The Cask Of Amontillado Analysis Essay Example

1. In “The Cask of Amontillado,” what does the narrator’s attitude toward his servants reveal about his view of humanity? It is clear that this is another key indication of the kind of character that Montresor is as a narrator. The fact that he has deliberately organised for his home to be empty when he brings Fortunato home speaks of the way in which he is a calculated killer and has deliberately planned to have Fortunato murdered. However, note what he says about his servants and how he achieves the emptying of his house. Montresor thus seeks to implicitly recognise the human failings of others.

He knows that during the time of Carnival, if given the opportunity, his servants would go out and make merry, even if they were told not to. He cunningly uses this understanding of the foibles of human nature to his own advantage, showing his ability to manipulate others and clearly acknowledging his own lack of scruples in doing so. This helps us develop a picture of a character who manipulates others without any feeling of guilt whatsoever so as to accomplish his own purposes. 2. In Edgar Allan Poe’s, “The Cask of Amontillado,” why is Montresor’s revenge justified?

One of the intriguing aspects of “The Cask of Amontillado” is that we do not know, and cannot know, whether Montresor’s relentless and horrific revenge is justified. For example, Montresor establishes the reason for his hatred at the start of the story when he says The thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as I best could, but when he ventured upon insult, I vowed revenge. You, who know so well the nature of my soul, will not suppose, however, that I gave utterance to a threat. This disclosure tells us something very important about Montresor, specifically, that he is untrustworthy.

Apparently, he has been the victim of a serious insult, but rather than address the problem openly–by challenging Fortunato to a duel, for example–he is disguising his feelings. More important, however, is that Montresor never tells us what the nature of a “thousand injuries” is and how the “insult” was so qualitatively different that he had to revenge himself upon Fortunato. Because we are left to wonder throughout the entire story why Montresor is acting out the horrific revenge, we cannot but be suspicious of his motives and his sanity. 3.

Can “The Cask of Amontillado” be read as a metaphor for moving from wakefulness to sleep and dreaming? To apply this metaphor to “The Cask of Amontillado,” the story must be read as strictly an allegory. The first section of the story represents the mind’s relaxation and euphoria as it begins to lose consciousness. As the characters retreat from the “carnival madness” — wakefulness — they move into a dark place and drink wine, which relaxes their bodies. The second section, as they pass among the bones of Montresor’s ancestors, shows the relationship of a person’s past to his dreams and ambitions.

Many dreams focus on past events and connect them to present or even future events; the skeletons in the catacombs represent both Montresor’s past and Fortunato’s future. Finally, the act of walling a person in alive was a strong fear of Poe’s, and so represents his personal nightmare; he has moved beyond representational dreams and into the disconnected madness of nightmares, which often are not scary in retrospect. It becomes all about context and the fear of immediate and sudden phobias, which are one powerful root of nightmares. 4.

In “The Cask of Amontillado,” is there evidence that Montresor kills Fortunato for reasons other than revenge? Montresor is clearly acting with malice aforethought; he has taken steps in advance to set up an elaborate plan for Fortunato’s death. However, since he is telling the story, and since he is an unreliable narrator, the reader has only his word that he is committing a justifiable act. A wrong is unredressed when retribution overtakes its redresser. It is equally unredressed when the avenger fails to make himself felt as such to him who has done the wrong. (Poe, “The Cask of Amontillado,” eNotes eText)

In other words, he plans for Fortunato’s death in a way that cannot come back to harm him. This shows a very logical and detail-oriented mind, not one to commit murder for passion or on impulse. While it is certainly possible that there was no reason for the murder aside from revenge, there is also no evidence that Montresor is lying; the murder has been undiscovered for fifty years, and in retelling the events he has no reason to make up a story. He cannot be punished now, and so he has little reason to be anything but truthful; the story is, in essence, a boast, and so Montresor would take greater pride in telling the truth.

5. How does Poe create a sense of fear in “The Cask of Amontillado”? Poe’s own fear of being buried alive is one of the most important themes in “The Cask of Amontillado. ” To project this fear on others, he stresses the dark and hostile environment of the catacomb, making what should be a simple, nonthreatening wine-cellar into a frightening tomb: We had passed through long walls of piled skeletons, with casks and puncheons intermingling, into the inmost recesses of the catacombs. [… ]

We passed through a range of low arches, descended, passed on, and descending again, arrived at a deep crypt, in which the foulness of the air caused our flambeaux (torch) rather to glow than flame. (Poe, “The Cask of Amontillado,” eNotes eText) The fear of being confined is called claustrophobia, and is a common fear. The damp walls, with their piled skeletons and sheen of nitre, are meant for confining the dead, not housing the living. The air itself is so thick with humidity and dust that it almost puts the torch out.

