The Crucifixion Of Jesus In Old And New Testament Free Sample

The Old Testament includes a range of themes and concepts later referenced and reinterpreted in the New Testament. For example, Luke’s descriptions of Jesus’ death are thoroughly connected to Zechariah’s prophecy presented in the Old Testament. Chapter 23 of the Gospel of Luke highlights the fulfillment of predictions about the Messiah’s Crucifixion and Resurrection. This paper will analyze the theme of the Crucifixion of Jesus in Old and New Testaments.

Crucifixion in the Old Testament

The Old Testament contains many examples of prophecies about Jesus’ life and death. One of these prophecies is Crucifixion: “And I will pour out a spirit of compassion and supplication on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so that, when they look on the one whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for an only child, and weep bitterly over him, as one weeps over a firstborn” (New Revised Standard Version, Zechariah 12:10). As can be seen, the given passage is focused on future actions. Zechariah’s message is a prediction of upcoming events.

Crucifixion in the New Testament

The New Testament includes a passage that is tightly connected to the topic of the previously mentioned quote from the Old Testament: “When they came to the place that is called The Skull, they crucified Jesus there with the criminals, one on his right and one on his left. Then Jesus said, “Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing.” And they cast lots to divide his clothing. And the people stood by, watching; but the leaders scoffed at him, saying, “He saved others; let him save himself if he is the Messiah of God, his chosen one!” The soldiers also mocked him, coming up and offering him sour wine, and saying, “If you are the King of the Jews, save yourself!” There was also an inscription over him, “This is the King of the Jews.” (New Revised Standard Version, Luke 23:33–38). It can be noted that this passage is written in the past tense and accentuates that the events predicted earlier took place.

Reinterpretation of the Old Testament

The theme of Luke 23:33–38 relates to the Crucifixion of Jesus. The New Testament passage presents the feeling of bitterness found in the Old Testament. Zechariah states that people would not recognize God’s Spirit within Jesus and then be sorry for that: “they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for an only child, and weep bitterly over him, as one weeps over a firstborn” (New Revised Standard Version, Zechariah 12:10). Zechariah does not give exact details but mentions that the People of Israel would mourn after having pierced God and His spirit presented in Jesus. As can be seen, the fundamental assumption here is that the people of Israel would not recognize the real nature of the one they were going to pierce.

On the other hand, the New Testament provides the readers with details regarding the events that happened. Luke confirms prophecy by stating that the Messiah was among the criminals during the execution: “they crucified Jesus there with the criminals, one on his right and one on his left” (New Revised Standard Version, Luke 23:33–38). At the same time, the passage includes Jesus’ attitude of what was happening: “Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing.” (New Revised Standard Version, Luke 23:33–38). It can be concluded that Luke gives evidence and confirms the prophecy mentioned in Zechariah’s passage.

The paper analyzed the theme of Crucifixion in the Old and New Testaments. The New Testament repeats the message given in the Old Testament. It mentions bitterness, grief, and mourning that people experienced due to the realization that the pierced person was the Son of God. At the same time, Luke’s passage provides the readers with many details about the Crucifixion of Jesus, while the Old Testament gives only general predictions about the Messiah’s death.

Work Cited

The New Oxford Annotated Bible: With the Apocryphal, New Revised Standard Version. Bible Gateway, 2020, Web.

Disease And Circulatory System Correlation Analysis

Circulation system involves the main human organ, the heart. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still regarded as the major problem in Australia in terms of prevalence, death rates, the rate of incidence, burden of disease, and costs. The most widely spread form of CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), continues to be the major single cause of death and the most common cause of sudden death. However, over the past years, there has been considerable progress in dealing with CVD in Australia. Improvements in the prevention, detection, and clinical management of patients suffering from CVD in combination with laboratory research brought about the decline in CVD (Esselstyn, 2007).

The circulation system is influenced by many negative factors including smoking and alcohol consumption. Stress can be implicated throughout the natural history of coronary heart disease (CHD), in its formation, progression, and in triggering a cardiac event. Risk factors affect CHD mainly through its influences on behavioral factors and activation of the autonomic nervous system. In particular, stress activates the SNS resulting in increases in epinephrine and norepinephrine that lead to increased beta and alpha receptor activity. Briefly, beta activation increases heart rate and heart contractility, therefore increasing cardiac output and blood pressure.

Alpha activation causes vasoconstriction of the arteries and veins and causes increases in total peripheral resistance and venous return, both of which increase blood pressure. All of these physiological events may contribute to CHD. For example, with an increase in blood flow, shear stress on the arteries is increased causing cells in the blood to be damaged and plaque to form and/or rupture. This, along with sharp increases in epinephrine, stimulates platelet activation and the sequelae that follow (Klabunde 2004).

Platelet aggregation, along with coronary vasoconstriction and plaque rupture, can lead to other priming processes such as thrombosis, ischemia, and acute myocardial infarction. As discussed earlier, stress and its related emotional indices (e.g., hostility) increase platelet aggregation through induction of the ANS. Dysfunctions of the circulation system may reduce oxygen delivery to the heart and thereby lower the threshold for myocardial ischemia or may trigger acute arrhythmic events through activation of the ANS, making myocardial infarction more likely. Recent evidence has also suggested that mental stress-induced ischemic episodes are good indicators of 5-year rates of cardiac events. Additionally, silent ischemia occurs much more frequently than is detectable by some clinical measures (Lilly, 2006).

