The Book “The Future Of Faith” By Harvey Cox Homework Essay Sample


The book “The Future of Faith,” authored by Harvey Cox, presents an interesting insight into the historical changes taking place in religion, specifically spirituality. The reader can make a quick observation that the entire essence of the book is to distinguish between faith and belief, especially when Cox (2009) states that “It is true that for many people “faith” and “belief” are just two words for the same thing” (p. 5). The author has depicted faith as praxis-oriented and open to the future, while belief is usually focused on dogma and often characterized by literalism and narrowness. Most importantly, faith and belief present two periods in the history of religion that have passed and are replaced by spirituality. In other words, modern Christianity goes beyond the church hierarchy and institutional religion. The purpose of this essay is to examine Cox’s argument and to present a critique of the book. The main argument is that Cox has succinctly summarized the critical shifts in religion that society has experienced.

New Age of Spirituality

The new age of spirituality is gradually materializing, which can be perceived as an evolution from previous periods. According to Cox (2009, p. 8), Christianity has shifted from the age of faith to the age of belief and then to the age of spirituality. The age of faith is associated with the first three centuries of the church, which ended in 325 BC when Constantine, a Roman emperor, gathered 318 bishops of the Catholic Church at the Nicene Council to settle the Arian controversy. The end of this era saw the dawn of the age of belief, which is characterized by hierarchies formed alongside the development of the church. Cox states that the official version of Christianity froze into a system comprising mandatory precepts codified into creeds and strictly enforced imperial decrees and a powerful hierarchy. The age of spirituality emerged as a result of people who described themselves as religious did not want to be associated with the doctrinal or hierarchical demarcations of the conventional religion. In other terms, these people describe themselves as “spiritual” (Cox, 2009, p. 10). These changes can be observed in modern trends in Christianity.

The arguments of the author are compelling since they make the same observations as many scholars of theology. Additionally, the changes often take place across all religions, which means that people should expect that the future of faith will be different from what it is now. The argument by Cox (2009, p. 10) can be summarized by quoting an article by Paul-Choudhury (2019, para 3), which appeared on BBC Future. The statement is that “We take it for granted that religions are born, grow, and die – but we are also oddly blind to that reality” (Paul-Choudhury, 2019, para. 3). In simpler terms, even the dominant religions of today have continually evolved throughout history. New religions often begin as cults, faith associated with them is recognized, and the teaching and traditions are perceived as timeless. Similarly, dead religions are treated as myths and the claims to sacred truth expire. This is a perfect summary of what Cox (2009) is trying to explain in his book. Early Christianity may have taught people faith and hope, but modern practices are more oriented towards spirituality.

To understand Cox’s argument, it is important to explore the illustrations and explanations that show the shift from doctrine and hierarchy towards a more generalized spirituality. First, it is important to acknowledge that Cox (2009, p. 8) did not create the term “age of spirituality” since he attributes it to a 13th-century Calabrian monk and mystic, Joachim Fiore. This monk taught the doctrine of the Trinity, which comprised the Father, the Son, and was about to enter the age of the spirit. The ages of the father and son are associated with the Old Testament and the church respectively, both of which represented formal hierarchies to be observed in Christianity. However, Joachim believed that people lived in direct contact with God, which eliminates the need for these religious hierarchies. Therefore, Cox’s first evidence and illustration of the age of spirit comes from the teaching of an ancient monk, who could be considered among the first prominent religious figures to observe the dying roles of hierarchies.

Another illustration used in the book is the Christian movement dubbed ‘the way,’ which began with Jesus and his disciples. Cox (2019) argues that Jesus was perceived s the one who preached the “way of God in truth” (p. 77). Therefore, the early Christians had an affirmation that Jesus was is Lord as opposed to a set of beliefs. As this movement grew, Christians were bound together by their common participation and sharing in bread, wine, and prayer. There were no dogmas to follow, which means that a wide variety of theological views emerged and thrived. In this case, the movement prioritized the ties that the individuals felt with Jesus and God and not the rules that were taught in the church and their leaders. In other words, this movement serves as another illustration of how believers sought direct links to God and not religious institutions.

