The Christological Interpretation Of The Psalms Writing Sample

Psalms is a sacred book of the Old Testament. The book of Psalms consists of 150 psalms devoted to different religious values and norms. Each psalm is a song consisted of chants. Critics suppose that the Book of Psalms was composed by the Babylonians, from about 586 to 538 B.C. The authorship in the Book of Psalms is not agreed upon yet, but critics state that David is one of the possible authors of this book. The religion of the psalms is a communion, a sharing between the human and the divine. And the thing that lifts this communion, great as it is in itself, to something yet nobler and more potent is that it is communion with God in fellowship with other men. For always behind the experience of the psalmist, buoying it up, is the social fellowship of the congregation (Bouhoeffer, 1974). What the author of the “spiritual song” derived from the public congregation is inestimably great. The fellowship of public worship is the spiritual mother of individual religious utterance. Moreover, Sigmund Mowinckel’s brilliant and extraordinarily suggestive studies in the psalms have made it appear most likely that practically every psalm in the Psalter was intended for rendition in the regular and officially constituted worship of the Temple and is right.

Understanding of the psalms is the recognition that their origin is to be found in the organized public worship, the cult. We move imperceptibly in Israel from the life situation which created secular songs to the cultic or worship situation which created Temple psalms. To ask the question as to its life or worship setting is to answer it (Bouhoeffer, 1974). In many a psalm, this is not so plain because it is not all of one type. Different literary types and worship settings are combined in it to form a richer but more complex whole. When this is the case, the psalm dates from a period when the different literary types had begun to meet, mingle, and influence each other. This period set in at approximately 500 B.C. When that life setting in worship that gives the psalm its most distinctive character has been discovered for every psalm of the Psalter, we can readily arrange the psalms in major groups. We have then learned where to take hold of a psalm because we know its most distinctive mark. The result of interpreting the psalms in accordance with their setting in Hebrew worship is threefold. In the first place, one is surprised by the rich diversity in the Psalter. The prayer of dedication to the work of God in its worldwide extent closes this varied worship ritual (Bouhoeffer, 1974).

A hymn that inspires in the congregation the mood of quiet receptivity is followed by that climactic moment when the minister, now as a prophet, brings the living word of “thus saith the Lord” to his people. This corresponds to the prophetic oracle in the psalms. The final hymn with its note of spiritual commitment follows, and toward its close comes the recessional of choir and ministers–how greatly beloved were such ceremonies in Israel-bringing the ministers to the rear of the sanctuary. a psalm first as the soul utterance of the unknown psalmist who created it, and then as a vehicle of the soul utterance, whether congregational or individual, of others. There was a time when that which a particular psalm tells us was an unwritten, unreported, living experience. In early Israel when the psalms were in the making, many a gifted individual sang forth in the Temple what God had done for his soul. The experience itself preceded its telling. The telling often preceded its literary formulation. The written psalm followed the living Temple witness. There must have been many instances in Israel when a religious-minded priest encouraged a gifted worshiper to put his own vital experience in literary form. Thus his blessing at God’s hands might be used to encourage other worshipers yet to come. And it is reasonable to believe, with Mowinckel, that many a psalm owes its origin to the Temple singers who knew music, who knew the needs of worshipers, and who knew God (Lewis, 2000).

Psalm 149 is a “new song,” and it belongs in the circle of ideas and rites associated with the enthronement of the Lord. A central idea in the psalm is God’s judgment upon the enemy powers. That judgment has already been decreed. But now with the enthronement of God as King consummated anew, the Israelites are inspired to the faith that this decreed sentence may through them be carried into effect. The occasion is significant and unites the spiritual and the military aspects of the congregation of the Lord in a unique synthesis. This summons to praise is based on the experience of Israel that God accepts His people and is Himself the source of the victory that comes to their arms (Longman, 1988). For instance, Psalm 150 is a general congregational hymn. It is a veritable paean of praise, most appropriate for the closing psalm of the Psalter, and no doubt created or chosen with that in mind by the final editor of the Psalms. Such a hymn was sung on many occasions but was particularly appropriate for great hours of the festal year when the Temple courts would be thronged with worshipers and the worship would be the richest and most inspiring (Longman, 1988).

