The Concept Of God In Christian, Islamic And Hindu Religions Sample Assignment

Muslim concept of God

Muslims are monotheistic, they believe in one God whom they refer to as Allah. Allah is an Arabic name for God; he is One and unique in everything he had created. Allah has no gender. He is self-sufficient as His existence is not determined by anything. Muslims adore using the name of Allah is referring to God because it portrays the unique qualities of God.

Everything on earth was created and is sustained by God. He created everything with some purpose. God has also the power to destroy what He had created. In other words, God is responsible for everything that occurs on the surface of the earth. He wanted man to adore Him (11:16). To achieve this, God sent messengers to enlighten people. Among the messengers sent by God were Adam, Moses, and Mohammed. Noah, Abraham, and Jesus were also sent as messengers by God to fulfill the purpose for His creation of man. All the messengers preached the same message, they all affirmed that God was the creator and urged people to worship only Him. In chapter 112 of the Quran, Muhammad describes God as One God and the only God that is revealed to him directly by God. The Muslims believe that Muhammad’s prophesy cleansed all the wrong relations that existed between God and people. According to Muslims, Muhammad is responsible for the practice of monotheism religion.

Muslims believe that God is loving and merciful, which is clearly portrayed in chapter 114 of the Quran. In this chapter, the Muslims do not compare the love of God with anything; they believe that the love of God is more than the love a mother can give to her own child.

The Muslims believe that God is just. According to them, sinners must face the wrath of God, they have to be punished. The element of God as merciful affirms His quality of justice. The Muslims believe that the righteous people get different treatment from those involved in wrongs from God. They believe that those involved in the hardening of lives on the earth are entitled to punishment from God. According to the Muslims, a six-day creation is irreverent.

Muslims also believe that God is an absolute creature; they know and regard Him as an everlasting God. This is evident from chapter 23 of the Quran. This chapter explains that God exists by Himself only, He has no associate. The oneness of God is evidenced in chapter 13 of the Quran. According to this chapter, the false gods have no power of unveiling good or harm of any kind. This chapter also criticizes the worship of heavenly creatures.

For one to become a Muslim, he or she is supposed to believe in the existence of only one God that is the creator and sustainer of the whole universe. In addition, one should agree with the fact that it is only God who is supposed to be worshipped and refrain from worshipping all other types of gods. A true Muslim should not allow his or her belief to be altered by anything, one is supposed to constantly have faith in God.

Hindu’s concept of God

Hindus are polytheistic, they worship many gods. Some Hindus believe in the existence of three gods whereas others believe in the existence of more than a thousand gods. Surprisingly, some Hindus believe in 300 million gods. Conversely, well-versed Hindus believe in the existence of only one God. Such Hindus consider God as a Supreme Being that should be worshipped.

Hindus and Muslims possess one great difference in terms of the way they perceive God. Unlike the Muslims, the Hindus observe the philosophy of Pantheism which advocates for the worship of both the living and the non-living. Thus, the Hindus regard everything they see as God. On the other hand, Muslims believe in the existence of only one God. According to the Muslims, the worshipping of many Gods is ungodly.

Hindu scriptures provide diverse types of gods, for instance, chapter 7 of Bhagavad Gita expounds on the materialistic practices of people who worship demigods. Some Hindus refer to God as nirguNa Brahman. Such Hindus believe that God has no specific physical appearance; this is evident from Upanishads scriptures. Upanishads scriptures explain how it is impossible for a common human being to visualize the appearance of God. They also believe that God has no specific name to be referred to. However, some Hindus also believe that God can take a variety of shapes, depending on the perception of the human beings, which is considered as saguNa brahman. The forms in which God exists arrays from cool to vicious and yogic. Each form of God has got its importance.

The Hindus believe that human society is split into classes. Each class represents the people who came into being from Brahman. According to Hindus, Brahman came into being from the head of the Almighty, whereas Sudra had its origin from the Almighty’s feet.

Hindus also believe that people are reincarnated after death. According to them, the soul of the deceased (Atman) is reborn again and again. They argue that the rebirth of good people takes place among higher-class people whereas those of evil take place among lower-class people.

According to the beliefs of Hindus, reincarnation and rebirths lead to new souls reuniting with Brahman in a process, which is called Moksha. The reuniting of Atman with Brahman leads to a man changing into God.