A key idea expressed above is the rise of many theological views of Christianity, which resulted in the freedom perceived after the shift from dogmas, doctrines, and hierarchies. The emergence of many theological views implies that there would come an era of heterogeneity in the Christian teachings, which would be followed by religious practices and beliefs. Cox (2019, p. 85) illustrates this shift towards spirituality in Chapter 6 using the 1991 assembly of the World Council of Churches in Canberra, Australia. There were over four thousand delegates in the meeting, who were all shocked when a Korean female theologian came accompanied by nineteen dancers bearing bells, gongs, and clapsticks. In addition, this band was led by two Aboriginal dancers covered with body paint and wearing loincloths. At this moment, Cox states that all delegates came to learn that the future of Christianity would also be racially and culturally heterogeneous. Today, Christians across the world display an outstanding level of diversity racially, ethnically, and culturally. Additionally, it is possible to find communities that have mixed Christianity with their traditions. This observation is one of the key indicators of the age of spirituality.

Chapter 15 of the book offers some of the most compelling arguments regarding the dying of dogma and the rise of generalized spirituality. Cox (2019, p. 215) argues that new dimensions of communal, spiritual, and justice-seeking dimension have effectively replaced doctrines. Most interestingly, Cox (2019, p. 214) finds the same trends to be taking place across other religions. This observation summarizes the earlier arguments by Paul-Choudhury (2019, para. 3) regarding the emergence and death of religion as a common lifecycle experienced in all religions. Cox (2009, p. 214) mentions Buddhism and Islam as good examples of this evolution. Islam is the second-largest religion with more than a billion followers across the planet. In the past century, Islam has undergone a renaissance that has been facilitated by growing levels of education, employment opportunities, and the failures of such market structures as capitalism and socialism. Regardless of the cause of the change, the main idea is that the rapid changes in modern life create an identity crisis where traditional religions no longer address all problems faced by modern societies.

The illustrations and evidence used by Cox are all convincing, especially since they are observable by any individuals keen enough to examine the current state of Christianity and other religions in comparison to earlier periods. In this case, many people debate and disagree with the idea of following the laws of the Old Testament. Mildred (2018, para. 6) uses a CBS sitcom called “Living Biblically” to show that there are no Christians in the whole world who believe in the need to observe every command in the Bible. It can be argued that the main difference between the Old and New Testaments is the emphasis on law, which simply illustrates the idea of Cox (2009, p. 8) regarding dogmas, institutions, and hierarchies. The New Testament focuses majorly on the Life and Teachings of Jesus Christ, which coincides with what Cox (2009, p. 19) terms as a new Christian movement called “the way.” The fact that the media is full of news and other posts indicating defiance or opposition to the traditional Christian teaching of the Old Testament means that Cox has convincingly summarized observable shifts in religion.


In as much as Cox convincingly presents his arguments and illustrations, there are certain areas I believe could be critiqued and others that need to be explored beyond the book. First, the idea of heterogeneity has only been hinted at without adequate emphasis on how it influences evolution and the ultimate entry into the new age of spirituality. The Canberra assembly should be the first hint that theologists of the modern era have to deal with communities that do not want to fully dismiss their traditions, which have to be embedded in Christianity. The spread of Christianity across the world has had to encounter with other religions and communities who still practiced their traditions. For some, ditching their traditions for the new religion was possible in its entirety, while the opposite has also been true. Most interestingly, there is also a category of people who prefer to practice both religions and try to integrate them. Therefore, the question that Cox does not address is how this will affect spirituality.