Psalm 1 is described as a wisdom psalm that combines the two characteristic interests of postexilic Judaism, the trend toward legalism and the teaching concerning retribution. This latter problem, as Paulsen has said, is “the first great fundamental truth to which reflection on moral things has led all nations.”The psalm has a strong pedagogical interest that comes to focus in the congregation of the Lord. And the trend in the psalm toward the law and its study points to a time of origin after around 397 B.C. when the priestly law was introduced to the restored community in Jerusalem and Judah (Longman, 1988). Such a psalm would be appropriate in the congregation whenever the pedagogical interest which centered in the law was being stressed, and this, at least in later Judaism, would be at the Festival of Weeks (Harvest or Pentecost), which celebrated the giving of the law at Sinai (Longman, 1988). Psalm 2 is a king’s psalm, spoken in part by a Judean monarch himself at the moment when he is anointed, king. We are to think of some scenes such as is given in the report of the anointing of the young prince Jehoash. The king appears before his people in the inner court of the Temple and stands beside one of the two great pillars of the Temple porch at the entrance to the Temple, “as was the custom” (Psalms n.d.). Psalm 16 is a song of trust from a devout and deeply spiritual soul. The psalmist is in danger of death, a situation which causes him great concern, and he seeks earnestly and indeed trustfully the protection of God (. It would seem that he is among Arabs who are putting pressure upon him to participate in their pagan rites, to call upon their gods by name, and to pour out to them libations of blood. Psalm 23, is a psalm of individual thanksgiving rendered in connection with the presentation at the Temple of a thank-offering In verses 4-5 are mentioned the concrete experiences which gave rise to the psalm (Longman, 1988).

In sum, the Book of Psalms reflects universal values and moral principles of religion, attitude towards life, and other people. God is a Being, not of whom, but unto whom the psalmist speaks. The words of the Psalter are alive with the awareness of an Other. The life setting of such a psalm is the part of the ceremony of his enthronement in which the king is anointed and clothed with the insignia of his office.


Book of Psalms. N.d. Web.

Bouhoeffer, D. 1974, Psalms: The Prayer Book of the Bible. Augsburg Fortress Publishers.

Lewis, C.S. 2000, Reflections on the Psalms. Harvest Books.

Longman, T. 1988, How to Read the Psalms (How to Read Series). nterVarsity Press.

Apple Computer, Inc.: Strategic Management


Strategic management aims at identifying best growth opportunities and creates defenses against threats to its competitive position and future performance. An analysis of the internal and external environment of an organization is very important for strategic management. The internal environment factors of the firm include its Strength(S) and Weakness (W) and the external factors include the Threat (T) and Opportunities (O). The analysis of both the internal and the external factors of the firm are called SWOT analysis. It provides all the required information that is useful to the firm to so that the firm could match up its resources according to the competitive environment in which it acts. SWOT analysis is very important to formulate strategy and its selection.

The SWOT analysis framework is given below to get an idea of how the SWOT analysis fits into an environment scan.

 SWOT Matrix.

Apple Computer, an US based company dealing with the design, development and marketing of personal computers (PC) and related software, peripherals, network solutions, portable digital music players, and related accessories. The company also offers other services like iPods, iPhones, and servers. It is head quartered in Cupertino, California and employs 21,600 employees. The company recorded revenues of $24,006 million during the fiscal year ended September 2007, an increase of 24.3% over 2006. The company’s revenue grew on account of increased sale of Mac systems and downloads of digital content.

The operating profit of the company was $4,409 million during fiscal year 2007, an increase of 79.7% over 2006. The net profit was $3,496 million in fiscal year 2007, an increase of 75.8% over 2006. (Apple computer, inc. – SWOT analysis, 2008).

A SWOT analysis of Apple computers shows that the main strength of Apple is its innovative market research, which has resulted in the introduction of ipod and iphones. The strength of the firm can be used as a basis for its further development and also for developing a competitive advantage over the other firms. Its patents, its strong brand name, good reputation among its customers, good access to high grade natural resources and also favorable atmosphere to the entire distribution network can be considered as the strengths. (Robert, Peter, & Brian, 2007).

Apple is also having a powerful brand loyalty which has retained and attracted customers. If the firm is lacking certain strengths, it can be considered as its weakness. Identifying the weakness will help the firm to over come it and make it strength in the future. lack of adequate patent protection, a weak brand name, poor reputation among its existing customers, high costs, inefficient access to good resources and key distribution channels The main weakness of the Apple was that it produced one batch iphones with faulty screen and batteries, but the company made efforts to replace it immediately.

Many of the Apples competitors make itunes, which are easily downloadable music files because of that Apple is under a pressure to increase the price of its music download file, from the music industry itself. This may be viewed as a commercial weakness then there was a swap from IBM to Intel, which has brought confusion among its customers. Apple has the opportunity to build up its own iTunes and podcastes. It can also enter into the software market and sell its hardware to them. The opportunities identified will help the firm in improving its profit and growth. The opportunities of a firm may be its unfulfilled needs of its customer, new technologies available, opening up of the economy by removal of international trade barriers. By identifying the threats, the firm can be alert before taking any further improvements to the firm’s policy.

The threats mainly include the pressure from its competitors, emergence of new and substitute products, new regulations and the trade barriers existing in the present economy. The biggest threat to Apple is high competition in the technology markets. The demand of the iphones and ipods will be affected if the market research becomes faulty. High product substitution effect is another threat to the fast moving IT consumables market. Apple is vulnerable to leaks that could cost them profits.

