The Death Of Ahmaud Arbery Sample Essay

Introduction

Background

Mr. Arbery, 25, was a former high school soccer player who resided with his mother in the outskirts of little town of Brunswick Georgia. He had attended university for a short period but appeared to be drifting in his twenties, trying out several occupations, honing his rap skills, and residing with his parents. He also suffered from auditory hallucinations as a result of a mental disorder. Police reports revealed that Ahmaud Arbery was jogging on 23rd February 2020 when a white man saw him run by. The man identified as Gregory McMichael alleged that Mr. Arbery seemed like a burglary suspect who had terrorized the area for some time. McMichael immediately signaled his Travis Michael and the two, males grabbed a short gun and .357 Magnum handgun, got into their track, and chased Mr. Arbery, repeatedly attempting to cut him off. The reports also revealed that there was a third man involved in the incidence.

The three males were found guilty of misdemeanors. The entire scenario was captured on video tape and the state case has been one of the most widely monitored court cases by human rights activities in the U.S since the murder conviction of Derek Chauvin, a former Minneapolis officer who was found guilty of the murder of George Floyd, an unarmed Black man in 2020. The footage of the incident sparked outrage throughout the world and prompted major concerns about police treatment of minorities.

Statement of the problem

The assassination of Arbery brought to light the risks that Black Americans can face when they perform seemingly innocuous acts that white folks view as a threat. The three claimed they only acted out in self-defense, citing a civil war-era statute that pressed into service residents to monitor the activities of Black bodies and conduct out persons arrests of criminal suspects – a policy the United States has since repealed. They said they were lawfully justified in going for Arbery since he fitted the description of a robbery suspect. (Yang, 2021). Therefore, in this research I will be analyze the murder of Ahmaud Arbery and what motivates white folks to perceive unarmed black men as threats.

Research Questions

This research paper will be guided by the following research questions:

  • Why were Gregory and Travis McMichael’s charged with considered a hate crime in the killing of Ahmaud Arbery?
  • What motivated Mr. Arbery’s killers to murder and innocent and unarmed man?
  • Why was the law enforcement in Brunswick Georgia reluctant to prosecute the offenders and what role did law enforcement play in the case’s misconduct and the outcome of the accused persons?
  • How did the Georgian law fail Ahmaud Arbery?
  • Why would white folks automatically see defenseless Black persons as dangerous people, like in the case of Ahmed Arbery?
  • What was the racial mix of the neighborhood where Arbery was murdered?

Methodology

This research takes a qualitative perspective where I will conduct a content analysis utilizing the results of searching numerous online articles that have conducted research on the murder of Ahmed Arbery and the conviction of the offenders.

Hate Crimes charges in the Murder of Arbery

Hate crimes are a frequently used in the criminal justice system. usually, a person who commits a ‘hate crime’ is more accurately described as an individual who exhibits bigotry or prejudice towards the victim’s (presumed) group membership rather than being driven by hate for his or her victim (Hall, 2013). The murder of Ahmaud Arbery was therefore treated as a hate crime owing to the fact that the perpetrators were had a history of racial profiling against black folks.

On February, an FBI analyst testified before a court in Georgia bringing forward a number of racists posts and messages from the offenders as the prosecutors attempted to unearth a racial animus in the killing of Arbery. The texts and posts produced by the analyst expressed obvious disrespect for people of color, and the use of racial insults and threats of violence. Media reporters in the court reported that while reacting to a video showing a Black man pouring barbeque sauce onto the head of a white man as joke, Travis McMichael exclaimed, “I’ would murder that f****** N****.” (Raymond, 2022)

In a different response to Facebook video showing young Black teens, McMichael allegedly responded: “My Taurus 38 (handgun) says five of them would be taking a dirt nap. I say shoot all of them f*** those g****** monkeys.” (Raymond, 2020). According to the analyst, McMichael frequently mentioned utilizing weapons on people of color and that he was the origin of some of the worst virulently racist messages. It was also reported that he referred to people of color as “animals,” “monkeys,” and “subhuman savages,” (Raymond, 2022).

It was also reported that he repeatedly used the N-word in a number of messages, including a text sent to an ally at a pub moaning about the presence of people of color: “They sabotage everything. That is why I am passionate about what I do. There wasn’t a single (N-word) to be foundAt least I’m not a N****,” said a different text, under a photo of a mentally disabled man. In another post, Travis McMichael said that “it’d be cooler if he blew his f****** head off” while responding to a video of a Black man wearing fireworks in his nostrils (Raymond, 2022). These series of texts and racial insults proved that indeed, the offenders were acting out as a result of some deep sited hatred that had for the black community.