As the air weighs heavy on their lungs, and the walls seem to press in, Montresor’s plan becomes evident, and Poe uses Fortunato’s mental deterioration to show his terrible fear, first screaming, and then laughing madly in disbelief. Catacombs in Italy are ancient underground burial tunnels that were used to bury thousands of bodies. His servants have been allowed to attend the carnival. No one is home at the Montresor house. As the pair enters the catacombs, Montresor lights two torches. As they begin their journey from freedom to confinement, Montresor points out to Fortunato the white web work on the walls and ceiling.

7. What does “unredressed” mean from “The Cask of Amontillado”? Unredressed mean not remedied or corrected. When Montresor says a wrong is “unredressed” when retribution overtakes the redressor”, he means that the injury Fortunato did to him will not be corrected if Montressor is caught for the correcting the mistake. He wants to punish Fortunato, and punish him with “impunity”. In other words, he does not want to get caught taking revenge. 8. Why did Montresor decide to seek revenge against Fortunato? Montresor decides to seek revenge against Fortuanato because he believes that Fortunato has insulted him.

The story says “the thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as I best could, but when he ventured upon insult I vowed revenge. ”  We are not told the specifics of this insult. The story leaves the reader to wonder what the insult was and if it ever actually occurred. The story also describes Montressor’s family coat of arms and moto. The coat of arms depicts a large foot crushing a snake that has bitten the heal of the foot. His family motto states “no one attacks me with impunity. ”  This tells the reader something of Montressor’s character. He feels that he must punish any offense.

Montressor does not like Fortunato and feels he has put up with him long enough. Finally, Fortuanto insults Montressor in some fashion and Montressor’s anger boils over. Once again, we do not know if this offense ever really occurred. 9. In Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Cask of Amontillado,” how did Montresor know that his house would be empty? In “The Cask of Amontillado,” Montressor, the narrator, explains: There were no attendants at home; they had absconded to make merry in honour of the time. I had told them that I should not return until the morning and had given them explicit orders not to stir from the house.

These orders were sufficient, I well knew, to insure their immediate disappearance, one and all, as soon as my back was turned. This, of course, assures that there will be no servants in the palazzo when Montressor arrives with Fortunato. It also shows that Montressor employs disobedient servants who have no respect for him. The fact that Montresor was only concerned about getting rid of the servants that night, in addition to the fact that the palazzo appears to be empty when he and Fortunato arrive, is a subtle way of indicating Montresor’s loneliness.

He doesn’t have to worry about encountering any family members because there are no family members. Any family he may have had at one time would be among the skeletons lining the walls of the catacombs below his palazzo. 10. Where had the stone and mortar that Montresor used been hidden? The quick answer to this is that the stone and the mortar that Montresor used to wall up Fortunato had been hidden under a big pile of bones. Way down, at the most inaccessible part of Montresor’s wine cellar was a bunch of human remains. They had been tossed down when the cellar was being made.

The area had apparently previously been used as catacombs. After Montresor walls Fortunato up, he piles the bones in front of the wall. No one will think to look behind them because it will look like it’s always been that way. 11. Describe the catacombs in “The Cask of Amontillado” by Edgar Allan Poe. The Catacombs- Monstresor had made careful preparations for the murder. The catacombs were the perfect place for a murder. All of the servants had been dismissed to go to the carnival, so there was no one at home. Catacombs were underground burial tunnels. The corpses would be laid in indentions in the walls of the catacombs.

As they begin their descent down into the catacombs, Montresor grabs two torches. Obviously, this is a dark and damp place. The use of the word descent would imply that the catacombs lie far beneath the base of the house. Along the walls of the cavern were frames that had been built to hold wine bottles. Everything is moist and moldy since it is so far beneath the ground. As the men travel through the vast cavern, they pass by many walls with bones and skeletons piled up and mixed in with large and small barrels of wine. 12. Sinister is a good word to describe the main character in Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Cask of Amontillado.