SWOT analysis apple, 2008


Company ‘X’, which is also dealing with the design, development and marketing of personal computers digital portable music players, and related accessories is a competitor of Apple. We are about to introduce new services like iphones and ipods. The Biggest threat to our company is very high level of competition in the technology market. The important point that can be gained from the SWOT analysis of Apple computers is that by conducting effective market survey we can successfully innovate new ideas which help in the introduction and development of innovative products.

So our firm should heavily work on the research and development and also marketing in order to gain a competitive position in the market. Experts should be appointed to conduct the market research and find out the potential market. Use of low costs and advanced technology will bring growth in the market. The products should be expanded to all customer segments; and in all product categories across the world so that it becomes a popular brand world wide. Tomorrow’s technology might be completely different so we should find the opportunity beforehand and act so that out market could be widened.


SWOT analysis will help a firm in designing a better strategy. Each firm should identify its own core competencies. Core competency will help the company to build a competitive advantage over the other companies in the market. The competitive strength will inurn improve a company’s long term market position. (Hwin, 1995).


Robert W, B., Peter J, D., & Brian, T. SWOT Analysis: Strategic management. Quick MBA. 2007. Web.

Apple computer, inc. – SWOT analysis. Market Research. 2008. Web.

SWOT analysis apple. 2008. Web.

Hwin, R.D. What is strategic cost analysis? 1995. Web.

“Illegal Immigrants: They’re Money” By Rodrigez

The focal point of the paper is to present a critical evaluation of Gregory Rodrigez’s article Illegal Immigrants: They’re Money. This article was published in the book Good Reasons with Contemporary Arguments. The main article was published in the Los Angeles Times in 2007. The author is an Irvine fellow of the New American Foundation. He is known for his numerous articles on racism, immigration, politics, and social causes. This article deals with the aspects of illegal immigration and the double standard of the US authorities. The author mentions the banking system is cashing on the needs of the illegal immigrants by issuing them credit cards and on the other hand, they are denied access into the country. The author mentions the Mexican border in the denials for migrants that are entering this country from all over the world as the numbers increase exponentially. The US has gone so far as to create the Homeland Security office to ensure that human trafficking is policed, and has created new laws to create fencing between the US and Mexican border to prevent more immigrants from entering the country illegally. An attempt at appeasement for Mexico concerning what was known as the bill to create a guest-worker program failed in gaining the necessary acceptance. The author places these arguments in a logical and systematic manner and it is obvious to mention that he is extremely successful as a persuasive writer.

The writer presents his persuasive essay in an effective manner as his appeal is based on clear logic and data. He makes us understand the truth that migration or immigration is a subject that is studied on all levels when dealing with humanity and its idiosyncrasies. In order to understand migration, we must understand the various components involved in migration, including internal migration, external migration, immigration, and both refugees and Internally Displaced Persons. The author attempts to understand the reasons to migrate and how laws affect the various forms of migration and if there would be solutions to this practice of migration. The objective is to study the problems, the solutions, and the reasoning behind migration as a whole.

In order to understand the reasons behind the migration of people, we must first define the various components of migration. Migration refers to the movement of an individual from his or her home country, also known as the source country to another country as his or her destination. The two main movements are involved include immigration and emigration. Immigration would be the movement of individuals into a country. Emigration is the movement of individuals from their home country. The balance between emigration and immigration would be known as net migration and this can be either positive or negative. Positive would be when immigration exceeds emigration and negative would be the reverse of that process.

There are many different influences and consequences relative to migration for anyone that moves from where they originated. Factors that would have to do with migration include the economic growth and development of the country that people are leaving, specifically GDP, the level of domestic development, and finally income and quality of life within the countries. Another two factors include the context urbanized area would be and variations in that consideration along with levels of education that would, in fact, be available for children across the country of origin in place of isolated areas. Occasionally, the amount of US influence on a country can either adversely or conversely affect the amount of migration. We see this today as we build walls along the US and Mexican border. The author is perfectly spot on to indicate the manner that the US allowed foreigners to enter the country in accordance with the economic need of the country.

In general, it can be stated that there was only one weak point about the article. It is a lack of any emotion. The entire approach of the article was pain narration without any emotion that could be identified as the weakest part. The strongest point of the essay is not one but an amalgamation of three vital reasons. The major reason behind the success of the article is the direct analytical nature of the author with logical reasoning backed by an essential amount of relevant information. Another important factor that was instrumental in the whole approach was the narrative that provided a constant flow of information that was used with the perfect terminology and word usage. Thirdly, the position of the author in social and administrative levels made him extremely credible and trustworthy. This, backed by thorough knowledge of the issue made the entire article extremely persuasive. These elements put together made it possible to convince the viewpoint of the author.

Works Cited

Rodrigez, Gregory; Illegal Immigrants – They’re Money; Good Reasons with Contemporary Arguments; Fourth Edition; Los Angeles Times; 2007; pp: 202-204.