The Efficacy Of Twin Block (Removable) And Herbst (Fixed) Functional Appliances In Treating Class II Division 1 Malocclusion Sample Assignment


The present study aims to compare the efficacy of Twin Block (Removable) and Herbst (Fixed) functional appliances in treating Class II Division 1 malocclusion. The former is a removable appliance, while the latter is a fixed orthodontic appliance attached to the molars using metal bands (Moro et al., 2020). Malocclusion is characterized by a forward positioning of the upper jaw relative to the lower jaw and an overbite (, 2021). Malocclusion, or the misalignment of teeth, is a common condition among children and adolescents that can lead to significant issues with chewing, speaking, and even breathing. In some cases, fixed or removable appliances can correct the malocclusion and realign the teeth. One of the most common malocclusion issues is Class II division one, in which the lower teeth are either in a retruded position or the upper teeth are in a protruded position. To treat Class II division 1 malocclusion, two common types of appliances, fixed and removable, are used. Fixed appliances, such as the Herbst, are bonded to the teeth and are meant to be worn all the time. Removable appliances, such as the Twin Block, are designed to be taken in and out of the mouth and can be adjusted as needed. This dissertation aims to compare the efficacy of the Twin Block and the Herbst appliances in treating Class II division 1 malocclusion. Both appliances have advantages and disadvantages, and this research aims to determine which type of appliance is most effective in treating this common condition. The results of this study will provide valuable insight into the best treatment options for Class II division 1 malocclusion.

Orthodontic history and treatment and changes over the years

The history of orthodontic treatment dates back to the ancient Egyptians and Greeks, who used metal bands and wires to help straighten teeth. As the years progressed, so did the technology and materials used for orthodontic treatment. Since then, advances in orthodontic treatments have continued to be made.

In the 1990s, mini-screws were introduced to provide additional anchorage for orthodontic treatment. With these screws, orthodontists can now apply more force to the lower jaw and prevent relapse of the malocclusion. This has enabled faster and more reliable treatment with fewer side effects. In the 2000s, technological advances led to the development of clear braces and aligners, which are now widely used in orthodontic treatment (Tolessa, 2020). These braces and aligners are aesthetically pleasing and much more comfortable than traditional metal braces. In addition, they allow orthodontists to customize the treatment plan for each patient and provide a more efficient and effective treatment.

The oral health of patients with Class II malocclusion is particularly interesting due to the potential risks associated with the condition. Periodontitis, a gum disease, is one of the most common problems associated with Class II malocclusion. It is characterized by inflammation of the tissue and bone around the teeth, resulting in damage to the teeth and loosening of the gums. This can lead to pain, bleeding gums, and tooth loss. Orthodontic treatment is typically the first step in improving oral health for those with Class II malocclusion. The use of fixed and removable appliances can help to correct the misalignment of the teeth, as well as improve overall oral health. Twin Block and Herbst are the most common appliances used to treat Class II malocclusion.

The Twin Block appliance is a removable brace comprised of two connected plates worn to move the lower jaw forward. The Herbst appliance is a fixed appliance used to correct jaw discrepancies by anchoring the lower jaw to the upper jaw. Both appliances are effective in treating Class II malocclusion and improving oral health. However, they differ in cost, comfort, and ease of use. Research has shown that the Twin Block appliance is more economical, more comfortable to wear, and easier to use than the Herbst appliance. Therefore, it may be a better option for patients with Class II malocclusion seeking a more cost-effective and comfortable treatment.

Malocclusion and Angle’s classifications (not too detailed, but outlining the differences between Class I, Class II division 1, and class II division 2 and III).

Malocclusion is a misalignment or incorrect relationship between the upper and lower teeth when the jaws are closed. The severity of malocclusion is classified according to Angle’s Classification System of malocclusion, which is the most widely accepted and used system (Germanò et al., 2019). Class I malocclusion is the most common type of malocclusion. It is characterized by the maxilla and mandible being in normal relationship to each other, with both the maxillary and mandibular teeth occluding normally. The overjet and overbite are within normal limits.

Class II division 1 malocclusion is characterized by a mandibular retrusion and maxillary protrusion, resulting in a deep overbite and an increased overjet. The molar relationship is usually a class II relationship, where the molar relationship of the maxilla is ahead of the mandible. A mandibular retrusion also characterizes class II division 2 malocclusion, but there is a maxillary retrusion instead of a maxillary protrusion. This results in a shallow overbite and a decreased or normal overjet (Germanò et al., 2019). The molar relationship is usually a class II relationship, where the molar relationship of the maxilla is ahead of the mandible.