” Montresor has planned the perfect murder and carries it out. The reader knows this because the entire story is told fifty years later by the elderly Montresor who narrators the story. Monstresor decides to murder Fortunato because he has insulted him. Not a good reason, but apparently it is all that Montresor has. The time of the story is during the carnival season probably much like the Mardi Gras today. Apparently, it is a very rowdy time because Montresor uses the word “madness. ” There are two settings for the story: the carnival scene and then Montresor’s home and the catacombs beneath his palace 13.

In “The Cask of Amontillado”, why does Montresor make sure Fortunato has drunk a lot of wine? Montresor tells Fortunato, “a draught of this Medoc will defend us from the damps. ” Medoc is a red wine from the SW of France. The burial place of the Montresor family-the catacombs-is damp  and very cold and so Montresor offers Fortunato a bottle of wine to drink so that Fortunato will not feel the cold. The real reason Montresor gets Fortunato drunk, however, is to  create a false sense of bonhomie so that Fortunato  will not suspect his evil intentions of murdering him:both of them even exchange toasts.

Further, by getting him drunk Montresor slows down Fortunato’s reflexes so that he will not be able to escape. 14-15What is Luchresi’s role in the story? And also, what preparations had Montressor made for his revenge? Luchesi is the trump card, the ace up the sleeve that Montresor uses to dupe Fortunato into the catacombs beneath his home. Luchesi is a second rate rival of Fortunato’s in wine expertise. Montresor has bought a keg of Amontillado, a rare and pricey wine, which Luchesi assures him is the real thing. Appealing to Fortunato’s pride in wine connoisseurship, Montresor asks for a second opinion.

Fortunato’s pride is stung by Montresor asking Luchesi’s opinion first. The rocks and mortar were already in the cellar, as were the chains. Montresor carries a trowel hidden in his cloak. Getting Fortunato drunk, exposing him to the niter on the walls, which made him cough, renders his resistance weak. The surprise of the attack seals Fortunato’s fate. 16. Why does Montressor appear concerned about Fortunato’s health? Montressor needs to make sure that his plan goes off without a hitch. If Montressor were to act indifferent to Fortunato’s health, Fortunato may suspect that Montressor was up to no good.

Montressor is simply trying to put Fortunato at ease, and play the concerned friend who would never do anything to harm his “friend” Fortunato–see, Montressor is even concerned for Fortunato’s health. There’s no reason Fortunato shouldn’t follow this man deeper and deeper into the underground. It also serves as a delicious irony for Montressor. He can act concerned about Fortunato’s health, even though Montressor knows that Fortunato’s cough and general health are the least of his concerns right now and will not be the cause of Fortunato’s death. 17. Describe Fortunato’s character.

According to our unreliable narrator Montressor, Fortunato is a man who has inflicted, “a thousand injuries” upon him. Montressor never tells us exactly what he feel these injuries were, only that Montressor is trying to cope with it. Fortunato seems friendly because he believes that he and Montressor are friends. We also get the sense that he is comical and likes to party because he dresses up like a jester which is in stark contrast to Montressor who dresses like death to mark the occasion of his “perfect murder”. Fortunato is also, as Montressor admits to us, a real connoisseur of wine.

Fortunato is arrogant about his wine tasting abilities, which is what leads him into the snare that kills him (if Montressor is telling the truth about the incident). It seems that Fortunato truly has no idea what he has done because he is absolutely shocked when he realizes what is happening. 20. Why do you think Montresor succeeds in leading Fortunato to the niche without raising his suspicions? In “The Cask of Amontillado,” Poe’s narrator is a very clever and devious man who speaks eloquently with an acute understanding of men’s natures.

Montresor is patient, too. Like a cat who stalks his prey, Montesor searches for Fortunato’s vulnerability:  “He prided himself on his connoisseurship in wine” and in the matter of old wines, he “was sincere. ”  Knowing that Fortunato is always interested in tasting a superior wine, Montesor seeks out his victim, feigning joy at finding him as he has wanted to “consult” with him about his large cask of Amontillado. 22. Why did Montresor go to such lengths to get his revenge? After all, he could merely have run Fortunato through with his sword.

Perhaps the next-to-last sentence of Edgar Allan Poe’s short story, “The Cask of Amontillado,” answers this question best: For the half of a century no mortal has disturbed them (the body). Although running Fortunato through with a sword might have been a swifter solution, Montressor still had to get rid of the body. Rather than drag the bloody body into the catacombs, Montressor simply lured Fortunato to the exact spot that he wished him to finally rest. By chaining Fortunato to the wall, Montressor could work at his own pace without the worry of escape.