Heterogeneity can play a critical role in shaping spirituality or even deterring its progress. Since Cox mentions Australian aboriginals, this community can be used as an example of the essence of heterogeneity. According to Korff (2020, para. 6), many Aboriginal people mix Christian concepts and beliefs with some traditions and try to reconcile two different viewpoints. To some religious leaders in the community, Christianity is seen as an adaptation or innovation into the Aboriginal traditional society. It can be expected that the evolution of religion is caused by changes in society and its practices. It is about a society that has historically practiced religion and lived in its faith. An interesting question is how does this evolution take place for a society to whom the religion is new? Do such people subscribe to the traditional beliefs and align themselves with the practices of the secular society with their defiance to the rules, dogmas, and institutions? Additionally, it would be prudent to explore the place of these traditions and norms of these newcomers to modern Christianity and the age of spirituality.

An area that can be considered underdeveloped is how hope changes with the evolution of religion from faith to belief to spirituality. From a theological perspective, hope comprises a confident expectation grounded on the promises of God. Hope is central to salvation as expressed by Apostle Paul in the New Testament (Newheiser, 2019, p. 7). In this case, Christians believe in an invisible God with whom they relate and expect to save. The question that Cox (2009, p. 42) fails to address is what the age of spirituality means for Christian hope. Cox (2009, p. 125) hints at modern unbelief associated with secularization. The age of belief is the second period in evolution, which modern society is still living in as they transit into the age of spirituality. It can be argued that believing in something may create hope for it. in this case, people who believe in salvation hope that they will be saved as they enter heaven. If the secular Christians are no longer believers, does this mean that their hope has died?

The ideas of the age of spirituality have rhymed with most of the changes that can be observed in modern society. Most importantly, secularization can be seen as an even sharper shift from doctrines, something that Cox (2009, p. 125) also notices. A main point of critique would be the idea that spirituality and the secular can be more permeable. The criticism comes from the observation made earlier that the secular society is associated with unbelief. If these opinions are to be held as valid, it can be argued that the secular society is increasingly moving away from religion. The future of faith and the age of spirituality can only materialize if the core principles of religion are upheld. Even without the belief, it can be argued that hope will remain a necessity since spirituality might not mean much hope is lost. This is at least the case for Christians whose entire religion is built on the foundations of hope.


Cox has successfully and convincingly illustrated his arguments on the emergence of the age of spirituality. The primary focus has been on the gradual shift from doctrines and institutions, a movement observed since the teachings of Jesus. The age of spirituality has also been observed by multiple religious figures, including a 13th-century monk who stated that the direct link between believers and God eliminates the need for the church and the doctrines and hierarchies associated with it. However, some areas have remained underdeveloped, some of which are at the ore of religion. Examples include the heterogeneity of the modern Christian and the concept of hope. There is a question of where new Christians fit within the whole evolution process and how spirituality relates with or affects hope. Overall, the ideas are all validated by the fact that the change is visible to everyone.


Cox, H. (2009). The future of faith. HarperOne.

Korff, J. (2020). Aboriginal Christians & Christianity. Creative Spirit. Web.

Mildred, J. (2018). This is why Christians don’t obey all of the Bible’s commands. Premier Christianity. Web.

Newheiser, D. (2019). Hope in a secular age: Deconstruction, negative theology and the future of faith. Cambridge University Press.

Paul-Choudhury, S. (2019). Tomorrow’s Gods: What is the future of religion? BBC Future. Web.

Happiness: Hedonism And The Theories Of Virtue

Happiness is an emotional state characterized by satisfaction, contentment, feelings of joy, and fulfillment. It mainly involves positive emotions and life satisfaction despite having many different definitions. Psychologists use the term subjective well-being when talking about this emotional state. Subjective- well-being tends to concentrate on the overall personal feelings of an individual about their present life. Happiness has two main components, the balance of emotions and life satisfaction. The balance of emotions is generally associated with more positive than negative emotions. Life satisfaction is how individuals feel satisfied in different areas of their lives, including achievement, work relationships, and other essential things. Therefore, this paper focuses on what happiness is and answers the question of what it is to be happy using the ideas and views from hedonism and the theories of virtue by Aristotle and Plato.