Law Enforcements’ Reluctance to prosecute the offenders

It was alleged that Glynn County law enforcement officers allegedly overlooked or failed to adequately probe Arbery’s death in the weeks and months following his death. In one scenario, a district attorney declined to authorize police officers to arrest the three offenders. It was reported that Glynn County District Attorney Jackie Johnson barred cops responding to the shooting from charging the McMichael’s, stating Greg McMichael’s twenty-year term as an investigator in her office prior retirement in 2019. A commissioner from Glynn Counter told Atlanta Journal, “When the police arrived on the scene and informed her that they were preparing to apprehend both of them, she immediately shut them down in order to protect her companion McMichael.” (Boone, 2020). However, Jackie precluded herself from the investigation a few days after the murder of Arbery.

A few days later, the district attorney of Waycross, George Barnhill, took over. Barnhill opted not to prosecute the McMichael’s less than a day after watching the footage and evidence gathered by the authorities, citing inadequate proof, according to Peter Murphy from Glynn County. Barnhill sent an email to the law enforcement officials on April 2nd, saying: “McMichael’s mental health records and prior convictions shed light on his abrasive demeanor and possible motive to attack an armed man.” (Boone, 2020). Barnhill precluded himself less than a week later since his son had worked on an Arbery case while working in Johnson’s office. The relationship was uncovered after Lee Merritt, an attorney who represents Arbery’s mother, noticed the connection between Barnhill’s son and her son on a social media platform brought it to his office’s attention.

The case was then taken over by Tom Durden, the district attorney from Hinesville, who made very minimal headway for nearly a month until the horrific video of Ahmaud Shooting was released on May 5. The footage sparked widespread outrage, prompting Durden to contact the Bureau of Investigation from Georgia. The McMichael’s were apprehended two days later, only after the case was taken over by Joyette M Holmes, the District Attorney from Cobb County as the cases’ fourth prosecutor, on May 11. Mr. Joyette was one of just seven black district attorneys in Georgia. Mrs. Jackie Johnson was later charged with misconduct in September for allegedly abusing her position to protect the McMichael’s. In the Pre-trail hearings, it was reported that Greg McMichael contacted Johnson shortly after the incident and left her a voice message saying: “Jackie, this is Greg. My son and I were involved in a shooting, and I’m in desperate need of advice right now.” (The Guardian, 2020)

Results

Racial Makeup of Brunswick Georgia

The aftermath of Ahmaud Arbery’s shooting killing shook the generally calm community of Brunswick, Georgia. Brunswick is a town located in the South Eastern Georgia.

Statistics from the American Community Survey, the racial composition of Georgia is (census.gov):

  • White; 50.1%
  • African American; 32.6%
  • Asians: 4.4%
  • Native American; 0.3%
  • Native Hawaiian; 0.1%

Georgia Racial Composition

In the town of Brunswick however, racial composition is (census.gov):

  • 55.07% Black or African American
  • 40.03% White
  • 2.16% Asians
  • 1.66% Two or more races:
  • 0.63% Other races
  • 0.25% Native Americans
  • 0.20% Native Hawaiian

BRUNSWICK Racial Makeup

The diagrammatic representation shows Brunswick is a mixed-race neighborhood. The largest ethnic group in Brunswick is Black comprising of 55% followed by the white community that make up 40% of the population. However, even with the large percentage of people of color in the community, racial profiling by the white folks seems to be very prevalent.

Even after the judgments are in, there are still unsolved mysteries that have hung over Glynn County, Ga., since Arbery’s death: What does it mean that something happened in this location? What are the true consequences of the freedom and equality that this region country—claims to value? Many people will find what happened in Glynn County hauntingly familiar; so many smaller crises have flared up in other areas and either faded or burst. (Ross, 2021).

Hostility of White folks towards Unarmed Black Men in Brunswick Georgia

Although the seaside city has typically avoided major racial protests or riots, fury over Arbery’s killing has brought discussions about criminal justice system corruption and racism into the open in an unprecedented degree. The events following the murder of Ahmaud Arbery reaffirm what locals describe as a long-standing sense of being attacked rather than guarded. Watched, rather than being watched out for, is a perspective colored by innumerable stories like West’s, in which Black citizens are pulled over or interrogated by law police for the color of their skin, rather than for any genuine offense (Suggs and Coker, 2020).