In regards to Hindu beliefs, there is a god responsible for creation (Brahma), a god responsible for preservation (Vishnu), and a god responsible for destruction (Siva). Of the three gods, Vishnu is the most common one. Vishnu is associated with human beings at some time in the human life span in a process known as Sanskrit avatar.

Hindus have also a belief that twenty percent of human beings are part of God. They believe that the difference between God and human beings is only at the surface appearance.

Christian concept of God

The Christian concept of God is described in the Bible. Their concept is known as classical theism. Christians consider God as Supreme Being. The study of theism originated from the Western World. According to Christians, God has no physical parts that can be touched and felt. Christians also believe that God is the creator and sustainer of everything that dwells on earth. They believe that He is the one who created both the living and the non-living things that exist on earth. He has got power over everything. No creature can compete with Him in terms of it.

Christians also term God as omniscient; God has the knowledge of everything that coexists on earth. God exists everywhere on earth and beyond earth. He is above the earth and at the same time, He is with us. According to Christians, God does not undergo any change, He is immutable. He has maintained his appearance; He will remain to be the same now and forever. Christians also believe that God is the only God to be worshipped. They believe that He is the one who listens to and answers human prayers and supports in difficult life situations.

According to theists, God is an individual being who has all the qualities of a perfect person. For instance, in the book of Genesis chapter 17 verse 11, God is described as a self-conscious God. He is a God of love and He created the best things for His creatures. God also communicates directly with his creatures; He unites with human beings via prayers. God knows everything, Christians seek knowledge from God. God is also spiritual in nature. God is not like human beings who have one body. He has diverse appearances. In the book of John chapter 4 verse 24, God is described as a Spirit.

God is the creator and protector of all living and non-living things. According to theists, all living things coexist because of the power of God. He is the one who decides on the life span of organisms. All living things continue to exist because of God’s command. God cannot be compared with the ancient gods. He created the earth and everything on it from nothing. On the other hand, according to ancient beliefs, the gods created the universe from the preexisting elements. In addition, all living things on earth depend on the mercies of God. This is evidenced in the book of Acts chapter 17 verse 25 and Hebrews chapter 11 verse 3.

God is omnipotent. He has the power of controlling everything on earth. He has the power of controlling all living things that coexist on the earth. In the book of Isaiah chapter 46, verse 10, God is portrayed as a God of keeping promises. In addition, Jesus Christ who is portrayed as a son of God and who is also powerful, says that everything is possible if we seek His support. Although God has the power of doing everything, He cannot lie or lead His creatures into problems.

God is omnipresent, He is everywhere at any time. There is no place an individual can hide because God resides everywhere. God coexists as a spirit hence enhancing His presence everywhere. In the Bible, He provided support to the prophets in terms of spirit. God also appeared to Moses in form of light on their way to Canaan, hence He is everywhere.

God is omniscient, He knows everything. He is the creator of the universe and He is aware of all that happens. There is nothing that can be hidden from Him because He already has insight into all that exists. He knows about everyone on earth even before they are born. He has plans for everything and designed everything in His own way. This means He has a count of all because all belongs to Him and that nothing can be hidden from Him. This is evident in the book of Genesis. He confirmed to Jeremiah during his call that He was aware of his existence even before his conception.

Works cited

Koslowski, Paul. The concept of God, the origin of the world, and the image of the human in the world religions. New York: Springer, 2001. Print.

Piamenta, Moshe. The Muslim Conception of God and Human Welfare: A Reflected in Every Day Speech. New York: Brill Archive, 1983. Print.

Raven, Charles. Evolution and the Christian Concept of God: Delivered Before the University of Durham at Armstong College. New Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, November 1935. New York: Oxford University Press, 1936. Print.

Chinese Stock Market: Analysis Of Performance

This report looks at the general performance of the Shanghai Stock Exchange to try and come up with the reasons behind the successes of this Stock market in the past three to four years. Founded on Nov. 26th, 1990, and starting operation on Dec.19th the same year the Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) has been in operation till today with a membership of the China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC). In order to make the SSE a transparent, open, safe, and efficient marketplace it relies on legislation, supervision, self-regulation, and standardization as its basic principles of operation (Chow, 2007).

The Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index or is the more common indicator in use that reveals the SSE’s market performance. The SSE Composite Index of all listed stocks is in two categories, which are the shares and B which are the shares traded at the Chinese Stock Exchange in Shanghai. Nineteenth December the year nineteen ninety is the day which is a base day for the composite index of SSE; this base had a value of a hundred. This index was initiated on the fifteenth July, the year nineteen ninety-one and by the end of the year two thousand and six it had clocked the value of 2,675.47. Among the other important indexes applicable in the Shanghai Stock Exchanges include the SSE 50 Index and SSE 180 Index (The shanghai Stock Exchange).

The listed securities at the SSE are in three categories which include the bonds, the stocks, and the funds. The kinds of bonds, which are transacted at the SSE usually include corporate bonds, treasury bonds, and corporate bonds which are convertible. SSE Treasury bond market report is one of the most active activities in the Chinese market. In the Share market, a share is given a price from the determinations made at the local Renminbi exchange for A-shares, on the other side B-shares are traded in U.S. dollars. After the implementation of the reforms of the month of December the year two thousand and two, investors from other countries were allowed to do their trade in the A-shares scheme by the guidance of the investor system known as Foreign qualification Institutionalization which was also governed by some restrictions (Chow, 2007).

With current experience in the market being in operation, the SSE has grown into one of the most top stock markets in Mainland China as a result of an increase in the listed number of organizations or shares, companies, the value of the market, market value which is tradable, turn over of value of securities and the turn over of the treasury bonds. In December of the year, two thousand and seven the trading at the stocks ended with an amount which was over seventy-one point three million investors and eight sixty companies which were listed. The summation of capitalization of the SSE gained a record of RMB 26.98 trillion. In 2007, Capital raised from the SSE market surpassed RMB 661.6 billion. Many companies large and medium from major infrastructure, higher technology sectors, and industries have increased the capital and also made an impact in improvements to the mechanism of their operation by just listing on the Shanghai stock market.

Some of the big companies listed in the SSE include; Petro China worth 3,656.20 billion shares, China Commercial and Industrial Bank worth 1,417.93 billion shares, Sinopec 961.42 billion shares, Bank of China with 894.42 billion shares, and China Shenhua Energy Company with 824.22 billion shares. After a 4-year slump use of between 2001 and 2004 of the SSE, it resumed full operations in 2006 with the world’s largest-ever IPO by ICBC (Industrial & Commercial Bank of China) worth US$ 21.9 billion. This was followed by a speculative rush into the market which made the stocks become temporarily number two in terms of output in the year two thousand and seven (Kissan and William, 1993).

This growth has inspired developing the United States of American firms to invest in China and obtain such things as the exact feasibility of such a plan. Investors in the world have become aware of the Chinese stocks and are thriving to do business in them. Therefore this might be the reason for the steady incline in the number of investors on the SSE hence the success of this market (Chow, 2007).

References

Chow, G.C. (2007). China: economic transformation. Macmillan Publishers.

Kissan, D. E. & Williams, L. D. (1993).Shares and Stocks investments: Stock Exchange investment methods. Pitman & sons.

The shanghai Stock Exchange”. From The Shanghai Stock Exchange; Web.

Movie Analysis: “Hacksaw Ridge”

Introduction

Hacksaw Ridge is the story of a Seventh Day Adventist infantryman, Desmond Doss, who refuses to carry any weapon as he serves in the United States Army. He enlists as a combat medic after the Pearl Harbor attack. His infantry is supposed to ascend the Maeda Escarpment which the soldiers called Hacksaw Ridge. The enemy launches an attack the next day and forces the American soldiers off the escarpment. Doss hears the cries of the injured soldiers and returns to the battlefield to aid them. He carries the soldiers to the edge of the cliff and lowers them down one at a time. He is awarded the Medal of Honor for the rescue of the 75 soldiers (“Hacksaw Ridge”). The movie is a perfect example of the external and internal conflicts that everyone faces. It demonstrates the importance of faith in human life and how it influences the actions of humans. The movie also incorporates allusion to the biblical tales, as its theme bears a heavy semblance to them.

