The Disagreement About Thinking Essay Example For College

As humans, one of the most basic and deeply emotional feelings we share is a discomfort known as thinking-related disagreement. Thinking-related disagreement is when a person at the same time holds two or more competing or disagreeing beliefs or attitudes. Disagreement is the mental pain that is caused when these attitudes or actions conflict. In order to reduce that pain, our brain subconsciously creates self-good reasons for thinking or doing something, or for the existence of something to create an agreement between our feelings and actions. As it comes with the package of human nature, it is natural for one to be flawed and cause common errors in their daily sit-ups in life. However, often times there is this common disconnected mindset that there is a justifiable reason to let these bad habits or occurrences to be accepted. One of the few examples, as discussed in the article reviewed, is the fact of accepting the practice of lying and cheating.

These two words play a really important role and they can affect people’s lives in many different ways. Both are sinful acts of deeds and individuals have a universal understanding of proving them to be right in “apparent situations” that pop up. Regardless of the percentage of righteous these deeds may fall under, it does not change the fact that a vice or crime to human honesty has been committed. The term intellectual discord is utilized to portray the uneasy inclination that outcomes from holding two clashing convictions. At the point when there is a disparity among convictions and practices, something must change with the end goal to wipe out or lessen the cacophony.

This type of thinking can be closely linked to the terminology of cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance “is used to describe the feelings of discomfort that result when your beliefs run counter to your behaviors and/or new information that is presented to you” (Cherry 1). Individuals that feel challenged when questioned upon their attitudes towards certain topics or habits lean towards justifying and creating a more trusting view of their argument. There are many ways to look at cognitive dissonance and how it works. For instance, individuals who smoke realize that smoking is a negative behavior pattern. Some legitimize their conduct by looking on the brilliant side: They disclose to themselves that smoking helps hold the weight down and that there is a more noteworthy risk to their wellbeing from being overweight than from smoking. The greater part of us is cunning enough to concoct specially appointed theories or justifications to spare loved thoughts.

Why we cannot make a difference this astuteness all the more able is not clarified by noticing that we are directed to excuse since we are attempting to lessen or wipe out psychological discord. Distinctive individuals manage mental uneasiness in various ways. Some ways are unmistakably more sensible than others. This is a prime demonstration of cognitive dissonance, to support this example the author of “What is cognitive dissonance?” displays in his article that “When there are conflicts between cognitions (thoughts, beliefs, opinions), people will take steps to reduce the dissonance and feelings of discomfort.” Although in some cases, it can be healthy to think in that type of way but at the same time, it is important to understand the pathways this level of thinking can possibly take one to. As much as one can defend an issue for the whole course of their life, if it is morally wrong, there is no possible maybe or accepting.

In addition to this, “Examples and Practical Applications of Cognitive Dissonance” in this article that I reflected upon, the topic of conflict revived around proving a cognitive dissonance on accepting the good in cheating and lying. Cheating and lying are both actions of an individual that occur based on situations represented in front of them. It can be seen in so many different ways. But not at all times does there have to be a negative connotation or instance in which these two or implicated. However, it must be looked at in terms of both ways. For it must be taken into consideration, that the act of doing one wrong is to better oneself for example; cheating or lying, is still an inadequate deed.” For instance, cheaters realize that treachery is not right, yet regardless they do it. What is more, when they do, most will as a rule feel really terrible about it. They think that it’s hard to assume liability for their own terrible conduct since it clashes with their self-idea. Be that as it may, through different types of intellectual controls, they can limit their careless activities to rest easy thinking about themselves. Since they rest easy thinking about themselves, they may proceed in their undertaking and could then be vulnerable to duping again later on the off chance that they do not gain from their missteps.

For starters, this article completely adheres to only the positives that come from using a different perspective to mentally justify cheating and lying to please the guilt in one’s mind. Although initially, one would take these matters to a serious grade of the level, people who use cognitive dissonance to map out their habits tend to differ. The author discusses about how one should only look at the part that benefits in these acts of mistreatment like in terms of cheating, cognitive folks say “others cheat all the time, what is the big deal if I did it once?’ Thus giving the mind a cheat sheet to cover the guilty conscience. Moreover, when talking in terms of cheating, the author says it is an acceptable practice because of the fact that “lying in almost every situation invites cognitive dissonance as most of us have been brought up with the belief that lying is wrong and unethical”. The author explains how people will turn things around to please their morals because they trick themselves to believe in the impossible. The main picture that the author is trying to convey is that the mind of a person controls more than what their morals can about that individual’s identity and quality of nature.