During the sentencing of the Ahmaud Arbery’s killers, his tearful mother told the court, “This wasn’t a case of mistaken identity, they chose my kid as a target because they didn’t want him in their society… and when they couldn’t terrify or intimidate him enough, they killed him.” (Sharp, 2020). Franklin Hogue on the other hand, McMichael’s lawyer, argued that as more information became available, it would be evident that his client had not committed murder. “We will show the fact that this is not just another incident of violent racism,” he stated. However, there are a few things that are crystal clear from the incident. (Fausset and Rojas, 2020). Mr. Arbery, who resided on either side of a four-lane highway in Fancy Bluff, a historically black community, had his last run across a stretch of South Georgia terrain characterized by historic — but while increasingly blurred — racial border lines onto a street in which neighbors were watchful and on edge (Fausset and Rojas, 2020). The four-lane highway acted as a type of man-made barrier between the black and white worlds for many years. However, some of those boundaries have started to dissolve in recent decades. Fancy Bluff, a community of small homes, many of them newer and lining orderly, peaceful lanes, began to attract white people.

How the Georgia Law failed Ahmed Arbery

Indeed, Arbery’s story illustrates a distinct type of violence—lethal vigilantism—that is rarely discussed in relation to police. It was made possible by a legal system that allows for the inevitable killing of unarmed black men as long as the society considers it to be reasonable. Citizens’ arrest is combined with liberal gun regulations and “stand your ground” self-defense laws in this dictatorship. It was the law that sparked the vigilantism that led to Arbery’s death, and we are delusory if we believe the law will bring justice. Human rights activists believe that Justice will not be served until the law is amended.

The main offenders in the death of Arbery, Greg and Travis McMichael believe they were conducting a citizen’s arrest, which has been legal in the United States for decades. It has evolved over time, but by the eighteenth century, it permitted a bystander who observed a crime to restrain the perpetrator until the cops arrived. The ordinance, which was enacted at a time when authorities were scarce, was meant to allow shopkeepers and householders to apprehend and retain would-be thieves and hold them until a sergeant could be summoned. Perhaps there was a period when such a law, at least under limited situations, made perfect sense. It is now, nevertheless, the target of vehement criticism, particularly in the aftermath of the Arbery murder (Margulies, 2020)

Georgia, just like other jurisdictions, enhanced a person’s right to arrest another person. The Georgian statute’s first phrase allows a private person to arrest someone for any crime “committed in his presence or within his immediate knowledge.”. However, Georgia enables a citizen to initiate an arrest even if he has “reasonable and probable grounds” to believe the individual committed a serious crime and is “escaping or attempting to flee” under the second phrase (Margulies, 2020)

Following the statue, a private citizen can only make an arrest if he reasonably believed he was pursuing a fleeing offender in the absence of firsthand knowledge. This translates to the laws first failure. It gives private persons the ability to intervene on secondhand information and allows their counterparts to judge if such information was reliable. Both choices are likely to be catastrophically erratic (Margulies, 2020). This is one another rationale why regular persons should not be given the authority to act on secondary criminal verdicts. It has been known for a long time that whites in this country equate blackness with crime, and vice versa (Margulies, 2020) The stereotype that crime is associated with young black men is particularly entrenched. We saw this in action in the Arbery case. A number of youngsters and adults had intruded on the building site that Arbery had passed by, yet none had been “presumed to be a criminal,” according to a lawyer for the Arbery family (Kless, 2020)

Indeed, Residents of this country have been educated to respect the rule of law from an early age. However, the assassination of Ahmaud Arbery demonstrates that in many jurisdictions, the law is part of the issue, not the solution. Black residents will continue to be pursued and slain by “reasonable” white men until citizens accept this reality (Kless, 2020).

Defendants guilty Plea Deals

In January, two of the three individuals charged with hate crimes in the assassination of Ahmaud Arbery had plea bargains with the Justice Department rejected by a federal court. The plea deals would have been the first time any of the men stated that Mr. Arbery’s murder was motivated by race. (Fausset, 2022) In November, all three men were found guilty of murder in state court. The federal plea offers enraged Mr. Arbery’s family since it would have sent at least two of them to federal jail instead of state prison for up to 30 years. Federal prisons are thought to be safer than state prisons. William Bryan, 52, the third individual engaged in the pursuit, was sentenced to life imprisonment without the parole eligibility in state court. There was no sign that he had struck a plea agreement with the Justice Department as of January.