Hedonism is the view that a good life should be pleasurable in moral philosophy. Psychology represents the theory that the primary motivator of human behavior is pleasure-seeking. Hedonists are individuals who are optimistic about pleasure and, when possible, reap the fruits of pleasure (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). The contrary is asceticism which entails abstinent behavior and the moral rejection of pleasure. The advantages of this hedonism have had a longstanding discussion. Some associate it with moral decay and overindulgence, while others claim it healthy and natural. Hedonism’s mixed feelings are mirrored in the connotations surrounding the word (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). Hedonism is associated with good taste and the art of living well on the one hand and with addiction, irresponsible behavior, short-sighted behavior, and superficiality on the other hand. There are several consequences of hedonism for happiness in both negative and positive views.

Human beings have always been warned to avoid the lures of lustful living down the ages. Religious leaders have preached much of this admonition, such as fundamentalists in the United States of America, the Middle East, and Europe, including health advisers and politicians (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). Hedonism has also been criticized by novelists, for instance, Aldous Huxley in his ‘brave New world.’ There are two major lines in the criticism of hedonism (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). Firstly, it is not good for individuals, and secondly, it is not suitable for our environment. The environment argument holds that hedonism leads to over-consumption and that this will contribute to the continuing exhaustion of natural resources and therefore accelerate environmental destruction (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). Hedonism is suggested to decrease an individual’s danger awareness following this line since self-indulgences overpowers critical thinking and understanding.

The social quality is ruined by the daily treadmill of apparent consumption, destroying the work ethic within the society and undermining morals within the community. Since pleasures induce a rosy and unrealistic outlook, hedonists are again seen to be short-sighted to these dangers (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). These opinions are mainly presented as a broader modernization and consumer society review. At the individual level, there are two lines of critique, starting with hedonism undermining health (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). This view applies specifically to the quest for sensory pleasures such as smoking tobacco, eating sweets, having abundant sex, and drinking alcoholic beverages.

The second line of criticism is that happiness is decreased by hedonism in the long term. The attack is taken to the heart of hedonism with the claim that pleasure-seeking leads to unhappiness. Hedonists should indeed reject hedonism if it does lead to pleasure (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). In this reasoning, as hedonists would have it, happiness is mainly defined as the enjoyment of ones’ life (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). The claim insists that a hedonistic lifestyle does not contribute to happiness in the long term but the shorter period instead, with the paradoxical result being credited to various mechanisms.

One of the reasons hedonists may end up being sad is that pleasure might fade or die with time. This leads to an urge for ever-stronger stimuli and leaves the pleasure seeker unsatisfied (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). Dangerous behavior would increase happiness disappointment since sensitivity is reduced by experience; the outcome for the hedonists is emptiness. The theme associated with this is that hedonism causes addiction (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). Pleasure seeking can make an individual make wrong friends and do risky experimentation. Habituation would likewise lead to forever increasing levels of stimulation with a self-destruction risk. The addiction point is part of a broader claim that hedonism leads to losing reality control (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). In this view, since hedonism spoils individuals, it can also decrease control. Therefore, the pursuit of pleasure leaves people untrained since it makes them avoid challenges.

Avoiding experiences potentially judged as painful reduces the stress tolerance of hedonists, making them more exposed in the long-term and be anxious. Growing anxiety might enhance reliance on stimulants leading to drug addiction (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). Hedonism is seen to lead to idleness as hedonists are portrayed as passive lotus-eaters since pleasure-seeking is considered antithetical to active involvement (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). It is inferred that the pursuit of pleasure gives rise to less pleasurable experiences in the end than a life devoted to self-development. There is good evidence that enjoyment is the end product of self-actualization.

Hedonism leaves many higher pleasures untasted as it addresses a limited part of the human repertoire. Hedonists face bankruptcy since mere enjoyment has little meaning (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). When habituation breaks the spell of lust, old age and sickness reduce the capacity for enjoyment for the hedonist, causing the end of life in an existential vacuum (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). In this reasoning, the search for personal pleasure makes people less sensitive to their needs, which links with the view that hedonism causes moral decay and leaves hedonists lonely due to further isolation. Companionship deficiency may make the hedonist even more susceptible to addiction.