Main text

Life is a complex process consisting of numerous ups and downs. The unpredictable nature of life means that a significant number of events are unplanned and can never be mitigated by the person affected. Encountering these new events each day probes the person affected to respond to the problem. The response depends on the circumstances surrounding the person at that particular point in time. Conflict occurs when there is a failure of resolution of the problem (Tiffany). The individual fails to decide on which course of action to take. This results in internal feelings of distress, anxiety, depression, or even aggression. Depression and aggression mainly develop when the task seems insurmountable. These are the wrong ways of handling any conflict. In the movie, Desmond responds to every conflict in a coolly, assured manner. When Pearl Harbor is attacked, he does not join the Army to seek revenge. He instead enlists to provide medical support for his fellow countrymen. It is his belief in ensuring the preservation of life that drives him to the battlefield. Internal conflicts eventually manifest externally. Doss is a prime case of how a consistent set of beliefs can provide comfort when faced with challenges and the need for consistency. These beliefs can be used regularly for solving any issues. You do not need to change your winning formula even when faced with greater odds. If all these are observed, conflict/ war can be easily avoided/ won. Through the resolution of his internal conflicts, he inspires the soldiers to have the strength to face the current external conflict.

Faith is almost quintessential in every human’s life. The mystery of the origin of life is almost always attributed to a supernatural power in the different societies present in the world. Religion has been the human response to creating an explanation for their existence. The top hierarchy of humans compared to the other species as always led to the questioning of their purpose. Purpose cannot be random hence it is assigned by a powerful being. As people are raised right from childhood and told these beliefs, they usually become a dominant feature of their adulthood. The lessons learned become their guiding principles throughout their lives. Few people might change their beliefs during their lives, emphasizing the firm foundations of religious beliefs. The beliefs are usually unshakable even with limited physical evidence. Doss’ family is Adventist. Adventists by the nature of their denomination are very observant of their faith. When his brother almost dies from playfighting, the commandment ‘Thou shall not kill’ becomes a mantra to him. This is a sacred oath which he vows not to break as it designates all human life as sacred, enemy, or friend. His religious upbringing and his close shaves with violence solidify this decision. When he was young, he once held a gun to his drunken father who was threatening his mother. This belief is further reinforced when he almost shoots his drunken father who was threatening his mother. His aversion to weapons implies he believes that the handling of weapons holds an almost seductive power that prompts the holder to use them. To avoid falling into temptation, he vows never to hold a weapon. His belief against firearms bears a similarity to the passages in the Bible that tell sinners to cut out whatever parts that makes them sin. This further stresses his faith and belief in the Bible, the Word of God.

The movie bears an allusion to the Biblical tales especially those of Jesus Christ in the New Testament. Doss sends himself to war without any regard for himself to ensure that his countrymen are safe and receive medical treatment in the combat zones. This is similar to Jesus’ coming to save the world. He held little regard for His life knowing he would be killed by the same people that he was trying to save. During His life, Jesus is mocked and castigated by the community. However, he sticks to his path, even with the full knowledge of His impending crucifixion. These stories both bear selfless protagonist who has already defined their roles in life. Desmond’s persistence of his beliefs can be correlated with various stories in the Bible. For instance, in the tale of Job, he is subjected to a lot of trials but fails to buckle under the pressure (“Job Is Faithful to God”). Doss is beaten by his fellow soldiers, he is almost jailed, and he runs to the frontline and still refuses to carry a weapon. The stories are similar in the strength of their main characters and their will even in the greatest of challenges. Furthermore, in the movies, when Desmond is injured after saving his captain, he is seen clutching his Bible as he is taken to for treatment. The Word of God is a source of strength for him and helps him through his recovery. In all biblical tales, the main characters sought their strength by invoking the power/ name of God.

Conclusion

The film is successful in delivering its message even though it is based on a true story. It employs various literary tools to enhance the power of the message. The Christian background of the character and the close symbolism between his troubles and Biblical tales serve as an inspirational tool to believers worldwide. The message of pacifism present in the film resonates with an increased number of people who might not be necessarily Christian. It is a classic example of how people can determine their fate based on their terms. The pure, open nature of Doss highlights the ideal demeanor expected for peace in the world to thrive. The film is a story about the strong will of man and his ability to do the impossible.

Works Cited

“Hacksaw Ridge.” IMDb, 2016.

Job Is Faithful to God.” Jehovah’s Witnesses, 2019.

Tiffany, Derville (2013). “Internal Conflict Management and Decision Making: A Qualitative Study of a Multitiered Grassroots Advocacy Organization.” Journal of Public Relations Research, vol. 25, no. 4, 2013.

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