The Concept Of Personalized Medicine Homework Essay Sample

Personalized Medicine

Personalized medicine is a health care field, which dwells on the uniqueness of an individual’s clinical, genetic, genomic and environmental information (Ginsburg & Willard, 2010). Since two thousand years ago, personalization has been a major aim of medicine. Now, the composition of the genome and blood proteins is making it possible to predict an individual’s likelihood of getting a disease. As discussed below, modern genetic technology brings us closer to disease diagnosis and treatment on a personal level (Personalized Medicine Coalition, 2011).

Modern Genetic Technology

Various factors determine the quality human health. Genetics is one of them and it is an individual attribute. Additionally, environmental attributes of a population also affect the genetics of an individual. The obvious principles of public health, which include proper hygiene already control common infections and nutritional disorders. However, the practice of medicine still has to deal with disabilities that mainly have a genetic origin.

Genetic technology is influencing personalized medicine in many ways. The pharmaceutical industry produces various drugs, which have chemical components. These drugs have varied effects on an individual’s recovery as they depend on his or her genetic background. Researchers and practitioners use several gene-based analyses to deal with such cases. Out of this practice, several diseases are now curable. Hematopoietic stem cell transportation is an example of this analysis. Here, molecular biological techniques allow practitioners to match unrelated organ donors who are available in public and private gene registries (Gosh & Gorakshakar, 2010).

As genetic technology advances, more applications arise on how to prevent diseases and promote health. Already, gene technology allows for the stratification of susceptible subgroups to control their exposure to certain diseases. Today, oncologists are using genetic testing opportunities to test syndromes of breast cancer. Other applications include the testing and repair of gene mutations to offer fast recovery to cancer patients. In this case, practitioners match the physiognomies of a patient’s tumor with a precise diagnosis and appropriate therapy (Ginsburg & Willard, 2010).

Using modern genetic technology makes it possible to treat genetic diseases and diversity the counseling options that were available (Gosh & Gorakshakar, 2010). Nowadays, there are intelligent therapies like enzyme replacement and substrate reduction used to treat Gaucher’s disease. Researchers are now able to silence or activate certain genes selectively. The Hydroxyurea therapy uses the same principle to treating sickle cell anemia (Gosh & Gorakshakar, 2010).

Research by Poland, Kennedy and Ovsyannikova (2011), shows that it is now possible to conduct personalized vaccinology. Modern genetic technology makes it possible to profile vaccine-induced immune responses. In future, such responses would be predictable. Thus, naturally processed and presented immunogenic peptides offer the possibility of identification and sequencing. As the researchers put it, this implies the likelihood of arriving at a new method of finding candidates for a vaccine (Poland, Kennedy, & Ovsyannikova, 2011). There is a high chance of developing breast cancer for women with BRCA1 gene variation. For this group of women, a BRCA1 gene test guides preventive measures, which include prophylactic surgery or chemoprevention (Personalized Medicine Coalition, 2011). This is only one application of genetic tests. There are more than 1600 such tests, which signal the susceptibility to numerous health conditions for persons.


In personalized medicine, practitioners are now able to use genetic markers in a person as signs of a disease risk or its actual presence. With modern gene technology, this can happen even before clinical symptoms appear. Therefore, the technology offers us the ability to prevent or treat diseases early in their development.


Ginsburg, G. S., & Willard, H. F. (2010). Essentials of genomics and personalized medicine. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Gosh, K., & Gorakshakar, A. (2010). Integration of modern genetic knowledge and technology into public health in India. Indian Journal of Human Genetics, 16(2), 45-46.

Personalized Medicine Coalition. (2011). The case for personalized medicine. Web.

Poland, G. A., Kennedy, R. B., & Ovsyannikova, I. G. (2011). Vaccinomics and personalized vaccinology: Is science leading us toward a new path of directed vaccine development and discovery? PLoS Pathogens, 7(12), 1-6.

“The Frontier” Chapter Of “The Oregon Trail” By Parkman

Many detailed and carefully developed historical travel accounts can provide interesting insights and give a comprehensive picture of life in the described regions. Francis Parkman’s book, titled The Oregon Trail: Sketches of Prairie and Rocky-Mountain Life, initially published in 1849, depicts his tour, conducted in 1946, to the states of the American West, such as Nebraska, Colorado, and Kansas. The depictions include both nature and people the author saw during his travel.

From the first chapter, titled “The Frontier”, the book invites the reader to witness the wild beauty and the dangers of the region. One of the first impactful descriptions is the boat travel on the Missouri River, which creates the impression of powerful, uncontrollable nature by depicting how the boat struggled with “the rapid current” of the river, which was constantly changing its course (Parkman, 1912, p. 4-5).

The dangers encountered by Parkman and some of his companions also included “a tremendous thunderstorm” (Parkman, 1912, p. 10). The author claims that he had never seen such “a stunning” thunder indicating not only fear but also adoration (Parkman, 1912, p. 11). He emphasizes his appreciation of the wild nature of the region also earlier in the chapter describing “rich and luxuriant woods” “lighted by the bright sunshine and enlivened by a multitude of birds” (Parkman, 1912, p. 6). Parker’s carefully-worded descriptions make these pictures clearly appear in front of the reader’s eyes.

