The Debate Between W.E.B. Du Bois And Booker T. Washington Free Essay

When segregation was common in the United States, two men played a significant role in the battle for equality. W.E.B. Du Bois and Booker  T. Washington were prominent activists who fought for civil rights but disagreed on several topics such as reconstruction, poverty, racism, and inequality. Both Washington and Du Bois fought to improve education and eliminate prejudice against black people, but their methods for doing so differed substantially (Blatty). Although these two individuals were both highly educated intellectuals who devoted their lives to the struggle of civil and human rights for African-Americans in America, the future was influenced mainly by their origins and perspectives.

Being born a slave in 1856 in Virginia, Booker T. Washington’s subsequent beliefs were motivated by his early life and schooling (Blatty, 2015). After the Civil War, he sought employment in the salt production sector while still a servant for a white household before attending the Hampton Institute, which was among America’s institutions that constituted only blacks (Blatty, 2015). In 1881, Washington got nominated by the Hampton Institute president, Samuel C. Armstrong, to lead the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Alabama. This technical institution aspired to equip African Americans with the moral guidance and practical employment skills they needed to prosper in the fast-developing Industrial Era (Blatty, 2015). Moreso, Booker T. Washington was the first to emerge as a leader, and he thought that if African Americans concentrated just on equality, they would fail to advance in society.

Booker T. Washington, in particular, promoted the ideologies of self-improvement, cultural harmony, and conciliation. He further advised Negros to put up with injustice temporarily and focus on bettering themselves via hard labor and financial success. Booker T. also had faith in developing virtues such as; patience, initiative, thrift, and training in artisanship and agriculture. In addition, Booker T. Washington believed that by doing so, African Americans had a chance to earn respect as residents and also get absorbed into all elements of society by the white people. In 1895, he gave these significant elements in his speech to a congregation of different races at Cotton State and International Exhibition, currently the Piedmont Park in Atlanta (Blatty, 2015). Moreover, black individuals who strongly trusted the reasoning in the practice of Washington’s strategies accepted his ideas warmly, both in the U.S. and internationally, as well as the Caucasians. The latter was happy to push any genuine debate of equality and rights for African Americans until later (Blatty, 2015). However, it was dubbed as “Atlanta Compromise” by its detractors, including Du Bois.

For years, Washington advocated for the industrial training of black males, believing that it would help the race get a good start for them. Washington was also a founding member of the National Negro Business League created in 1900 and served as its first president (Blatty). Furthermore, he announced the organization’s primary objective as; bringing African Americans who were conducting business in various branches together to encourage, inform, and inspire each other. Additionally, he gave Black Cambridge youngsters some practical advice in 1903, advising them to learn to stay out of debt and hoping they would have the courage not to persuade their parents to buy items they could not afford (Blatty). Because young African American men’s job prospects were restricted at the time, Washington counseled them to make up their minds to engage in business and start something, and the success would be theirs. What is more, Washington saw hope for the future in the young African American faces, and he thought they would be put on the road to independence by saving regularly and purchasing properties (Blatty).

On the other hand, W.E.B. Du Bois released The Souls of Black Folk in 1903, and it was the most prominent critique of Booker T. Washington’s theories (Blatty). According to Du Bois, Washington’s strategy was inept, and he was going about it improperly. Furthermore, Du Bois believed that Washington’s approach would only serve to promote and strengthen white oppression. Also, Du Bois believed that blacks and whites could have the same educational opportunities and political privileges, unlike Washington’s ideals. Furthermore, Du Bois contended that whereas Washington valued common-school and industrial training and loathed higher education, neither the Black common-schools nor Tuskegee could survive a day without teachers from Negro colleges and universities or alumni (Du Bois 56).

In addition, Du Bois believed that Washington was working valiantly to turn Negro artisans into entrepreneurs and property owners. However, business persons and landowners couldn’t protect their freedom and prosper in the absence of their ability to vote under competitive tactics that existed (Du Bois 56). Furthermore, Du Bois stated that Washington preached economy and self-respect. Still, he also advised a passive surrender to civic humiliation, which would sure drain any race’s masculinity in the long term (Du Bois 56). Du Bois further stated that people do not gain their reasonable rights by tossing them away and claiming they do not want them or constantly criticizing and degrading themselves. He instead insisted that Negroes must stress that voting is a current civilization’s necessity, that discrimination based on race is barbarism, and that both black and white boys deserve education (Du Bois 59). Furthermore, Du Bois claimed that Washington’s ideology caused the whites to blame the Negro problem on the shoulders of the Negros, when the burden rested on the state, and no one had clean hands if they did not devote their energies to correcting those great wrongdoings. (Du Bois 62)

Which Authors Views remind you of Benjamin Franklin’s and why?