Prosecutors had anticipated that the McMichael’s’ plea deals would guarantee that they ensure serve significant jail sentence for the murder of Mr. Arbery, even if their statutory murder charges were reversed on appeal. Their federal term would have run simultaneously with their life without the possibility of parole state terms (Fausset, 2022) Following the terms of the settlement, the men would have been unable to appeal their federal guilty pleas.

Mr Arbery’s relatives felt that it was enough and they talked to Judge Wood in a courtroom in Brunswick, Ga., near the murder site, about the continued anguish of losing Mr. Arbery, and they urged vehemently that the perpetrators must not be permitted to pick a less-unpleasant jail alternative. “I’m pleading with you not to approve this plea in order to allow these men to move out of Georgia state custody into federal prisons, where they wish to be.” (Fausset, 2022). Wanda Cooper-Jones said, referencing to her son, Mr. Arbery.

According to Page Pate, a prominent Georgian trial lawyer, the defendants could anticipate that by pleading guilty, the judge might sentence them to less than life in prison, which is the ultimate punishment for the hate crimes accusation (Fausset, 2022). Mr. Pate did point out, however, that the family was putting itself in danger by pushing for a trial. Even if prosecution can show that the men had previously engaged in racist behavior, it may be difficult to persuade a jury that they were driven by hatred. Prosecutors also claimed that, while Travis McMichael did not want to injure a Black person on the day, he fatally shot Mr. Arbery, he made unsafe judgments about him being a criminal based solely on the fact that he was black.

Conclusion

Arbery’s death was one of several recent racial justice protests sparked by the deaths of men and women and women of color, typically at the hands of police. The federal trial of Arbery’s assailants is the first time those responsible for such a high-profile murder have faced a jury in a hate-crime case. Indeed, Arbery’s killing sparks a lot debate on the prevalence of racism and other related hate crimes in the United States. What would have happened if Ahmaud Arbery had been white? What if one of the two guys who accosted Mr. Arbery before shooting and killing him was black? What if the terrible video of a young guy being unnecessarily gunned down while out for a Sunday jog had not been anonymously released to the Internet, but rather kept hidden? Probably everyone knows the answer to these dreadful questions. It would not have taken law enforcement officials in Georgia more than two months to be embarrassed into seeking some sort of justice in Mr. Arbery’s death if he had not been black. Arbery’s death also serves as a stark reminder of how far we still have to go in the fight for racial equality in the United States. Instead, all citizens must commit to a future of unity and mutual strength, to build a community where no one is afraid of violence because of their ethnicity, race or skin color.

References

Christian Boone (2020). Glynn County commissioners say DA blocked arrests after fatal shooting. Glynn County commissioner says DA blocked arrests after fatal shooting (ajc.com)

Donnell Suggs and Margaret Coker (2020). Glynn County Police, Residents Wrestle With Racism. https://www.gpb.org/news/2021/02/23/glynn-county-police-residents-wrestle-racism.

Georgia Census Facts. https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/GA.

Janelle Ross (2021). What Ahmaud Arbery’s Death Has Meant for the Place Where He Lived. https://time.com/6121300/ahmaud-arbery-brunswick-georgia/

Jonathan Raymond (2022). Racist texts, posts presented in hate crimes trial for Ahmaud Arbery’s killers. https://www.11alive.com/article/news/crime/ahmaud-arbery/ahmaud-arbrery-murder-hate-crimes-trial-racist-texts-posts/85-858b1378-4acb-4b47-9154-8b955038fc04.

Joseph Margulies (2020). How the Law Killed Ahmaud Arbery. https://bostonreview.net/articles/joseph-margulies-arbery-shooting/.

Maya Yang (2021). How the murder of Ahmaud Arbery further exposes America’s broken and racist legal system. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/nov/24/ahmaud-arbery-murder-trial-reveals-racism-us.