It may have been a bit complicated, but it turned out to be a perfect crime. 24. Do you think the degree of revenge described in the story is ever justified? What other actions could Montresor have taken? Since Montressor never tells the reader what wrong Fortunato committed against him in Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Cask of Amontillado,” we can never know if the punishment fit the crime. However, in a civilized society, murder is never a proper retaliation, so I would say it is not a justifiable act. It was a perfect crime, however, so Montressor’s continued freedom must have satisfied him immensely.

Punishing or ridiculing Fortunato without killing him would have left a living witness to contact authorities, so Montressor probably felt he had no choice but to eliminate this possibility. Fortunato’s insult or crime against Montressor may not have been an illegal one, so contacting the authorities may not have been an option. 26. To what extent can the narrator be relied upon to give an accurate portrayal of events? Although Montressor turns out to be a murderer in “The Cask of Amontillado,” he nevertheless turns out to be an excellent storyteller. The story is told

precisely and in a matter-of-fact way. Montressor makes no excuses, nor does he embellish the situation. He does not tell the reader what crime Fortunato has committed against him–perhaps Montressor’s only fault in the retelling of his murder. The events seem perfectly logical, and Montressor’s lack of remorse further magnifies his belief that he is committing a justifiable act. Of course, Montressor could be lying, and the whole story could be concocted. But if he tells the truth, and “for half of a century, no mortal has disturbed” the body, then the evidence still remains in place.

Critical Incident Analysis

A critical incident is a situation that occurs as a result of a person’s actions, causing an emotional reaction. Through reflection, it allows individuals to analyze the incident and make necessary changes both personally and professionally (Burns and Rosenburg 2001). The purpose of this essay is to examine an incident that occurred during my clinical placement. Using my chosen reflection model, I will reflect on the incident by analyzing its positive and negative aspects, evaluating my performance, and creating an action plan for future practice.

This essay will provide an opportunity for in-depth reflection and critical discussion of my actions and performance. I have chosen to follow the Gibbs model of reflection (Gibbs, 1988) as it allows for the expression of thoughts and feelings. This model is less structured than others, which enables me to offer a deeper explanation and critical analysis on a less structured level (Wilding, 2008). In accordance with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) code of conduct (2008), the location of the clinical placement and names of those involved will be omitted from this essay to maintain confidentiality.

To follow the Gibbs model of reflection, this section will focus on examining the incident description and the feelings of those involved. The incident I wish to discuss occurred during my first week of clinical placement in an older adult psychiatric ward. The individuals involved were myself, my mentor, and a female patient.

Upon quickly settling into the ward, my mentor pointed out that I had developed strong relationships with both staff and patients.

My mentor suggested that I conduct unsupervised 1:1 care plan reviews for a specific reason. This opportunity was significant to me because it was my first chance to engage with clients without supervision and take sole responsibility for a patient. Developing skills in this area is crucial since it is a common feature of nursing that helps with recovery. Situations like these have also been claimed to offer some sort of therapy in themselves (Priebe and McCabe 2008).

During my first care plan review, I had the opportunity to work with an elderly female patient who had been informally admitted to the ward due to low mood and anxiety. With her consent, I accompanied her to a quiet location where we could discuss her care plan without any interruptions and ensure confidentiality. The review lasted for 45 minutes, during which we worked together as partners to evaluate and revise the current care plan. I made sure to use this time as an opportunity to strengthen our therapeutic relationship while documenting all relevant details of our conversation.

At the beginning of the review, my initial confidence began to diminish. Although I remained warm and open, I felt that the conversation was stilted as I relied upon written questions. The patient appeared relaxed and was very forthcoming with her views and further information. As a result, I began to relax and trust my abilities. However, although my interpersonal skills improved, I found it difficult to record information while maintaining the conversation.

After completing the review, the patient stated that she found me very approachable and felt at ease knowing that there was someone she could approach with any issues. Although I was nervous at the beginning of the review, I relied on my interpersonal skills to make the patient feel relaxed. During the review, I felt pressured when recording information and had to complete some of the paperwork afterward to ensure accuracy and legibility. (Section 2)

Within this section, I wish to explore two key issues that I feel play an important role in this particular critical incident. This section incorporates the evaluation and analysis element of the Gibbs model of reflection (Gibbs, 1988). A therapeutic relationship has been described as an ongoing partnership between the practitioner and the patient involving appropriate communication that develops trust and a feeling of honesty (Krauss, 2000). Priebe and Gruythers (1993) stated that building a therapeutic relationship can improve the outcome of interventions and assist with patient recovery.