The authors’ views of “Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass” remind me of Benjamin Franklin. According to Benjamin Franklin’s official biography, he was a philosopher, scientist, innovator, renowned writer, publisher, and diplomat and was one of the founding fathers of the United States (Lewis). Furthermore, Benjamin Franklin acquired competence in each sector he engaged in because he pursued his passion in all he did. On the other hand, Frederick Douglass was among the most influential personalities in the anti-slavery and civil rights movements of the nineteenth century. There is no more significant explanation than self-made persons, for both Benjamin Franklin and Frederick Douglass. These two great, clever, and driven men were born in two separate times, but they have a lot in common while still being quite different. America’s future was greatly influenced by the hard work of these two men, and individuals tend to admire them for their determination to make the world a better place.

Apart from their great devotion to liberty, these figures from American history are frequently seen as defenders of core American ideals, like; transparency, individuality, entrepreneurship, straightforwardness, self-reliance, and integrity. Escape from repressive conditions was a turning moment in Franklin’s and Douglass’ lives, resulting in political and social involvement. For example, after Douglass made his escape from slavery, he began reading the Liberator and began attending anti-slavery conventions, such as the August 1842 anti-slavery convention, which was at Nantucket (Douglass 100). On the other hand, Franklin moved to Philadelphia, where he founded “The Junto,” a philosophical discussion group, after having trouble finding work in New York (Lewis). Though both men did not come from wealthy families, Frederick Douglass certainly had a much harder life than Franklin.

Both Franklin and Douglas understood the importance of hard work and self-motivation in achieving a brighter future, and they discovered that education was also a valuable tool in life. For instance, Douglass realized the road from enslavement to liberation was through education after Mr. Auld forbade Mrs. Auld from educating him further, as he would not be useful to his master once he became educated (Douglass 29). In addition, both men educated themselves despite the challenging situations they faced. For instance, Douglass had to teach himself how to write when he was in Durgin and Bailey’s shipyard by copying the letters that carpenters were inscribing on the ships (Douglass 37). Similarly, Franklin spends much of his young adulthood in London, learning about the printing trade (Lewis). Additionally, Douglass utilized education to rise above the dirt he was raised in, and Benjamin used education to achieve success.

In conclusion, both Washington and Du Bois fought to improve education and eliminate prejudice against black people, but their methods differed substantially. More so, W.E.B. Du Bois Booker and T. Washington disagreed on several topics such as reconstruction, poverty, racism, and inequality. Moreover, Booker T. Washington advocated for the ideology of self-help, racial unity, accommodation and encouraged blacks to put up with discrimination and focus on improving themselves via hard labor and acquiring material wealth. On the other hand, Du Bois believed that Washington’s approach would only promote and strengthen white oppression. Furthermore, Du Bois also believed that blacks and whites could have the same educational opportunities and political privileges. Finally, both Benjamin Franklin and Frederick Douglass were self-made and ambitious guys born in two different eras but shared many similarities and were determined to make the world a better place. Moreover, Franklin and Douglas understood the importance of hard work and self-motivation in achieving a brighter future, and they discovered that education was also a valuable tool in life. What is more, escape from repressive conditions was a turning moment in both Franklin’s and Douglass’ lives, resulting in political and social involvement.

Work(s) Cited

Blatty, David. “W.E.B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington Had Clashing Ideologies During the Civil Rights Movement.” Biography, 23 Feb. 2015,

Douglass, Fredrick. “Narrative of The Life of Fredrick Douglass, An American Slave.” The Public’s Library and Digital Archive, 1845,

Du Bois, W. E. B. “The souls of black folk.” W.E.B. Du Bois: Writings (1986): 357-547.

Lewis, Rachel. “Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia | Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (The).” Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia |, 2021,

The FED Economic Take Free Essay

Even though the FED has resolved to the uplifting of the economic situation in the current times, there are significant illustrations that show that it’s more into the present than the future. The measures adopted by the FED seem to affect the entire socially stratified groups in-country and the continents at large. The most recent adoption that is significant is the lowering of interest. Based on the provision within the article, lowered interest has turned into the increase of house prices by the majority of property owners. Furthermore, the reduced interest rates have affected the middle class rather than the top-and lower-class individuals in the country.