The Guardian (2020). Ex-prosecutor indicted for allegedly shielding men in Ahmaud Arbery case. Ex-prosecutor indicted for allegedly shielding men in Ahmaud Arbery case | Georgia | The Guardian

Troy Kless (2020). VIDEO: Homeowner believes Ahmaud Arbery was getting water when visiting construction site. VIDEO: Homeowner believes Ahmaud Arbery was getting water when visiting construction site | 11alive.com

Rachael Sharp (2022). Ahmaud Arbery’s mother says son would have cut toenails ‘if he knew he would be murdered that day’ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/crime/ahmaud-arbery-wanda-cooper-jones-sentencing-b1988754.html.

Richard Fausset (2022). Federal Judge Rejects Hate Crime Plea Deals in Ahmaud Arbery Killing. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/01/31/us/ahmaud-arbery-hate-crime-plea-deal.html.

The Debarred Euphoria Of Independence Sample Assignment

Kate Chopin’s novel The Story of an Hour, widely regarded as a classic of short fiction, illustrates a woman’s difficult self-discovery procedures. Mrs. Mallard, the story’s key heroine, learns of her husband’s death while riding on a train. However, her immediate emotion of sorrow is replaced by an unexplained sensation. Surprisingly, she experiences a sense of liberation and delight as she anticipates a life free of her husband’s dictatorship. To better understand the author’s concept of independence in the narrative, this essay will concentrate on fiction characteristics such as settings, use of situational irony and narrator’s viewpoint.

The author’s choice of setting serves as a visual representation of the concept of independence portrayed in the narrative. Mr. Mallard is the only person who enters or exits the Mallards’ residence during the novel. There is a feeling of constriction and confinement because of it. A “pleasant, capacious armchair” is referred to by Chopin, although the reader does not know what color or size the chair is. Wallpaper and curtains are not mentioned in the setting. It creates an atmosphere of uncertainty, which leads to heightened tension and a quick resolution of the problem. When she receives the news, she locks the door to her room and sleeps. The author highlights the magnificent view outside the window, stressing that nature re-emerges in spring. For many people in this region, the arrival of spring is a sign of new life, renewal, and optimism. It depicts the protagonist’s thoughts, emotions, and sentiments once she realizes her ideals. To be more specific, the rehabilitation of the spirit and the restoration of nature work hand in hand in highlighting the significance of the change.

Use of situation irony to convey Mrs. Mallard’s reaction to receiving word of the death of her husband in Kate Chopin’s Story of an hour, is another fictional element in the novel. The author indicates that Mrs. Mallard ‘’Wept once, with sudden, wild bewilderment’’ (Chopin 1) and went upstairs to be alone in her room as anyone would do after losing a loved one. She did, however find consolation in the death of her husband as she was now going to be free- ‘’There would be no one to live for during those coming years; she would live for herself’’ (Chopin 3). The death of Mrs. Mallard is included in the novel to establish her argument that she was glad her husband was dead, and it is linked to the instance in which she discovers that her husband is still alive. Upon seeing her husband entering her room he suffered a heart attack. To her, the death of her husband would have been a godsend that arrived at the appropriate time, as she would have looked forward to her future independence.

Lastly, the fictional element deployed in this narrative is the narrator’s point of view. Chopin delves deep into the complexities of the female lead via the lens of a third-person narrator in this work, which implies she has complete access to every aspect of the story. In addition, it gives the reader a thorough introduction to Josephine and Richard, the novel’s secondary characters. She has family and friends who mirror her desire to be a free member of society, and they show that Mrs. Mallard is not alone. The narrator does not generally criticize or safeguard this woman her idea of independence. An attempt is being made to show how convoluted the author’s life is while also offering some thought-provoking material.

To sum up, Chopin’s masterpiece The Story of an Hour depicts the tumultuous emotions that Mrs. Mallard experiences throughout the narrative. As a result, the woman succumbs to an incomprehensible paradox. The fictional elements are employed in capturing Mallard’s life from the initial instance when she learns about the husband’s death to the final stance when she learns that he is still alive. The approach reveals the implications of the short, dense structure in the narration as Louise contemplates about her newly found freedom and independence after receiving the news. All of the story’s aspects work together to generate a complex, dramatic effect, and the author’s consistency in doing, this is a beautiful illustration of her consistency.

Works Cited

Chopin, Kate. The story of an hour. Jimcin Recordings, 1981.

