The Definition Of Animal Diversity Sample College Essay

Animal Diversity

The definition of animal diversity is the form and function of different animals which are categorized in different ways. One way of categorization is the symmetry of an animal, the two types of symmetry are bilateral and radial. Bilateral symmetry means the animal has a mirror-image, left to right, tail to head, and back and belly surface; Radial symmetry means the animal can be sliced through the central axis, it has top and bottom, but lacks back to front and left to right. Another way is body cavity; the body cavities of animals vary, for example: flatworms have a solid body, a roundworm has a pseudocoelem which is partially lined by tissue derived from mesoderm, and an animal with true coelem is completely lined by tissue derived from mesoderm (mesoderm is the middle tissue, it forms the musculature). Phylum Porifera- sponges; animals with no tissue or symmetry, water is drawn in a sponge through pores in the sponges’ body wall, and let out through larger holes. Phylum Cnidaria- Cnidarians (examples are jellyfish and hydra); unlike sponges, have two tissue layers- an outer and an inner, radial symmetry, use their tentacles to capture their prey and push them into their mouths, a medusa body form is another type of jellyfish. Phylum Platyhelminthes- Flatworms; are different from both the sponges and the jellyfish, these flatworms are known as the simplest bilateral animals; they’re usually internal parasites, flatworms have three different types

1. Free-living flatworms (planarians) have heads with light-sensitive eyespots and flaps to detect chemicals,

2. Flukes animal parasites and

3. Planarians with gastro vascular cavity and a single opening. Phylum Nematoda- Nematodes; These roundworms are similar to the flatworms because they also have bilateral symmetry, but they have three tissue layers, unlike the jellyfish which only have two, the roundworms are diverse with more than thousands of species, their body cavity is psedocoelem, this functions to distribute nutrients as a hydro skeleton. Phylum Molluscs; different from the other phylums so far because they have a true coelem, and a circulatory system, all mulluscs have in common: a muscular foot, for locomotion, and a visceral mass, which contains most of the internal organs. Phylum Annelids- segmented worms; these worms have a closed circulatory system (unlike the Molluscs), which their blood is enclosed in vessels, their true coelem functions as a hydrostatic skeleton, unlike the roundworms which have a hydro skeleton. Phylum Arthropods- segmented animals with joined appendages and an exoskeleton; examples are crayfish, lobster, crabs, and insects (etc.), they have an open circulatory system, unlike the rest of the phylums, and most include a head, thorax, and abdomen. Phylum Echinoderms; slow-moving, and have radial symmetry, examples: sea urchins, and sea stars. Phylum Chordata; unlike others, they are distinguished by four major features, a hollow nerve cord, a flexible supportive notochord, pharyngeal slits, and a muscular post-anal tail.

The Value Of Human Life

Human life is one of the few natural rights in life that cannot be valued by wealth, or taken in for exchange by any tangible object. Human life is precious and fragile and should be treated as such. Each person’s individuality and capability is a prime factor that exemplifies the need humans have to be valued, all life is equivalent, but should be equal in the highest plausible factors. Human life cannot simply be put with a price, for each life is valued at a price that is not external to another, therefore; the value I place on a loved one would vary astronomically to the price value one would insinuate on that very person. Human life can not be placed at any monetary value, it can be inferred that the greed for money has played a large role in the events that have taken place, leading one to suspect that it is not the loved one people are concerned about, but rather the money they can receive for their loved one. People are now being brainwashed into believing that they should receive financial compensation for their losses.

In a recent novel, Lance Armstrong delves into his painful past and the challenges he was forced to overcome and how these obstacles and overcoming them shaped him into the person he is today and gave him a new, optimistic view on life and the value it has. Armstrong now claims that life is a precious gift and should be treated as such; in a excerpt from the novel Armstrong shares a painful memory, “When I was twenty-five, I got testicular cancer and nearly dies. I was given less then a forty percent chance of surving, and frankly, some of my doctors were just being kind when they gave me those odds” (Armstrong1). Prior to this life changing experience Armstrong thrived on living life to the ‘fullest’ and not quite taking the time to appreciate the blessing that were in his life every single day. After Armstrong’s life changing battle, and overcoming what was once said to be unbeatable, a new view on life was projected. Armstrong began to realize how precious life actually is and how flawed his theory on life was prior to the incident. Armstrong’s view on life after his near death experience directly coincides with my perspective.