The 3% low interest laid affects the middle class grossly considering that house equity is the only major asset associated with the middle class. Thus, the take uplifts the economy since the middle class’s home and house construction industry is adjusted considering it is a more blue-collar job producer. However, deeper analysis in this case of the FED’s take illustrates that the economic aid and uplift being lifted is given to the middle-class people, who are less in need of it. The measures deteriorate economic equality. On the other hand, there are several principles that the FED has adopted. The economic principle seems only to target the upper class rather than that all the social classes. It seems to be causing more economic harm and inequality under cover of economic recovery since the great depression of 2007-2009 and the Covid 19 pandemic of 2019. The most elaborate issue is the case that the FED has resolved to the purchase of debt from firms that have laid-off workers.

This adoption is a take that seems to affect the low class in society. However, the distinct occurrence that seems invisible based on FED’s operations is that the moves are hurting the modest means of prudent savers. This aspect is by the insignificant reduction of the amount of income they will earn from the national treasury securities and no-risk investments like the bank certificates deposit. Each principle adopted by the FED seems to be uplifting only a portion of the economy rather than the entire economy as expected. The focus of the FED is majorly on the middle class as well as the higher class. However, on the side of the lower class, the FED has proved to be inconsiderate enough.

Another aspect that the FED has incorporated without focusing on the future is the concern of subsequent security earnings such as pensions. The benefit income has been erased by the low interests that the FED has levied in the prospection of lifting the economy from a period and state of crisis. The FED should focus on the fact that treasury bonds theoretically should provide overstocks. However, this is not considered. Despite the prospects of the FED and the good intentions associated with the FED, a huge problem seems to be laying up. A problem that will impact directly to the pension funds as well as the pension recipients. Insurance companies and cooperate employees will be victims of the huge problem associated with the adoptions made by the FED. Thus, there is a need to reconsider and re-evaluate the measures in place. The intention for economic uplift is necessary. However, the focus on the future is as well necessary.


Overview of the Federal Reserve System

The Future Of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health Sample Assignment


Nursing is a broader field incorporating various facets such as the counteractive nature of diseases and the executives of treatment to promote healthy lifestyles. It is thus imperative for every nurse to ensure adherence to the bioethical principles which guide the provision of quality and acceptable healthcare. Nursing comes hand in hand with medical dilemmas, which various prompt challenges; nevertheless, the challenges should be handled to warrant that medical personnel takes on administration by coming up with inventive redesigns in social insurance. The future of nursing is dependent on nursing education improvement, taking up leadership positions, and workforce planning. Thus, BSN nurses encounter enhanced outcomes and advanced capabilities in nursing practice driven by enhanced communication skills, leadership, evolution, and research.

Moreover, a 2-year program by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) in 2008 to develop a report that could be evaluated, and proposals for nursing improvement were started. The IOM report is significant in nursing and is partitioned into three critical viewpoints that include preparing, redundancy, and administration; an additional important view is to collect comprehensive data on the medical services industry to divide the data and design elemental changes to the social insurance industry and the human services-personals vocation. The work of the Robert Wood Foundation Committee Initiative, which resulted in the IOM report “Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health,” is evaluated in this paper.

The work of the Robert Wood Foundation Committee Initiative that led to the IOM report

The Robert Wood Foundation Committee Initiative resulted in the IOM report performing several tasks. First, it sparked a desire for better medical facilities. According to Palatnik (2016), the board envisions a strategy that regards quality considerations available to every US resident in the future, consistently advances health and disease counteractive action points, constantly enhances health outcomes, and provides caring reviews over critical considerations, life expectancy, and counteractive action are the prime engineers of the medicinal services plan in the prospective future, coordination, Inter-professional, and joint efforts are the standards. Besides, payment for human services management rewards appreciation rather than the number of organizations, and quality concern is provided at a reasonable cost to individuals and society. Resultantly, the developmental rate of social insurance depletions slows down. Consequently, the social insurance plan consistently demonstrates that it is accessible to a person’s needs and aspirations by delivering extremely tolerant focused collaborations in each of these sectors.

The four “Key Messages” structure the IOM Report recommendations and their impacts on nursing practice, nursing education and training, nursing leadership, and nursing workforce development

The IOM report was organized around four key messages. The first one was the enhancement of nursing education. That would be achieved through the provision of nursing study materials, professional educators would be appointed, and the nursing education fees would be standardized. That would have an impact on nursing training and nursing education programs.