About People Of Both Sexes Who Have Been Sexually Abused

According to the National Sexual Violence Resource Center, one in three women, and one in six men in the United States experience contact with sexual assault in their lifetime. Rape culture has inspired campaigns such as the “MeToo” movement and has created room for many political discussions. We are all well aware of the punishment of prison time for rapist. In the United States, some rape cases could go as far as the death penalty for the guilty assailant. Although, would it be wrong to think that every person convicted of rape is not a rapist? An accuser who is found to have created false allegations of rape could be sentenced to a maximum of five years in jail for wasting police time or could also pay fine. Is that fair? Rape can most certainly ruin a person’s life, but people forget that allegations of rape can do the same thing. Of course, the act of creating a false story of being raped is not the equivalent to the sickening action of raping someone, although accusers admitting to falsifying a story happens way too often with most these accusers serving little to no jail time.

A direct punishment should be created for people who admit to fabricating a story of sexual assault. The most common reason people fabricate stories of rape is to create an alibi for another situation with a person they’ve been intimate with. For example, contracting a sexually transmitted disease, or getting pregnant can be looked down upon from an alleged victim’s family and colleagues. Therefore, an alleged victim can say they were raped instead of facing the guilt. The next most common reason would to get revenge or make claims out of anger towards the alleged assailant. Nikki Yovino, a nineteen-year-old woman, accused two Sacred Heart football players of rape after she feared losing the love interest of another student at the university. She admitted to fabricating the story three months after filing the police report and told police that the encounter was completely consensual just before trial. The two football players were removed from the school because of the allegations.

Yovino is serving a year in jail for wasting police time as a result. Lastly, the next biggest motive for creating false accusations is money. Singer Chris Brown was arrested in London after a woman came forth and alleged the platinum award-winning singer sexually assaulted her. The woman admitted to lying about it just days after the artist was released due to lack of evidence. Motives of making false rape accusations may vary widely and are hard to prove otherwise unless a statement is said from the victim. It’s complicated to fight against an allegation such as rape because normally the only people who know the truth are the alleged victims and the alleged assailants.

People have come out to later admit they’ve fabricated a rape since the Jim Crowe era. Sixty percent of Louisiana residence believed that lynching was the punishment for rape. Therefore, when consensual sex amongst a Caucasian woman and an African American man was discovered the most common result with end with the woman claiming to have been raped by the African American man. During the period of Jim Crowe, it’s without a doubt that the law would assume the side of a white woman rather than a black male. This practiced caused an increased amount of lynching’s and was justified as necessary punishment in order to protect the white women and maintain law and order.

A person who admits to fabricating a rape allegation could serve up to five years in jail. Although this sentence is not a direct punishment of the false allegation of rape. After admitting the guilt of lying, the accuser only could serve time for the misdemeanor crime of “creating a false police report.” The maximum sentence of five years is hardly ever received, with a handful of cases in the United States ending with an accuser only paying a fine and court cost. The accused may attempt to gain compensation with a lawsuit against the accuser for slander, but that doesn’t result in the person admitting to the slander to receive any jail time. The Innocence Project states that the average amount of time an innocent yet convicted person spends in jail for an alleged rape is twelve years before their cases are exonerated due to the victim finally telling the truth, or DNA evidence proves the victim otherwise. Twelve years in jail for an allegation against an innocent person versus the contrary of a maximum of five years for creating the allegation is not fair to the accused and is unjust.