Class III malocclusion is characterized by a mandibular protrusion and maxillary retrusion, resulting in a decreased overbite and overjet. The molar relationship is usually a class III relationship, where the molar relationship of the mandible is ahead of the maxilla. In the case of Class II division 1 malocclusion, treatment often involves using a fixed or removable functional appliance. Twin block (removable) and Herbst (fixed) are two such appliances commonly used to treat this type of malocclusion (Ling, 2020). The goal of this dissertation is to compare the efficacy of these two appliances in the treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion.

Class II Division I malocclusion

Class II Division I malocclusion is a common condition in orthodontic patients, characterized by a discrepancy between the size of the upper and lower dental arches and/or jaws. This condition is usually caused by an excessive overjet, defined as the horizontal distance between the maxillary and mandibular incisors. It is also known as “buck teeth” or “protrusive maxillary incisors.” The severity of the malocclusion can range from mild to severe, depending on the degree of discrepancy between the upper and lower dental arches and jaws (Ling, 2020). In mild cases, the maxillary incisors may protrude slightly, while in more severe cases, the maxillary incisors may protrude significantly, and the mandibular incisors may be retruded.

The primary goal of treatment for Class II Division I malocclusion is to reduce the overjet and correct the malocclusion. This can be achieved through orthodontic braces, functional appliances, and surgical treatment. The most common type of functional appliance used to treat Class II Division I malocclusion is the Twin Block, a removable appliance (Ling, 2020). The Twin Block and Herbst appliances are commonly used to treat Class II Division I malocclusion. The Twin Block uses a combination of forces to guide the mandible into a more forward position, which helps to reduce the overjet and correct the malocclusion. The Herbst appliance is a fixed appliance that applies a constant downward force to the mandible, guiding the jaw into a more forward position and reducing the overjet (Ling, 2020). Ultimately, the choice of the appliance to treat Class II Division I malocclusion will depend on the severity of the malocclusion and the patient’s and orthodontist’s preferences. The removable Twin Block appliance may be the best option for mild cases, while the fixed Herbst appliance may be the best option for more severe cases.

Fixed functional appliances to treat class II Division I malocclusion.

In the 19th century, Edward Angle developed the first standard classification system for malocclusions, which is still used today (Carvalho et al., 2018). He also improved the technology used for orthodontic treatment by introducing the first archwire and bracket.

Fixed functional appliances are orthodontic devices used to correct the malocclusion of the teeth. They work by repositioning the teeth, jawbone, and muscles, improving dental arch alignment and facial appearance. Fixed functional appliances are commonly used to treat Class II Division 1 malocclusion, characterized by a mandibular retrusion and an excessive overjet of the maxillary incisors. Using fixed functional appliances to treat this malocclusion can result in improved facial symmetry, a better smile, and improved oral health (Ghaffar et al., 2022). This appliance is usually worn for up to one year, and during this time, the patient must maintain good oral hygiene and wear the appliance as instructed by the orthodontist. To treat a Class II Division I malocclusion, a patient must have teeth that do not meet or align correctly.

Fixed functional appliances can be used to correct Class II Division 1 malocclusion, but they do have some drawbacks. They require a commitment to wearing the appliance for the duration of the treatment, and they can cause discomfort and speech impediments. Additionally, they may not be suitable for every patient and have been shown to be less effective in patients with severe malocclusions (Siva, 2021). Fixed functional appliances are popular for treating Class II Division 1 malocclusion. They can effectively correct this malocclusion but can also cause discomfort and speech impediments (Abi, 2020). Discussing all options with an orthodontist is important to determine the best treatment plan for each individual.

Fixed functional appliances correct Class II division 1 malocclusion, characterized by an excessive overjet and a deep bite. Fixed functional appliances aim to reduce the overjet and correct the anterior-posterior and vertical discrepancies in the occlusal relationship. In addition, these appliances can be used to encourage the development of a more normal occlusal relationship and the correction of skeletal discrepancies (Abi, 2020). By encouraging the growth of the lower jaw forward, the appliance can also help promote a more favorable facial profile. Lastly, fixed functional appliances aim to reduce the need for further orthodontic treatment.