Building a therapeutic relationship is the main topic I wish to address in this essay. In past situations, I have always taken a partnership approach to nursing interventions. This may be due to my personality and training, as the importance of partnerships has been repeatedly highlighted in the Ten Essential Shared Capabilities (ESC) framework (Department of Health, 2004) and the Millan principles which are the foundation of the Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003.

Research conducted by Berg and Hallberg in 2000 found that there are two styles of mental health nursing: the collaborator,” who establishes a therapeutic relationship based on partnership, and the “expert,” who takes an authoritative approach and leads interventions. During this incident, it became evident to me that I wanted to establish a partnership with the client, which greatly influenced the progression and style of the care plan review.

Rodgers (1951) emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in developing a therapeutic relationship. During my review, I made sure to remain polite to maintain a friendly atmosphere and ensured the patients’ dignity at all times. This was achieved by obtaining consent before progressing, choosing a private location, and maintaining unconditional positive regard towards the patient. A study conducted by Dziopa and Ahern (2009) found that treating patients with dignity was one of the most crucial factors in developing a therapeutic relationship.

It is important for practitioners to regard patients unconditionally and avoid judging or evaluating them based on personal views. Adopting this attitude allows nurses to avoid imposing any restrictions on patients, allowing them to express themselves and accept their own decisions (Todd & Bohart 1994). During the review, I noticed that some of the reasons behind the patient’s low mood were similar to those faced by the average member of the public.

However, these were my personal feelings. I understood that patients with low mood tend to catastrophize events and situations (Armstrong, 1998), causing them real distress. In researching the factors that constitute a therapeutic relationship, Scanlon (2006) found that some participants believed that patients’ opinions can be formed immediately during the first meeting and it is impossible to completely remove oneself from these opinions.

However, I found that despite having personal feelings, I was able to detach from them and maintain a non-judgmental attitude. This has been highlighted as a key feature in building a therapeutic relationship (Safran and Muran 2003). Dziopa and Ahern (2009) discovered that nurses who adopt an equal partner approach believe that communication is an essential factor in developing a therapeutic relationship. In the early stages of the interview, my anxieties affected my questioning skills as I relied on a set of pre-written questions.

This incident impacted my professionalism, and I feel it allowed the atmosphere to develop into one focused on completing tasks rather than assisting with recovery. In the same study, nurses interviewed valued communication but saw little benefit in self-monitoring their performance (Dziopa and Ahern 2009). However, upon reflection of this incident, I disagree with that statement. Recognizing my faults helped me understand that I needed to change my questioning style or risk jeopardizing the relationship and care plan review.

After realizing that my questioning skills appeared rehearsed and unnatural, I quickly adopted a more relaxed approach. I used my interpersonal skills along with my knowledge of questioning to progress the interview on a more natural level. Realizing that there was a need for me to relax, I took a moment to pause and gather my thoughts. This allowed me to gain control of my breathing which had become quick and shallow.

After doing this, I remained conscious of my breathing pattern. Keeping my breaths long and deep, when possible breathing in through my nose and out through my mouth helped me remain relaxed (Wilkinson et al 2002).

Although I had improved my communication skills through my altered style, there were still times when I felt ill-equipped to respond to certain details disclosed. During the review, when a patient raised concerns and looked to me for answers, I sometimes felt unable to offer a reasonable response and sidestepped the question due to my current level of training. A study by Scanlon (2006) highlighted that providing information is a key element in building a therapeutic relationship.

According to the psychiatric nurses involved in this study, it is crucial to clearly explain your objectives and encourage clients to ask questions and seek clarification if they are uncertain about any issues. Additionally, nurses should always strive to provide accurate answers and not avoid any raised concerns. During the review, I noticed that I was not confident in responding to certain questions which I attribute to my lack of experience in these situations.

Priebe and McCabe (2008) stated that one reason for avoiding certain questions is a lack of specific training or experience in the area. Throughout the review, I maintained feelings of empathy and sympathy towards the patient. It’s crucial to have sympathy for the patient as it fosters a caring attitude. However, it’s also important that nurses don’t overlook the causes of these emotions, which is why empathy is essential. By using empathy, nurses can understand issues from patients’ points of view.