Lance Armstrong exemplifies his opinion through experience. his value on life was determined through his near death experience which caused him to realize how valuable life is, Armstrong and I can both agree on our claims which directly coincide with one another. Amanda Ripley exemplifies her opinion on the demeanor in which life should be valued through her constant antagonistic views on the way life was valued after the tragic nine eleven incident. by reading Ripley’s article one can infer that Ripley values life equally and was distraught after learning of the price values placed on precious lives. Although it was not clearly stated in the article, Ripley does not agree that twenty five hundred dollars is enough to sufficiently compensate for the lives lost, nor should it be considered and acceptable form of payment. Ripley assigns value to human life by the emotional attachment people had to one another rather than the money one had, how how much one should be given after a loved one has passed away to make up for the fact that they passed away and the fact that they will no longer be around.

Human life is one of the few natural rights in life that cannot be valued by wealth, or taken in for exchange by any tangible object. Human life is precious and fragile and should be treated as such. Each person’s individuality and capability is a prime factor that exemplifies the need humans have to be valued, all life is equivalent, but should be equal in the highest plausible factors. Human life cannot simply be put with a price, for each life is valued at a price that is not external to another, therefore; the value I place on a loved one would vary astronomically to the price value one would insinuate on that very person. Human life can not be placed at any monetary value, it can be inferred that the greed for money has played a large role in the events that have taken place, leading one to suspect that it is not the loved one people are concerned about, but rather the money they can receive for their loved one. People are now being brainwashed into believing that they should receive financial compensation for their losses.

In a recent novel, Lance Armstrong delves into his painful past and the challenges he was forced to overcome and how these obstacles and overcoming them shaped him into the person he is today and gave him a new, optimistic view on life and the value it has. Armstrong now claims that life is a precious gift and should be treated as such; in a excerpt from the novel Armstrong shares a painful memory, “When I was twenty-five, I got testicular cancer and nearly dies. I was given less then a forty percent chance of surving, and frankly, some of my doctors were just being kind when they gave me those odds” (Armstrong1). Prior to this life changing experience Armstrong thrived on living life to the ‘fullest’ and not quite taking the time to appreciate the blessing that were in his life every single day. After Armstrong’s life changing battle, and overcoming what was once said to be unbeatable, a new view on life was projected. Armstrong began to realize how precious life actually is and how flawed his theory on life was prior to the incident.

Armstrong’s view on life after his near death experience directly coincides with my perspective. Lance Armstrong exemplifies his opinion through experience. his value on life was determined through his near death experience which caused him to realize how valuable life is, Armstrong and I can both agree on our claims which directly coincide with one another. Amanda Ripley exemplifies her opinion on the demeanor in which life should be valued through her constant antagonistic views on the way life was valued after the tragic nine eleven incident. by reading Ripley’s article one can infer that Ripley values life equally and was distraught after learning of the price values placed on precious lives. Although it was not clearly stated in the article, Ripley does not agree that twenty five hundred dollars is enough to sufficiently compensate for the lives lost, nor should it be considered and acceptable form of payment. Ripley assigns value to human life by the emotional attachment people had to one another rather than the money one had, how how much one should be given after a loved one has passed away to make up for the fact that they passed away and the fact that they will no longer be around.

Works Cited

Armstrong, Lance, and Sally Jenkins. It’s Not About the Bike: My Journey Back to life. New York: Penguin Putnam, 2001.

Ripley, Amanda. “What is Life Worth?” Time December 2002:12-13. Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992. Unknown, Human Life Value Calculator. Life and Insurance fondation for education. November 14,2005 http;//www.life-line.org/life_human.html

“On The Rainy River” By Tim O’Brien Analysis

In Tim O’Brien’s “On the Rainy River”, Tim is presented with a conflict that would change his life depending on which choice he makes. Tim narrates the story in a mix of present day and flashbacks, being that the voice of the younger Tim O’Brien is less mature and less morally complex than present day Tim.

In the summer of 1968, Tim, a recent college graduate, receives a draft notice to fight in The Vietnam War. This is where the conflict begins. Tim O’Brien, while not exactly a pacifist, does not support the war. He almost feels as if he is too good to fight in the war, describing himself as “too smart, too compassionate, too everything…[he] had the world-Phi Beta Kappa and summa cum laude and president of the student body, [he even had] a full ride scholarship for grad studies at Harvard.” (1003) His world had suddenly come to a complete halt and he has to make the decision whether or not to go to war.