There has been less concern on the advantages of hedonism, possibly since they are seen as self-evident. The hedonism advocates claim that we should not disregard pleasure since it is a natural signal (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). It is presumed that the need to do what is good for us has been implanted in us by evolution, and therefore, the search for pleasure makes people behave in beneficial ways as it comes naturally (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). It is also claimed that pleasurable experiences preserve health by reducing stress.

Happiness is perceived to result from the sum of pleasures and pain, and that if an individual reaches out for enjoyment, then this balance is likely to be more positive. Several indirect contributions are mentioned next to this effect (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). An example of such a direct effect is that enjoyment increases the capacity of an individual to deal with problems of life that enhance the tolerance of an individual for stress and by encouraging control of reality over emotion-focused coping (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). Another indirect effect is that enjoyment makes people more sociable. Individuals or people laugh and talk most during a good meal or over a glass of wine, reinforcing social bonds that set the scene for more happiness pleasurable practices or experiences in the future. Additionally, hedonism is said to contribute to happiness by its positive impact on physical health.

The advocates of hedonism are more concerned with attacking the theory that negative effects prevail as much as they deem these positive effects rather obvious. The criticism is about a caricature of hedonism being a counter-argument that equates pleasure-seeking with a preference for primitive pleasures and uncontrolled greediness commonly of the flesh (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). It is believed that an individual derives pleasure from a mix of moderate pleasures which appeal to the mind and the body. Enjoyment facilitates the performance of these tasks, and it is also denied that pleasure-seeking interferes with involvement in social and work obligations (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). Critics of hedonism fail to provide convincing empirical proof for their improbable assertions since they cannot view reality without a taste in their mouth.

The theories of virtue can also describe what happiness is where both Plato and Aristotle have their views on happiness. Plato believed that individuals who are happy are moral and follow the four cardinal values (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). He also taught that these were the character traits that could be used and practiced without thinking about them. These values include temperance, justice, fortitude, and prudence. Firstly, according to Plato, justice is the most abstract of the virtues and is the middle road between being selfish and selfless (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). Plato believed that it was important for individuals to help those around them flourish, although it is essential to pursue their desires.

Secondly, temperance is defined as a value that involves the moderation of an individual’s wishes as it is the middle road between deficiency and excess. To show control and stay balanced, Aristotle, for instance, would judge a person who drinks alcohol in excess in a similar way he would a person who never drinks alcohol. Not everybody will do everything in moderation, and there is also an argument that individuals must be moderated (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). Therefore, individuals can determine the elements of their lives where it might be helpful by studying temperance.

Thirdly, fortitude, also known as courage, is the inner strength in the face of adversity. One can overcome difficulties and resist temptations when you are courageous. An individual can remain persistent, persevere, and keep fighting despite the troubles they might face (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). For one to fulfill their goals, fortitude is significant, leading to happiness. Lastly, prudence entails being reasonable and using that reason to govern oneself. Those who are happy can choose moral actions and self-judge (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). They can learn from their mistakes, be mindful, and do better. More irrational and intense emotions can cause unhappiness, whereas reason can help make an individual happy.

Aristotle believed that happiness was the goal of life, and it is attained by living virtuously. Individuals can live virtuously by fostering their intrinsic good habits and developing others. One can continually lead a good life and make good choices by living virtuously (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). Human beings are set apart from other organisms since they have critical skills and are self-aware. Therefore Aristotle believed that humans need to utilize reasoning to be happy, which will make them live a virtuous life. (Melchert & Morrow, 2019) Aristotle also provides the answer to the question, “what is it to be happy?” He explains that there are various perceptions of it. Some individuals relate it with wealth, some with honor, and others with pleasure (Melchert & Morrow, 2019). Some end up associating it with the intellect by defining it abstractly.