This allows the nurse to have a clearer plan of what needs to be addressed (Barker & Buchanan-Barker, 2005). By utilizing all these aspects, I was able to build upon the therapeutic relationship and develop a sense of trust between the patient and myself. The use of empathetic understanding helped encourage a sense of safety, allowing the patient to feel secure (Scanlon, 2006) and confident that they could come to me in the future with other issues or just as someone to talk with. Building a therapeutic relationship was important in fostering feelings of safety and openness so that patients felt at ease discussing their issues.

However, I feel that there is a need to discuss the importance of documenting the information and details disclosed. This is why I have chosen record-keeping as the second key topic to discuss as part of the critical incident. I will follow Gibbs’ model of reflection (Gibbs 1988) by evaluating and analyzing this key topic. Accurate and up-to-date record-keeping forms the basis of good nursing care, and maintaining these records is highly encouraged (Moores 1996). The care provided to patients relies heavily on the quality and relevance of information available to practitioners.

As nurses are at the forefront of care, they are regarded as key instruments for obtaining and recording patient information. This information is then used by other practitioners to plan, assess, and evaluate care given (Moloney 1999). When entering into this situation, I understood the importance of documentation as this information would inform other practitioners about what has occurred (Taylor 2003). As a nurse is accountable for their actions, it is essential that the documentation is accurate and relevant. It should state the reasons why an intervention was carried out and its outcome (NMC 2008).

A nurse is accountable to the patient, the profession, the employer, and themselves. Therefore, it is vitally important to be able to justify any decisions made (NMC 2008). These decisions should be evidence-based and promote safe nursing care. In some legal cases, it has been argued that if a procedure or intervention has not been recorded, then it is considered not to have taken place (NMC 1998). This highlights the need for accurate records. Although I had an understanding of the theory and reasoning behind accurate record-keeping, I lacked experience in doing so which affected my performance in a number of ways.

During the review, I attempted to document the nursing process as accurately as possible. However, I felt that the formality of record-keeping detracted from describing how patients’ issues were addressed. This view was also expressed by some nurses involved in research by Martin et al (1999). These nurses stated that nursing records sometimes do not accurately describe the quality of care provided. When writing the evaluation for the review, I realized that I got too involved with documenting specific details and omitted potentially useful information about how patients responded.

Taylor (2003) stated that areas commonly omitted from records are those surrounding the maintenance of dignity, meeting emotional, spiritual, and cultural needs. While I agree with this statement to some extent as I did omit some of this information, I also understand the importance of keeping records specific, factual, accurate and consistent (NMC 2004), which is how my evaluation and care plan review was presented. As the care plan review was completed in partnership, it was important that updates to the care plan were made as we progressed.

This approach had its advantages as it allowed for updates and reviews to be completed based on the patient’s own views, making them feel involved in their care (Department of Health, 2004). Providing care in this manner aligns with ethical principles such as autonomy, choice, equity, and fairness (Beauchamp & Childress, 2001). However, a disadvantage was that I felt pressured to complete the records accurately while conducting the review. This pressure affected both the information I documented and its presentation.

During the interview process, I made a mental note of the issues that were being expressed. At the end of each section, we completed paperwork documenting the outcome. However, upon reviewing the information after the interview, I realized that I had omitted some of the disclosed information. This may have been due to time constraints. Taylor (2003) stated that omissions can occur when there is a lack of time and nurses may make a mental note of information that they later deem to be unimportant.

Upon reflection, if I had incorporated every detail that was disclosed, the care plan review would have become very lengthy. Additionally, some of the material may have been irrelevant and outside of the NMC (2004) guidelines. Completing the care plan records in this way also affected the presentation of the document. My handwriting was rushed at times and my spelling questionable. However, in this situation, any spelling errors made would not have had a detrimental effect on the patient’s care.

In some cases, spelling errors and illegible handwriting can have a serious impact on actions undertaken by other practitioners. For example, incorrect spelling of a patient’s name may result in the inability to obtain test results or errors in the spelling of medications may result in medications not being administered or the wrong medication being offered (Diamond 2005). Although the errors made during this review were few and of little importance, I felt that the document looked unprofessional and clearly displayed my inexperience. This disheartened me a little.