To improve blood circulation, researchers suggest increasing psychical activity and changing the lifestyle. Physical activity could reduce CHD mortality without affecting morbidity by favorably altering the “triggering event” for acute myocardial infarction or cardiac arrest. Recent data indicate that the primary triggering event for many myocardial infarctions is the acute rupture of atherosclerotic lesions and the rapid closure of the artery lumen due to platelet aggregation and cell proliferation.

It could be that physical activity reduces either the risk of lesion rupture, platelet aggregation, or cell proliferation, thus reducing CHD mortality but not the development of atherosclerosis, which may be more related to the development of nonfatal clinical manifestations of myocardial ischemia (Lilly, 2006). Although the epidemiological evidence just reviewed is supportive of the importance of physical activity on CHD, the independent role of physical activity as a cardiovascular disease risk factor currently remains understudied in comparison to other CHD risk factors, such as hypertension or smoking.


Esselstyn, C. B. (2007). Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease. Avery.

Lilly, L. S. (2006). Pathophysiology of Heart Disease: A Collaborative Project of Medical Students and Faculty. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 4th edition.

Klabunde, R. E. (2004). Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; Pap/Cdr edition.

Social Support In The Community


The adult population is comprised of people aged above 30 years. The adult population is susceptible to obesity, colon cancer, diabetes, coronary heart diseases, and high blood pressure (Pan, Sherry, Njai & Blanck, 2012). In addition, this population is vulnerable to the mentioned diseases due to lack of physical activity and socioeconomic factors (Powell, Slater, Chaloupka & Harper, 2006).

Social support

Peer support is a social-based initiative that provides the adult population with experiential knowledge. Peers are instrumental in helping adults change their behaviors, especially those related to sedentary life. In this context, adults become self-determined in improving physical exercises. Peers are perceived to be credible role models who share their experiences and techniques with an ailing adult. Increased longevity and reduced mortality among the adult population are achieved through social engagement.

In addition, social networks are credited with improved self-rated health which is critical in helping adults improve on their diet and lifestyle (Pan, Sherry, Njai & Blanck, 2012). Establishing walk groups and gym clubs in the neighborhood can be integral in encouraging the adult population to indulge in physical exercise (Powell, Slater, Chaloupka & Harper, 2006). Walk groups involve members from a community-based organization like schools and churches.

Social exclusion

Social exclusion involves individuals alienating themselves from community circles. In this context, the adult population is vulnerable to cognitive decline and increased mortality. In addition, the adult population is exposed to poor self-rated health when subjected to social exclusion. Social exclusion through racial, ethnic, sex, and age discrimination is hazardous to the adult population as it hinders equity in terms of access to healthcare services.

Social exclusion from an economic perspective creates poverty among the adult population, making it difficult to access basic amenities such as education and housing. From this perspective, the adult population is exposed to depression and lifestyle diseases such as diabetes and obesity (Pan, Sherry, Njai & Blanck, 2012).

Alternative social support systems

Alternative social support systems are critical in identifying healthy social characteristics that benefit the adult population. In this regard, the social support system identifies the adult population’s need for instrumental, informational, and emotional resources that address related health inadequacies. In addition, alternative social support systems are critical in determining how social environments improve adult health.

For example, the inclusion of a stress-buffering mechanism has been instrumental in helping the adult population cope with stress by providing psychological material resources. Social support systems are critical in influencing normative health behaviors through social controls and peer pressure.

Nonetheless, this is achieved through the establishment of a main-effect model that promotes the social integration of the population affected by health disparities. Moreover, social support systems are influential when determining the environment and personality, as well as, related changes required in improving the population’s health.

Social capital

Bonds can be integral in improving health outcomes in individual, community, and societal levels of a socio-ecological model (Kawachi, Subramanian & Kim, 2008). Bonds are instrumental in influencing individuals and peers through experiences and improved healthcare practices. Bridges can be used to influence people at the relationship, community, and societal levels of a socio-ecological model. However, this is made possible through health promotion programs, mentorship, and the creation of regulations, laws, and policies (Kawachi, Subramanian & Kim, 2008).

Linkages are effective when used at community and societal levels of a socio-ecological model. In this context, institutions and authority are used to influence individuals and the entire society on matters related to health (Kawachi, Subramanian & Kim, 2008). For example, established health, economic, education, and social policies are used as guidelines in improving the populations’ welfare. Nonetheless, education of the masses through public awareness initiatives takes precedence through life skills training and health promotion programs.


Kawachi, I., Subramanian, S. V. & Kim, D. (2008). Social capital and health. New York, NY: Springer New York.

Pan, L., Sherry, B., Njai, R. & Blanck, H. M. (2012). Food insecurity is associated with obesity among US adults in 12 states. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 112(9), 1403–1409.

Powell, L. M., Slater, S., Chaloupka, F. J. & Harper, D. (2006). Availability of physical activity-related facilities and neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic characteristics: A national study. American Journal of Public Health, 96(9), 1676–1680.

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