When selecting a fixed functional appliance for treating Class II division 1 malocclusion, several critical criteria must be considered:

  • The appliance should provide optimal treatment outcomes, such as improved dental alignment, overbite and overjet reduction, and increased facial aesthetics.
  • The appliance should be comfortable for the patient, with minimal adverse effects, such as speech and mastication difficulties.
  • The appliance should be cost-effective and have a reasonable treatment duration.
  • The appliance should be easy for both the patient and the clinician.

Various fixed functional appliances exist, including the Herbst and Twin Block, and each has its advantages and disadvantages. The Herbst appliance is simple and cost-effective, providing a constant force to the mandible and resulting in a rapid improvement in skeletal and dental changes, with minimal patient compliance required (Abi, 2020). The Twin Block has a more excellent range of force applications due to its removable nature. It can correct the dentoalveolar and skeletal components of Class II division 1 malocclusion. However, its removable nature increases the risk of patient noncompliance, and its treatment duration is generally longer than other fixed functional appliances (Abi, 2020). Therefore, the clinician must consider each appliance’s advantages and disadvantages before selecting the most appropriate one for the patient.

When it comes to using removable appliances to treat Class II Division 1 malocclusion, there are several potential risks associated with their use. Firstly, the patient may be at risk of developing soft tissue irritation due to the pressure applied by the appliance against the inside of the cheeks and lips. This can cause discomfort and difficulty with eating and speaking. Secondly, the appliance must be taken out for eating and cleaning, and the patient must be diligent in ensuring they wear the appliance for the prescribed amount of time each day (Abi, 2020). If they do not, the treatment may fail to be effective. Another potential risk with removable appliances is that the patient may not be compliant with the treatment. This can occur due to discomfort or lack of motivation, and is a common reason why removable appliances are not successful in treating Class II Division 1 malocclusion. The patient must be willing to follow the instructions provided by the orthodontist for the treatment to be successful.

Finally, the patient may be at risk of developing gingival irritation due to the pressure of the appliance against the gums. This can lead to inflammation and discomfort, and should be monitored by the orthodontist. In conclusion, there are several risks associated with the use of removable appliances to treat Class II Division 1 malocclusion. These include soft tissue irritation, lack of patient compliance, and gingival irritation (Abi, 2020). Therefore, it is important for the patient to be aware of these risks prior to beginning treatment, and for the orthodontist to monitor these issues during the course of treatment.

Herbst (Fixed)

The Herbst appliance consists of a metal framework custom-made to fit the patient’s teeth and a metal joint that connects the upper and lower parts of the appliance, which controls the movement of the lower jaw (Moro et al., 2020). It is worn 24 hours daily, generally well-tolerated by patients, and highly effective in correcting malocclusion by guiding the lower jaw into the correct position (, 2021). The treatment with the Herbst appliance is usually divided into two phases, with the appliance worn continuously for 6-12 months in the first phase, the active phase of treatment (Moro et al., 2020).

The Herbst appliance, developed by Emil Herbst early twentieth century, marked the beginning of the modern era of fixed functional appliances. This appliance was designed to correct Class II malocclusions in growing patients, and it was the first to move both the upper and lower jaws simultaneously (Carvalho et al., 2018). Although it was re-popularised by Hans Pancherz in the early twentieth century, the Herbst appliance was difficult to install and had limitations in its ability to control the lower jaw and prevent relapse of the malocclusion.


The Herbst appliance is a fixed functional appliance attached to the braces. It consists of a metal framework custom-made to fit the patient’s teeth. The metal joint that connects the upper and lower parts of the appliance is a crucial component of the Herbst appliance (Moro, A. et al. 2020). This joint helps to control the movement of the lower jaw, which is the main issue that needs to be addressed in Class II malocclusion. By encouraging the forward growth of the lower jaw, the Herbst appliance helps to correct the malocclusion, thereby improving the bite and jaw alignment.

The Herbst appliance is highly effective in treating Class II malocclusion as it guides the lower jaw, allowing it to grow into the correct position. It also helps to distribute the forces of biting and chewing evenly across the jaw, reducing the pressure on individual teeth and the risk of further damage (, 2021). Furthermore, the Herbst appliance is designed to be worn 24 hours daily. It is generally well-tolerated by patients, making it an ideal choice for individuals looking for an effective and convenient way to correct their malocclusion.