In keeping with the basis of the Ten ESC’s and the Recovery Approach, it was necessary for me to include the patient in documenting the review. This ensured that the review details expressed the true feelings and views of the patient in question, promoting ethical value of autonomy. Working as partners ensured that we agreed on a care plan with achievable aims, ensuring I was doing what was best for my patient while promoting their wishes and choices (Beauchamp & Childress 2001).

This approach assists in the recovery of patients as it gives them some control over their care and allows them to develop feelings of confidence and optimism (Department of Health, 2004). Although I saw the benefits of conducting the review in this way, I felt that sometimes my attention was drawn to writing notes and paperwork. Dziopa and Ahern (2009) found that nurses considered giving full attention to the patient a high priority when building a therapeutic relationship.

Although the lack of attention was minimal, I felt that it detracted from the relationship and flow of the review. At times, I would lose eye contact which affected my interaction with the patient (Section 3).

Having evaluated and analyzed the main key issues, I now wish to examine what else could have been done to improve patient interaction. This section aligns with the conclusion section of Gibbs’ (1988) model of reflection. Overall, I feel that there is room for improvement in future reviews.

Although the process was satisfactory and I was able to start building upon the therapeutic relationship, there were still many areas that could have been improved. In the evaluation section, I highlighted that my personal feelings were apparent to me. Initially, I had issues with my confidence which heightened my anxieties. Ecroth-Bucher (2001) stated that self-awareness is an important part of mental health nursing, which I feel was an element missing from my interaction. Although I was very aware of how I should be treating the patient, I neglected to examine my own vulnerabilities before entering into the situation.

Before inviting the patient to the review, it would have been beneficial for me to examine my feelings and abilities. This would have allowed me to think about my accountability and address any anxieties I may have had. Additionally, it would have given me the opportunity to organize my paperwork and arrangement of the interview.

If I had conducted myself this way, I could have explored my own motivations for the interview, examined my beliefs, and reflected on previous experiences (Dziopa and Ahern 2009).

This would have allowed me to address any personal issues or views that may have become apparent during the review. Doing so would have assisted me in detaching from my personal views and thoughts. Additionally, I highlighted issues related to my communication skills, specifically regarding my questioning abilities and answering some patient questions. In retrospect, I feel that if I had examined myself a little further, I would have realized that although I may have been anxious, I possessed the necessary interpersonal skills to conduct the review in a pleasant and dignified manner.

Communication is a skill that develops over time. However, it is important to remember that a nurse’s personality can greatly improve a situation even if there are deficiencies in communication (Priebe & McCabe, 2008). Therefore, when I was struggling with my confidence and questioning myself, it would have been helpful to use my personality and interpersonal skills earlier. As for my record-keeping abilities, I believe there was little else that could have been done differently at the time.

I would still conduct the review in this way, as it respects working as a partnership. However, it may have been more appropriate to not take short notes and rely on my listening skills to pick up and remember information. This would have allowed me to maintain eye contact and give my full attention to the patient (Dziopa and Ahern 2009), then summarize and complete paperwork together. Certainly, my handwriting could have been improved, and I could have put more concentration into presenting information accurately.

However, the presentation of records can vary greatly depending on factors such as the importance of the task and the time constraints that the nurse is under at that time (Diamond, 2005). After highlighting my perceived deficiencies during this critical incident, it is important to develop an action plan to assist me when a similar situation arises again (Gibbs, 1988). My initial action after this incident was to include this experience in my reflection diary which I kept while on placement.

This experience greatly assisted me in reflecting back on the incident and evaluating my performance. It has also allowed me to maintain my personal and professional portfolio, which is a requirement of the NMC Code of Conduct (2008).

Furthermore, this incident highlighted the importance of clinical supervision. As a student nurse, I work in a continually changing environment and face new challenges regularly. Clinical supervision provided me with an opportunity to explore my issues and performance, encouraging an environment of self-awareness (Rice et al., 2007).

For this reason, I will always seek support in potentially stressful situations and to assist with my professional development. As a result of this experience, it became apparent that I must spend more time getting to know myself better and become self-aware. This will allow me to evaluate my own skills and views on an ongoing basis, which will improve my abilities and confidence when conducting future interviews. Adopting this approach will enhance my reflection skills and, in the future, allow me to act on a more natural and instinctive level rather than something that has been learned and deeply thought about (Scanlon 2006).