A lawsuit for slander and stress is an option if a falsely accused rapist was seeking money for the time spent dealing with the case. Although it follows the accused for much longer than that. There are countless celebrities who’ve had their careers ruined based on rape allegations and even greater number of students who have been expelled because of them as well. Just as the Yovino case mentioned previously the two footballs players who were accused were expelled, lost all scholarships and kicked off the football team. They lost their chance at an education and playing the sport they enjoyed because of a woman who admitted to lying about them raping her. The time lost can never be gotten back for the two men, and the case shall follow their names and faces forever. Mandatory time should be taken away from her life just as she has taken away from theirs. In every other situation of law when a person is caught lying about something, they are usually sentenced to jail time. For example, fraud or impersonation are charges of their very own. There is no reason to let people who admitting to fabricating rape maintain being a grey area with the law.

Lying about rape affects the credibility of people who seek to find justice whenever they experience sexual assault. No one would feel comfortable coming forth if they felt that people would attempt to poke holes through their cry for help. Bill Cosby’s infamous rape case began with many women coming forth alleging they had experienced some form of sexual assault with him. Cosby was convicted by an encounter that happened fourteen years prior. The biggest question of the trial and most spectators was, “Why did they wait so long to say something?” Considering his celebrity status and his television personality, Cosby didn’t seem like the type of person that would commit such a crime. Yet he sits behind bars convicted of rape. It is horrible to have to questions such an experience but because of cases such as Chris Brown’s London allegation mentioned previously, we constantly must seek other motives when people coming forth about rape. This is a direct result of numerous cases of false stories created. This constantly takes away from the time we could be searching for the people who are genuinely guilty of rape.

The National Sexual Violence Resource Center splits questionable allegations that is labeled as “Unfounded” into two different categories. A “False Report” is a rape allegation in which the alleged victim has most likely admitted to the creating a false story, or an investigation can prove an encounter never happened. A “Baseless Report” is a rape allegation that doesn’t meet the requirements to charge the accused of rape. Although that doesn’t mean it didn’t happen. This is how most police departments in the United States handle most rape allegations. Every study the National Sexual Violence Resource center mentions shows that the rate of false reports are just below ten percent.

With statistics showing that at least one in three women experience some form of sexual assault, discussions began on the subject of what would be considered consent for sexual contact. The MeToo movement has prompted more than two dozen bills to be considered by law. Protest to this has inspired counter-movements such as the Him Too movement as well. The grey area of what we consider consent has caused sever separation amongst people. With the nature about rape already being somewhat hostile, lying about rape does nothing but makes things worse. People tend to choose a side based on their political standpoint and criticize others for question an accuser. With the fabrication of stories seeming to be a thing that will never go away, a lot of times people end up defending someone who later admits to lying about it.

How many people must admit to lying about rape for there to be mandatory consequences directly related to it? The fabrication of these stories has gone on longer than we can remember, and not too much has been done about it. It would be fair to create a law that requires an admitted false accuser to face consequences and take responsibility for their actions. The misdemeanor of wasting police time usually ends with an accuser ending up with a year in jail or less if any time at all, against the amount of time the accused could spend in jail because of a lie. Letting false accusers off with a slap on the wrist like this is unfair to the accused and is enabling the next person to not fear risking telling such a lie. The consequence doesn’t have to be too severe, although something must be changed in order to protect the next generation of people who may go through such a case. It’s hard to completely support every argument of the rape modern day rape culture when there’s fabricated cases standing before a trial. People will always remember when a guilty rapist is convicted, although people will never forget when a person admits to lying about rape against another innocent person.

Hates Liars And Lies In General

Everyone lies. It’s not uncommon. We all lie to get out of something or maybe to protect someone. Anyone who has read Mark Haddon’s story knows, Christopher hates liars and lying in general. However when it comes to Christopher, certain lies aren’t considered as one. Lying is what harms every relationship in this story because it breaks trust. Although Christopher doesn’t like to lie he still does it. In the novel he claims that he cannot lie. His dad also lies in the story, but his lies and Christopher’s lies are interpreted differently. In the novel, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time by Mark Haddon, the main message or theme the novel presents about lying is, that it is very easy to just lie in order to get out of a situation or get your way, without realizing the consequences that comes with that lie.