The treatment with the Herbst appliance is usually divided into two phases to ensure optimal results and a successful correction of Class II malocclusion. The appliance is worn continuously for 6-12 months in the first phase (Bishara et al. 2000). This is the active phase of treatment, where the Herbst appliance controls the movement of the lower jaw and encourages the forward growth of the jaw into the correct position. This period of continuous wear is crucial to achieving the desired correction and is why the Herbst appliance is popular among orthodontic professionals.

The second phase of treatment with the Herbst appliance involves the patient wearing the appliance at night time only for 6-12 months. This phase is designed to maintain the correction achieved during the first phase, ensuring that the lower jaw remains in the correct position. It is also a time for the patient to get used to the new jaw position and for the surrounding soft tissues to adapt to the changes. This phase of night-time wear is essential for ensuring long-lasting results and preventing malocclusion from reoccurring. Overall, the two-phase treatment with the Herbst appliance provides a comprehensive and effective solution for individuals seeking to correct Class II malocclusion.

Time Frame

The treatment time with the Herbst appliance is typically 12-24 months, making it a relatively short-term solution for correcting Class II malocclusion. However, it is important to note that this time frame can vary depending on several factors, such as the severity of the malocclusion and the patient’s compliance with the treatment plan (, 2021). In some cases, where the malocclusion is more severe, the treatment may take longer, while in other cases, where the patient is highly compliant and the malocclusion is mild, the treatment may be completed in a shorter time frame.

Patients need to understand that the length of treatment with the Herbst appliance will depend on their case and that the time frame provided is an estimate. Orthodontic professionals will assess the patient’s needs and provide a more accurate estimate of the treatment time based on their specific case. Patients are also encouraged to ask questions and raise any concerns regarding the treatment process and time frame to ensure they are fully informed and prepared for their journey towards a corrected bite and improved jaw alignment.

Removable functional appliances for treating Class II Division 1 malocclusion

Removable functional appliances are a popular option for treating Class II Division 1 malocclusion, as they offer a non-invasive and convenient solution for correcting bite and jaw alignment issues (, 2021). The main aim of these appliances is to encourage the forward growth of the lower jaw and reposition the upper jaw relative to the lower jaw, which helps to correct the malocclusion. This treatment is ideal for individuals looking for a less intrusive option than traditional orthodontic treatments such as braces.

Some of the most common types of removable functional appliances used to treat Class II Division 1 malocclusion include the Twin Block, the activator, and the MARA. These appliances work by applying gentle force to the jaw and teeth, which helps to guide the jaw and teeth into their correct positions r(Kim et al. 2005). The appliances are designed to be worn for specified periods each day. They are easy to remove, making them a convenient and practical option for individuals looking to correct their malocclusion (Moro A. et al., 2020). Furthermore, the removable functional appliances are typically well-tolerated by patients, making them a popular choice among orthodontic professionals and patients.

Twin Block (Removable)

The Twin Block is a popular type of removable functional appliance used to treat Class II Division 1 malocclusion. It is a non-invasive and convenient solution that is well-tolerated by patients and can be easily removed for eating and brushing.

The Twin Block appliance consists of two acrylic plates designed to fit over the upper and lower teeth. The plates are connected by a metal bar, which helps to control the lower jaw’s movement and encourages the lower jaw’s forward growth (Kim et al. 2005). The metal bar is a critical component of the appliance, providing the necessary force to reposition the jaw and teeth into their correct positions. The appliance is designed to be worn continuously, except when eating and brushing teeth, for 6-12 months. This duration can vary depending on the severity of the malocclusion and the patient’s case.

The Twin Block is a highly effective appliance for correcting Class II Division 1 malocclusion and has been used successfully by orthodontic professionals for many years. The removable nature of the appliance makes it a convenient option for patients, as they can remove it for eating and brushing, which can help reduce any discomfort or inconvenience associated with other orthodontic treatments (, 2021). Additionally, the Twin Block is typically well-tolerated by patients and is considered a safe and effective option for individuals looking to correct their malocclusion.


The treatment with the Twin Block appliance is usually divided into two phases. The first phase is a crucial stage of the treatment, during which the appliance is worn continuously for a period of 6-12 months (Day & Lander 2007). This continuous wear allows the appliance to work effectively in controlling the lower jaw’s movement and encouraging the lower jaw’s forward growth. The appliance applies gentle pressure to the jaw, which helps to reposition the jaw and teeth into their correct positions, resulting in a corrected Class II Division 1 malocclusion.