Tim mentions that “[that if our nation was using military force to] stop a Hitler, or some comparable evil, [he] told [himself] that in such circumstances [he] would’ve willingly marched off to battle…..The problem, though, was that a draft board did not let you choose your war.” (110) Tim can go off and fight a war he does not believe in or leave his life behind and fleeing to Canada. Tim talks about how much he detests how some people who mindlessly comply to the war efforts, not fully understanding it, just “blind, thoughtless, automatic acquiescence to it all, their love-it-or-leave-it platitudes” (1005)

He hated that they were “sending [him] off to fight a war they did not understand.” (1005) He holds them all personally responsible to the fact that he has to make the difficult choice. Tim fears condemnation, mockery and exile. Tim lives in a “conservative little spot on the prairie” (1005) and as he begins to seriously consider running off to Canada, he could already hear the town folk gathering around a coffee table and gossiping about how “that damned sissy [has] taken off for Canada” (1005).

Tim spent the summer of 1968 working at a meat-packing plant in his hometown, removing blood clots from slaughtered pigs on an assembly line. O’Brien uses this as a metaphor, him being the decapitated and eviscerated pig coming down the line and the dense greasy pig-stink, that was always hung onto him, was the war. The smell wouldn’t go away and neither would the war.

Tim eventually breaks down and decides to run off to Canada. On an impulse, he leaves work one day, packs up, leaves a vague note for his parents, and drives for hours. Tim explains that he was “riding on adrenaline” and “there was a dreamy edge of impossibility to it-like running a dead-end maze-no way out.” (1006) Tim heads northeast toward International Falls and then straight west along the Rainy River, which separates Minnesota from Canada, “which for [him] separated one life or another.” The Rainy River acts as a fork in the road, a turning point. Tim can either choose to cross the river into Canada and start a new life and avoid the war, or to head back to Minnesota and get shipped off to Vietnam to fight.

As Tim is stuck in his rut, he decides to stay at an old fishing resort called the Tip Top Lodge. It’s here, that Tim meets Elroy, who takes him in. Tim describes Elroy as “old, skinny, and shrunken and mostly bald” (1007). Elroy is the mentor/father figure in the story. He is the solid rock behind Tim. Elroy is “is the hero of [Tim’s] life…the man saved [him]. [Elroy] offered exactly what [he] needed…[Elroy] was there at the critical time.]” (1007)

Elroy is not judgmental or critical, he shows self-control when he refrains from prying into Tim’s life. He helps Tim with his decision, no questions asked. Tim spends 6 days with Elroy at the resort, during which odd Elroy keeps Tim occupied with little jobs at the lodge and it helps Tim think clearly. Tim goes to say that “[Elroy] had a way of compressing large thoughts into small, cryptic packets of language.” (1008) It shows Elroy wasn’t much of a talker, but he was smart and didn’t miss much. Elroy sensed that Tim was at war with himself and needed guidance but Elroy never pushed Tim to talk.

On the last day, Elroy takes Tim fishing out on the river. Tim describes the atmosphere as calm and serene. As Tim and Elroy cross into Canadian waters, “across the dotted line between two different worlds..” Tim starts to feel a tightening sensation in his chest and everything becomes “tangible and real.” (1012) Tim is finally face to face with his confliction. He has to make his decision, here and now. Tim experiences a hallucination, where he imagines himself old and withered, “as a man of conscience and courage” and “all that was a threadbare pipe dream.” (1014)

Tim starts to play back his childhood, growing up into adolescence. His entire life spilled out into the river. His conscience soon takes the form of people from his life, “[he] saw [his] brother and sister, all the townsfolk, the mayor, and the entire Chamber of Commerce and all [his] old teacher and girlfriends and high school buddies. Like some weird sporting event: everyone screaming from the sidelines, rooting [him] on..” (1015)

It is everyone who will ever be able to judge him, “faces from [his] distant past and distant future” (1015) Tim tried to will himself to cross across the water, it was now or never. He couldn’t do it. He was shamed from the embarrassment of running away. Elroy and Tim turned the boat back to Minnesota. Tim left and went to Vietnam.

At the end of this excerpt, Tim calls himself a coward for going to war and not running away, instead of vice versa. Tim, did not support the war. He did not want to go. Yet, he gave in and went. He did not stand by his morals and beliefs. He was so afraid of the judgment and exile, he did what everyone wanted him to do. When in everyone else’s mind he was a hero for going to war, in his mind he was a coward for not doing what he thought was right.

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