The second message of the IOM report was making sure nurses could use their full training and education capability. Nurses, for instance, should be allowed to perform activities on patients rather than being limited to minor tasks such as medication administration. That will give nurses more confidence in their practice. Moreover, the report indicates that nurses should be granted leadership chances and opportunities to be regarded as full stakeholders in healthcare reforms. Lastly, the IOM report denoted the enhancement of data gathering for policymaking and workforce planning activities. That message changed the way nursing workforce development was done. For instance, the policy’s creation guaranteed that every nurse and institution followed a rule beneficial to both parties. Thus, workforce planning would ensure that every nurse works efficiently.

The Role of State-based Action Coalitions in Advancing the Goals of IOM Report

The state-based action coalitions played a significant role in advancing the goals set-out in the IOM report. That is because it incorporates collaborators from various states aiming at ensuring every nurse provides the highest quality healthcare and employs all their expertise during practice (Hassmiller & Reinhard, 2019). According to Pittman et al. (2015), the concrete form of the coalition is characterized by individuals from various national organizations and states intending to maintain advancements in the health system. Besides, the IOM approvals were to be carried out following the unique needs of each state and have a long-term sustainable transformation at the regional, state, and local levels.

Additionally, to achieve their goal, the campaign used a variety of approaches. For starters, it promoted and enhanced innovative changes in the nursing education system. Second, it aided nursing leadership in a healthcare setting. Third, it removed every impediment to patients’ care and treatment. Also, it promoted and encouraged collaborations and teamwork with other professional sectors within the healthcare setting. The campaign also announced cultural diversity among nursing professionals. Lastly, it advocated for workforce development.

New Mexico Action Planning and its Initiative

New Mexico intends to implement numerous changes. Among them are a curriculum change and a rural nursing residency program. Education is critical to ensuring that qualified and well-equipped nurses are incorporated into the health system. Against this backdrop, the New Mexico nursing education consortium was created and responsible for developing a statewide nursing curriculum. Besides, there will be more collaboration between universities and community colleges when a similar curriculum is in place, which stands a chance to benefit from enhanced technological sharing.

Furthermore, the improvement of nursing competencies among nurses is the goal of the rural nursing residency program in rural areas. As a result, nurses in rural areas are better prepared to transition from education to practice due to the residency program. Besides, it aims to ensure every nurse in the rural setup gets to work in a rural hospital resulting in enhanced accessibility of healthcare services.

Barriers to the Advancements Currently Existing in the state and how Nursing Advocates Cope with them

Numerous issues that impact nursing provision in the state of New Mexico exists. Firstly, low wages across the state are a barrier. It negatively impacts nurses’ morale, who stay on duty for long hours. In turn, the quality of service provided to patients is poor. In addition, the nursing staff proportion has reduced since they seek better pay and working conditions from other states. Secondly, as Blevins (2018) noted, there is a shortage of nursing faculty orchestrated by the inability of qualified nurses to get fast admission to commence their practice and provide the much-required healthcare services.

Nevertheless, lobby groups seek better working conditions and wages and ease of entry into the nursing faculties. For example, they advocate that every nurse be assigned to a specific job grade and that nurses working at a community faculty earn similar wages as those at a public faculty.


The IOM and RWJF incorporation and recommendations for the advancement and transformation of the country’s human services in the industry via the nursing project assume a crucial role since the nursing profession impacts various facets of the social insurance framework. Furthermore, it has several challenges. The Future of Nursing Campaign for Action and the critical facets of the state-based coalition is a collaborative exertion to implement the proposals provided by the IOM and to enhance and structure to enhance the quality and strategy through which medical services are provided universally.


Blevins, S. (2018). From nursing student to registered nurse: The challenge of transition. Medsurg Nursing27(3), 199-201.

Hassmiller, S. B., & Reinhard, S. (2019). The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and AARP Story: How Our Partnership Advanced the Future of Nursing. Nurse Leader17(5), 399- 403.

Palatnik, A. (2016). The future of nursing: leading change, advancing health how are we doing.

Pittman, P., Bass, E., Hargraves, J., Herrera, C., & Thompson, P. (2015). The future of nursing:

monitoring the progress of recommended change in hospitals, nurse-led clinics, and home health and hospice agencies. Journal of Nursing Administration, 45(2), 93-99.