In the future, I will ensure that I address any personal views and issues before conducting any kind of interaction. This will ensure that I separate my personal problems and issues from those of the patient (Dziopa and Ahern, 2009). This once again highlights the importance of reflecting on our professional practice and personal life since we continually experience different situations and make decisions that influence our learning (Hannigan, 2001).

Through practice, I will continue to improve my record-keeping skills. It is only in this way that I will be able to develop my professional style and become confident when assessing what information is important. In the future, I will ensure that I give patients my full attention by utilizing my listening skills and leaving documentation until the appropriate time. Conducting myself in this way may also give me more time to concentrate on writing and spelling to make the document legible and professional in appearance. In conclusion, I feel that this incident has contributed greatly to my personal and professional development.

It is clear to me that not all patients will react and present in the same way. Therefore, I will have to continually develop my skills to effectively communicate with them. This will require ongoing training, supervision, reflection, and evaluation. It is not only important that I am aware of the patient’s needs and issues but also vitally important that I am self-aware and examine the ethical issues surrounding care.

Practicing in this way has improved my professional performance but has also helped me develop on a personal level. Now, I truly understand the importance of reflection.

Compraring Daisy And Myrtle

Comparing and Contrasting Daisy and Myrtle in the Great Gatsby

Daisy and Myrtle are similar, however; in many ways they are opposites. Firstly, Daisy’s reaction towards Myrtle— “She looked at Myrtle and laughed pointlessly,” Daisy’s laugh is absurd. This shows what Daisy’s bad impression of Myrtle. The major difference between the two is their status. Daisy is richer and lives in a better part of town than Myrtle. Daisy lives in East Egg, the richest town. Myrtle lives in the Valley of Ashes, a place where things go to die, the opposite of East Egg.

They have these statuses mostly because of their husbands. Daisy is married to Tom Buchanan, a rich aggressive man that doesn’t work because he has a lot of old money. In contrast, Myrtle is married to George Wilson, the lifeless, exhausted owner of a rundown auto shop at the edge of the Valley of Ashes. However, later on in the story Tom and Myrtle became lovers. This is mostly because with Myrtle Tom feels more powerful and superior. But with Daisy Tom didn’t feel this. Overall, this shows that Myrtle is powerless and has lower status than Daisy.

For example, one of Tom’s gift for Daisy was a string of pearls valued at three hundred and fifty thousand dollars. However, Tom gives Myrtle a puppy for $10. A quote that shows that Daisy has a high status is, “Daisy’s murmur was only to make people lean towards her, an irrelevant criticism that made it no less charming. ” This shows that people care about what she says and that she is important to people. “The answer… came from Myrtle.. and it was violent and obscene” Daisy is innocent and pure, Myrtle is obscene and insensitive. The next aspect is that Daisy is civilized and classy.

Daisy always wears white and she doesn’t drink. For example, when Nick finally met her at Tom’s mansion she is wearing a white dress with white heels, like Fitzgerald said “She dressed in white, and had a little white roadster”. In contrast, Myrtle is just trying to imitate that. She pretends to have a higher class. Additionally, she has a lot of gossip magazines and thinks wealth is the most important thing to look for in a man. Myrtle is a girl who shows she wants to have fun. However, to a party Myrtle wore a “Dress of cream” Daisy always wears white, the cream dress

Myrtle wears shows she is trying to impersonate her. This shows Daisy tries hard to fit in with the rich. Towards the end of Chapter two Myrtle shouts “Daisy! Daisy! Daisy! I’ll say it whenever I want to… ” Here, Myrtle tries to show Tom that Myrtle is better than Daisy. This resulted in Tom punches Myrtle because Tom doesn’t want her to be like Daisy; Tom wants to feel the superiority. Throughout the book, Myrtle does this, she tries to be like Daisy and acts spurious just to be part of the rich crew. Some similarities are that both have an affinity toward other men other than their husbands.

Daisy has an affair with Gatsby that developed from the past feeling they had for each other. Myrtle has an affair with Tom that developed after meeting in a train car. Additionally, both women want a man that will make them happy and a man that will keep/make them wealthy. Other than this, Daisy and Myrtle are very different people. To conclude, both Daisy and Myrtle have an affair with other men besides their husbands. Both come from complete opposite families and statuses. While Myrtle tries hard to get to the top, Daisy is already there looking down upon Myrtle.

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