Christopher and his father are unbreakable in a way. They have a bond that is like no other ever since his father told him that Christopher’s mother passed away. Christopher relies on his father for everything, and the two of them plan to move away when Christopher goes to college. Two years ago Ed Boone told his son that his mother passed away from a heart attack. Because of Christopher’s autism, when he found out about what happened he remained normal. He couldn’t figure out why or how his mother could’ve had a heart attack at such a young age. “ Mother was only 38 years old and heart attacks usually happen to older people, and mother was very active and rode a bicycle and ate food which was healthy and high in fiber and low saturated fat like chicken and vegetables and muesli”. After the death of Mrs. Shears dog, Wellington, Christopher takes it upon himself to find the killer. Siobhan, his instructor, told Christopher he should write a book on it. He explained that his book will not be funny or have any jokes in it because he believes jokes make no sense. Throughout the story Christopher expresses that without the truth there is no love. You have to be truthful in order to love someone.

That is why Christopher thought he’d always say the truth. In chapter thirty-seven, Christopher explains his mom would call him a good person because he doesn’t lie, but the way he sees it is that, it’s not because he’s a good person it’s because he simply cannot lie. He said, “I do not tell lies. Mother used to say this was because I was a good person. But it is not because I am a good person. It is because I simply can’t tell lies”. When christopher thinks about lies, it makes him “shaky and scared.” Yet later in the story he tells a “white lie” to his dad when trying to hide the fact that he was still trying to find Wellingtons killer. In his head it isn’t considered lying he explains, “ This is called a white lie. A white lie is not a lie at all. It is where you tell the truth but you do not tell all of the truth.”  This little white lie is what sets off the rest of the story and causes to reveal other things that shouldn’t have been revealed.

While investing Wellington’s death Christopher meets a woman named Mrs. Alexander and after a while he grows to trust her. When Christopher was asking Mrs. Alexander questions about Mr. Shears the truth came out about his mom and Mr. Shears had an affair. She says, “ Your mother before she died, was very good friends with Mr. Shears…I mean that they were very good friends. Very, very good friends.” Christopher picked up on it and understood they had an affair, but his mind didn’t take it the way normal people would he just absorbed the information and wrote it in his book. Later on, Ed Boone finds the book and gets furious that he was still trying to find Wellingtons killer and that Mrs. Alexander told him about the affair. It led to father hitting him so hard he knocked out. He also hid the book, which led to christopher finding it in his closet along with letters that had his name on it with handwriting his mom has. After reading several letters Christopher felt sick because he realized his mother was not dead or had a heart attack. His father sees that Christopher read the letters and begged for forgiveness.

He stumbled on his words, he didn’t know what to say. Christopher was just quiet and leads to Mr. Boone telling Christopher the truth on who killed Wellington. In this moment Christopher lost trust in his father. He was scared he would get killed too. Christopher said, “ I had to get out of the house. Father had murdered Wellington. That meant he would murder me, because I couldn’t trust him, even though he had said “trust me,” because he had told a lie about a big thing.” (Haddon, 122) This lie hurt their relationship to the point Christopher ran away.

Each person’s lie harmed relationships. Even though they thought at the time it was okay it escalated into something bigger. Christopher said it was okay to lie about something as long it was little. Ed Boone lied to get himself out of the situation. They both think it was okay, for Christopher, he always believes he is right so there is no way to convince him otherwise. However, according to the article, The Ways We Lie by Stephanie Ericsson, she says, “There is a world of difference between telling functional lies and living a lie.” Ed Boone from the start should have told the truth about what really happened with Christophers mom instead of living in his lies. Losing his sons trust wasn’t worth it for a lie.

From a small white lie to a big delusion lie. Lying affects everyone differently. Even though it is part of our daily lives, we don’t realize the harm that comes with it. By the end of the story we learned that Ed Boone lied to Christopher about his mom being dead, Judy Boone was lying about the friendship her and Mr. Shears had, when it was really an affair, and Christophers small white lie which caused his father to react the way he did and led to Christopher finding his mother’s letters. Everyone chose to lie to get out of a situation, but in the end it ruined the key to relationships, which is trust.

Works Cited

  1. Haddon, Mark. The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time, Mark Haddon. Spark Publishing, 2014.
  2. Ericson, Mark. “The Ways We Lie” Utne Reader, 1992

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