In conclusion, for an individual to achieve happiness and improve their lives, they can apply the views of hedonism, Plato and Aristotle. This can be done in several ways, such as having principles and balance. Individuals may find themselves happy by enforcing principles and learning from their mistakes when they are in a mess. Another way to attain happiness is by balancing and reaching a middle ground in everything as they try to achieve happiness. For instance, an individual should not do something in excess or deficient. Individuals also have to live in the present or fall somewhere between the past and the present and not dwell too much on the future or the present since it can make one unhappy. Last but not least, individuals should try to be contented and live with what they have. Goals should always be centered on what one has to avoid struggling to attain a high target as it makes individuals upset whenever they are unable to reach the set goals.


Melchert, N., & Morrow, D. (2019). The Great Conversation: A Historical Introduction to Philosophy (8th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Technological Developments In Aircraft


Nowadays, the most popular term in commercial and military technological development is independence, which includes self-driving automobiles, airplanes without a human pilot, and terrestrial, sea, and undersea vehicles without human operators. Remotely piloted aircraft, piloted remotely by people, has been a significant feature of the world’s largest military for years, headed by the United States, and proved with a deadly impact. Corporate and public expectations are accelerating improvements in autonomous aerial systems. This work was written with the aim of studying new technologies in the field of unmanned aerial vehicles.

Artificial Intelligence

Remotely operated Aerial Vehicles and deep learning have begun to capture the interest of industrial and academic researchers. Pilotless Aerial Vehicles have increased the ability to control and regularly monitor isolated areas. The introduction of computer vision has decreased the number of hurdles to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles while also improving capabilities and opening doors to new sectors (Khan and Al-Mulla, 2019). The collaboration of remotely piloted aircraft with computer vision has resulted in quick and dependable results. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles combined with computer vision have aided in real-time surveillance, data gathering and analyzing, and forecasting in computer systems, intelligent buildings, defense, farming, and mining.

Machine learning techniques, sensors, and information technology advancements have paved the way for UAV applications in a variety of industries. The key areas include wireless communications, intelligent buildings, the military, farming, and industry. The usage of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in bright urban and the defense to achieve various goals is fast expanding. A graffiti-cleaning system was created using the UAV system and machine learning algorithms.


The majority of UAVs are made up of the same hardware elements. A drone’s essential components include a body, power source, hardware device, internal and external detectors, actuator, and autonomous algorithms. A drone’s cameras compute external measurements and identify exterior forms to avoid accidents. A UAV’s power source can range from lithium-ion batteries to regular aircraft engines. UAVs also include technology in the shape of a flight stack, which includes hardware, software, and system software and is responsible for air traffic control, guidance, and judgment (Huang et al., 2021). Patent owners’ suggestions for prospective future drone technology may affect future UAV utilization. Hydrogen-powered drones, enhanced machine learning, concern for the environment, and self-charging are examples of such technology. UAVs might be used for a variety of purposes in the future, including driverless cars and public transit, drone waiting staff, and hovering administrative assistants.

The drone method was first developed in the 1900s, with the primary goal of supplying training targets for military members’ education. The advancement of sophisticated technology and superior electrical-power systems has resulted in an increase in the usage of the market and commercial aircraft drones. Quadcopter UAVs represent the great appeal of hobby airwaves, aviation, and gadgets; yet, the application of crewless aerial vehicles (UAVs) incorporate and general aircraft is hampered by a loss of authority.


The Global Positioning System (GPS), formerly known as Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radio navigation network sponsored by the US state and maintained by the US Space Force. It is one of the global navigation satellite systems that transmit location and trustworthy source of information to a GPS module everywhere on or near the Earth when four or more GPS receivers have an unimpeded line of vision. Terrain and structures, for example, might obstruct the comparatively weak GPS data.

GPS in UAVs is vital regardless of whether the aircraft is steered independently or by ground-based pilots. GPS navigation algorithms can provide continuous precision as long as adequate satellites are available during the UAV flight (Liang et al., 2019). GPS is frequently used with Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) to provide more complete UAV navigation options. The most prevalent application of GPS in UAVs is navigation. GPS, which is an essential factor of most UAV GPS devices, is utilized to identify the vehicle’s location. The UAV GPS is also used to calculate the vehicle’s relative position and speed. The receiver’s location could be used to monitor the UAV or, in conjunction with an autonomous guide, to guide the UAV.