Rules By Which A Great Empire May Be Reduced To A Small One By Benjamin Franklin Sample Paper

‘Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to a Small One,’ written by Benjamin Franklin in September 1773, was written in response to the colonies’ concerns about how Britain was ruling them (Franklin, 2015). His position as a spokesman of many American colonies in London was at the moment of writing of this letter. He decided to publish the piece in the National Advertiser, a weekly newspaper in London. People in both England and the US would eventually read the article. Franklin equates a collapsing economy to the collapsing cake and utilizes numbered elements to highlight the concerns colonies have with the kingdom that dominates more aspects of their lives. The colonists hated having government personnel imposed upon them. They would like to be governed by people they choose for themselves.

Nevertheless, officials are devoted to the monarchy or their purposes and care nothing for improving life in the colonies. The British government and the persons it appointed to administer the colonists were interested in harvesting as much revenue as possible from the colonies. Moreover, they discover new ways to tax the colonies. They frequently seek to avoid settling for bills that may lessen some of the load placed on the colonists. Even the taxes that are collected and supposed to be utilized to improve the colonists are somehow redirected to the advantage of the empire. In response to the Quartering Act of 1765, the settlers were compelled to pay for the housing and nourishment of the soldiers dispatched from Britain (Franklin, 2015). After providing lodgings for these soldiers, they discover that the troops do not help deliver protection to the settlement.

Moreover, the troops and bureaucrats devoted to the empire might be a source of friction between them and the colonists. A lot of the time, the colonists are forced to protect their settlements and seaports. Some colonists fund and construct their fortifications, only to have officials from the empire seize control of the fortifications and confiscate the riches contained within them. Thomas Gage (c. 1718–87) is the administrator of Newfoundland who was appointed by the British to succeed Thomas Hutchinson (1711–80) as governor (Franklin, 2015). Gage confiscates munitions gathered by the colonists and seizes control of a fort they had constructed so that the British may use them against the colonists in the future.

Benjamin Franklin wrote “Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to a Small One” in the first person to instruct viewers on how to shrink a mighty empire (Franklin, 2015). An unnamed sender sent Franklin letters from the colonial system loyal to the British, which contributed to the founding of the US. In September 1773, Franklin wrote a counterpoint titled “An Edict by the King of Prussia,” written by the King. The headline of a provocative conquest in Britain was meant to be read as a subtle rebuke of the British Empire. Franklin was well conscious that his audience did not have a vast empire to weaken. He hoped readers would think about the injustices an empire could do to its colonies. However, it is unclear what the overall gist of Franklin’s manuscripts about how to decrease a kingdom is.

The writer makes his point by suggesting that Franklin begins the article by comparing a Sage and a Simpleton. The Sage understands how to expand landholdings, such as colonial settlements. Franklin writes in the persona of the Simpleton to demonstrate to readers how they might do the contrary and risk losing their colonies. Franklin uses a similar approach with his other books to provide wise counsel through the medium of someone who appears to be unsophisticated. The statement shows particular evidence in Franklin’s Poor Richard’s Almanac, where he publishes as Poor Richard and uses the pen name Poor Richard (Franklin, 2015). Franklin is counting on perceptive readers to see that this straightforward piece of advice is also a scathing assessment of the way Britain was wearing down the colonists’ patience in the Americas. The narrator continues by drawing a comparison between limiting the size of a kingdom and shrinking the size of the pie. Following a relatively humorous start, Franklin examines how a domain can cause widespread discontent among its colonists. In his discussion of what to do to shrink an empire, he perfectly demonstrates what the British administration has done without drawing any direct allegations against them. Franklin states in his essay that an emperor that wishes to lose its territories should approach its colonies with distrust and disdain while simultaneously imposing taxes on them. Therefore, it is precisely what the British administration has done to the United States and Canada settlements.

Franklin adds that he uses wit to convey his serious message about the colonists’ grievances against the British Empire. He’s not just sarcastic. The author compares a collapsing cake to a crumbling empire early in the essay. He observes that removing a cake is similar to eliminating colonies: start at the corners. Most people do not begin cutting in the middle.

Similarly, the essay’s narrator recommends readers start with remote locations and then go on to the rest. Even though Franklin was still in London to represent the colonies, some colonists felt he was not fully representing them. They had no depiction in the British Parliament. Moreover, the legislature could write legislation that harmed colonists without their consent. Knowing how the British law system worked, colonists felt different laws ran the colonies. They thought the colonial rules were stricter.

References

Franklin, B. (2015). Rules by Which a Great Empire may be reduced to a Small One. Arsalan Ahmed.