However, it is not only nature that catches the author’s attention. He also dedicates some of his writing to local people, travelers, and emigrants, depicting their manners, clothes, and attitudes leaving interesting sociological and even psychological accounts. Parkman multiple times describes emigrants from different parts of the country who traveled to Oregon and California. He discusses their reasons for moving and notes that there were different people among them, from “sober-looking countrymen” to “the vilest outcasts in the country” (Parkman, 1912, p. 9). He also draws portraits of his fellow travelers, including Captain C. of the British Army and his brother.

While the first chapter of The Oregon Trail only briefly introduces to the reader the wild, untamed, yet beautiful and mesmerizing nature of the American West, it is enough to make them interested in reading more about it. However, Parkman’s psychological and sociological accounts are not less vivid and interesting. His book can both provide some valuable information to historians and entertain a regular reader.


Parkman, F. (1912). The Oregon Trail: Sketches of prairie and rocky-mountain life. Macmillan.

Review Of Kate Chopin’s “The Story Of An Hour”

The short story written by Kate Chopin in 1894 raises essential feminist issues. Despite the short form of the literary work, it successfully and powerfully conveys the deprivations American women of the end of the nineteenth century experienced due to the dominantly patriarchal society in which they lived. Meticulously using literary means, Chopin creates an ambiguous, complex main character that embodies women’s search of identity under the oppression of men. The theme that the author develops behind the story is a woman’s identification of self under the oppression of patriarchal society. The plot, characters, symbols, and setting work in unity to deliver this theme to the reader.

The plot of the short story is linear and allows the author to provide a context to the story. The exposition introduces a young woman with a severe heart disease named Mrs. Mallard, who is being told that her husband died in an accident. As the wife first cries in grief, she starts to experience an epiphany, which is the climax of the plot. Locked in her room, Mrs. Mallard starts to realize that although she feels sorry for her husband’s untimely death, she is happy because she is finally free. Her sister confuses Mrs. Millard’s excitement about her free life with the hysterical reaction to the bad news. However, when the main character leaves the room, she sees her husband, whose death was false news. She understands that her freshly obtained freedom is gone and dies of a heart attack. Thus, the plot defines the main points in the story that contribute to the development of the theme.

The third-person narration of an omniscient author provides clarity and definition in the emotions and thoughts Mrs. Mallard experiences. Indeed, Chopin writes the following: “She was young, with a fair, calm face, whose lines bespoke repression and even a certain strength” (Chopin par. 8), which demonstrates the author’s superior knowledge about the character. Such a point of view of the narrator leads the readers through the story and helps emphasize essential elements in Mrs. Mallard’s experience and allows for building the character.

The main character of the story has a complex personality of a strong, intelligent, independent woman who, at the same time, is oppressed by her husband and is unhappy in her marriage. Not only her youthful appearance reflected “certain strength” but her willingness to experience the new independent life that would follow after her husband’s death (Chopin par. 8). When the author describes Mrs. Millard’s thoughts about her life without her husband, she states that “there would be no powerful will bending hers.” (Chopin par. 12). This line demonstrates that the authority of a man in the family oppressed the freedom of the young woman who would feel much happier alone.

Most importantly, the understanding of her final freedom and independent unburdened with marriage life that was in front of Mrs. Millard is the essential part of the story that represents the core of the theme. Indeed, as the main character begins to comprehend her epiphany, she repeatedly says “free,” the word that means the most valuable asset in her life. Conveying this “monstrous joy,” Chopin vividly describes the main character’s physical experience (Chopin par.11). Indeed, “the look of terror” was in her eyes, “her pulses beat fast, and the coursing blood warmed and relaxed every inch of her body” as she realized the ambiguous feeling of happiness (Chopin par. 10). Strong words like monstrous and terror amplify the power of emotions the heroine experienced and demonstrate how unbearable her life must have been in the marriage. Now, “she breathed a quick prayer that life might be long,” although only recently, the long life in front of her made her miserable (Chopin par. 17). The depth of Mrs. Mallard’s soul, her ability to cope with the seemingly unreasonable and inappropriate emotions of happiness characterize her as a strong and independent woman.

The setting and symbols also contribute to the development of the theme and the character. Chopin masterfully uses the means of symbolism to enhance the feeling of freedom Mrs. Mallard experiences as the aftermath of her husband’s death. One of the key symbolic elements that relate to the setting is the open window in her locked room. When the main character locks herself in the room, she “sinks” into a comfortable armchair in front of an opened window, through which she sees “the tops of trees that were all aquiver with the new spring life” (Chopin par. 5). This square of the window represents the new opportunity, where patches of blue sky between the clouds represent the happiness of freedom she is about to experience. The setting plays an important and symbolic role in the ending of the story. When she went out of the room, she was a different person who “carried herself unwittingly like a goddess of Victory” because of the obtained independence she so much valued (Chopin par. 18). Her husband standing in the living room meant losing freedom, which she could not survive.

In conclusion, the short story by Kate Chopin conveys a theme of a woman’s search for self-identity under the oppression of patriarchal marriage. The burden of Mrs. Mallard’s husband’s authority makes her miserable and unhappy, willing her life to be shorter. It is only on the background of his death that she realizes the misery and anticipates happy and free life only for herself. The reason for Mrs. Millard’s death was the loss of the joy of freedom when she realized her husband was not dead.

Work Cited

Chopin, K. “The Story of an Hour.” VCU, 2020. Web.

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