Gallium Arsenide

Gallium arsenide is a substance that is frequently utilized in integrated circuit chips due to its appealing features, and it has a wide range of applications. It has become very popular in high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) constructions, in comparison to silicon, because it does not necessitate any change in momentum in the transformation between both the peak of the conductive band and the minimal amount of the permeability ring, and it does not involve a cooperative particulate interplay. For many years, gaAs-based photovoltaic cells have been developed as an alternative to commonly accessible photovoltaic cells. Even though cells based on indium gallium have the maximum performance, they are not widely used. They have distinct features that make them appealing, particularly in certain places.

Gallium arsenide (GaAs) photovoltaic thermal, which are highly efficient and inexpensive photovoltaic panels built entirely of dielectric material GaAs material, is an excellent alternative for powering UAVs. They are incredibly light and flexible in comparison to conventional solar cells, making them suitable for UAVs since they are simple to attach and contribute minimal excessive pounds to UAVs (Papež et al., 2021). Furthermore, their excellent energy economy ensures that UAVs have peak energy. Upcoming UAVs will be capable of flying for long periods of time, maybe forever, by switching from the regular battery to solar panels.

Fiber-optic Detectors

Fiber-optic detectors are becoming increasingly important in the field of sensing devices. Microstrip patch antennas provide several benefits over traditional technologies (Luo et al., 2017). These devices are small, light, simple to implement, cheap, and resistant to electronic radiation, all of which are essential characteristics for sensor applications. As a result, semiconductor lasers are highly adaptable in monitoring temperature, stress, outside refractive indices, temperature, moisture, and electrically charged fluctuations in high voltage situations. To control the UAV electronically, the operator must transmit commands to the aircraft, which regulates the rotational speeds of the UAV’s four propellers. Essentially, the PWM signals are received by the aircraft’s flight control unit (FCU) and transmitted to an electronically controlled central controller (ESC). The UAV’s batteries supply the ESC unit and regulates engine spin for the required flight circumstances.


To summarize, unmanned drones operated remotely by humans have been a prominent element of the world’s largest military for years, led by the United States, and have proven lethal. Machine learning algorithms, cameras, and advances in technology have opened the road for UAV applications in a wide range of sectors. GPS is essential in UAVs, whether the aircraft is directed autonomously or by earth pilots. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) photoelectric panels are extremely easy and high solar panels made entirely of the piezoelectric semiconductor GaAs, is a viable option for powering UAVs. In the realm of different sensors, fibres detectors are now becoming progressively crucial.


Huang, J., Tian, G., Zhang, J., & Chen, Y. (2021). On Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Light Show Systems: Algorithms, Software, and Hardware. Applied Sciences, 11(16), 7687. Web.

Khan, A. I., & Al-Mulla, Y. (2019). Unmanned aerial vehicle in the machine learning environment. Procedia computer science, 160, 46-53. Web.

Liang, C., Miao, M., Ma, J., Yan, H., Zhang, Q., Li, X., & Li, T. (2019). Detection of GPS spoofing attack on an unmanned aerial vehicle system. In International Conference on Machine Learning for Cyber Security (pp. 123-139). Springer, Cham. Web.

Luo, Y., Shen, J., Shao, F., Guo, C., Yang, N., & Zhang, J. (2017). Health monitoring of unmanned aerial vehicles based on the optical fiber sensor array. In AOPC 2017: Fiber Optic Sensing and Optical Communications (Vol. 10464, p. 104640K). International Society for Optics and Photonics. Web.

Papež, N., Dallaev, R., Ţălu, Ş., & Kaštyl, J. (2021). Overview of the Current State of Gallium Arsenide-Based Solar Cells. Materials, 14(11), 3075. Web.