellion. Wright could non, from his earliest old ages, digest this repression, and Black Boy is the history of his segregation, non merely from the white society but from with his ain society. While Black Boy represe National Trusts a image of a personality corrupted by a barbarous environment, it besides presents natural human responses to its universe by a sensitive kid.
The really fact that Black Boy is an autobiography of Wright’s life is in itself representing how his life was reflected in his plants. Wright’s life, particularly his childhood seemingly had a great impact on him, otherwise he would non hold written a book about. Native Son, the novel that Wright is most celebrated for is besides greatly reflected by the clip in which he lived.
Bigger Thomas, the hero and the supporter of the novel, experiences flight which takes topographic point within an urban labyrinth that has come to be called black ghetto. In kernel, Bigger’s flight has been blocked, it is destined for failure even before it begins. Just like in Wright’s life, he has grown up in a ‘ ghetto’of Mississippi, in a society in which he attempts to Rebel but is condemned for making so.
Bigger Thomas, Wright’s fictional character, is in some ways non- fictional, possibly because Bigger’s rebellious character is what Wright strived to be although was unable to make to factors that he could merely non overcome.
Bigger is an illustration of the black rebellion against the unfairness of the white asti system, and his rebellion takes the signifier of offense against the white society. Born into a society that is white and hostile, ( merely as Wright was ) Bigger becomes the entire incarnation of that society’s bias and hates against the black adult male. In a manner Bigger Thomas is an autobiographical character because so much of what occurs in bigger’s life, likewise occurred in Wright’s.
Therefore we see that much of Richard Wright’s plants have been influenced by the clip period in which he lived. Black Boy, Wright’s autobiography is the perfect incarnation of merely how great his life reflected his Hagiographas. Native Son, although a fictional book, in many ways still reflected Wright’s life as a Rebel. In Native Son, Wright could joint himself, utilizing Bigger Thomas as a fictional character to show the powerful spirit which tried to get the better of the white society which oppressed him.