In the second phase, the patient must wear the appliance at night for 6-12 months to maintain the correction. This phase is important to ensure that the correction is stable and that the lower jaw does not revert to its original position. The patient will typically only need to wear the appliance at night, which can help reduce any discomfort or inconvenience associated with continuous wear. The total treatment time with the Twin Block appliance is typically 12-24 months, and this time frame can vary depending on the severity of the malocclusion and the patient’s case (Moro, A. et al. 2020). However, the patient must adhere to the treatment plan and wear the appliance as directed by their orthodontic professional to ensure the best outcome.

Time frame

The time frame for treatment with the Twin Block appliance can vary depending on several factors, including the extent of the malocclusion and the patient’s level of cooperation with the treatment plan. On average, most patients wear the Twin Block for 12-24 months, but this can be extended or shortened depending on the individual’s needs and progress. The goal of the treatment is to correct the bite and align the jaws properly, and the length of treatment will be determined by the amount of time needed to achieve these results (Day & Lander 2007). Consistently wearing the appliance as directed and following the recommended treatment plan is crucial for ensuring a successful outcome and reducing the overall treatment time.


In conclusion, the Herbst and Twin Block appliances are two of the most commonly used orthodontic devices for treating Class II Division 1 malocclusion. The main goal of these appliances is to realign the bite and position of the jaws in a manner that promotes a proper and functional bite. They work by guiding the growth of the lower jaw forward and repositioning the upper jaw about the lower jaw, which helps to correct the overbite and improve the overall alignment of the jaws. Both appliances are highly effective in treating Class II Division 1 malocclusion and have been used with great success by orthodontic professionals worldwide. The choice between the Herbst and Twin Block will depend on various factors, including the patient’s needs and the orthodontist’s recommendations. Regardless of the specific appliance chosen, the ultimate goal is to achieve a straight, healthy, and functional bite.

Reference list

Abi, H.R., 2020. A comparison of the dentoskeletal changes with Twin-Block versus Herbst functional appliance treatment in patients with Class II malocclusion: A systematic review.

Achmad, H., Anas, A., Susilawati, S., Kurniyanti, D., Edy, S., Kas, I., Hartika, D.M., Hatta, L.I., Djais, A.I. and Horax, S., 2022. The Effectiveness of Using Twin Block Functional Appliances and Activators in Class II Malocclusion. Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, pp.939-947.

Bishara, S. E., Kharouf, J. G., & Kokich, V. G. 2000. Comparison of the Herbst and Twin-block appliances for treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 118(1), 28-38.

Carvalho, C.V., Saraiva, L., Bauer, F.P.F., Kimura, R.Y., Souto, M.L.S., Bernardo, C.C., Pannuti, C.M., Romito, G.A. and Pustiglioni, F.E., 2018. Orthodontic treatment in patients with aggressive periodontitis. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics153(4), pp.550-557.

Day, P. F., & Lander, P. 2007. Orthodontic treatment using the Twin-block appliance. An evidence-based systematic review. British Journal of Orthodontics, 34(3), 129-138.

Germanò, F., Vompi, C., Carreri, C., Da Mommio, L., Filetici, M.T. and Grenga, C., 2019. Soft Tissue Effects of Twin Block and Herbst Functional Appliances: A Systematic Review.

Ghaffar, F., Jan, A., Akhtar, O., Mughal, A.T., Shahid, R., Shafique, H.Z., Bibi, K., Mehmood, S., Afgan, N. and Zaheer, R., 2022. Comparative Analysis of Dentoskeletal Changes of the Twin Block Appliance and the AdvanSync2 Appliance in Treatment of Skeletal Class-II Malocclusion in Pakistani Population: A Randomized Clinical Trial. European Journal of Dentistry16(03), pp.680-687.

Kim, S. H., Lee, J. H., Kim, J. W., & Kim, K. Y. 2005. Comparative study of the skeletal and dental effects of Twin-block and Herbst appliances in the treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion. Angle Orthodontist, 75(5), 661-669.

Ling, X.I.E., Ping, W.A.N.G. and Jianhua, W.U., 2020. Soft and Hard Tissue Changes Following Treatment of Class II Division 1 Malocclusion with Twin-Block and Myofunctional Appliance: A Pilot Study. Chinese Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery2(4), pp.217-227.

Moro, A., Mattos, C.F., Borges, S.W., Flores-Mir, C. and Topolski, F., 2020. Stability of Class II corrections with removable and fixed functional appliances: A literature review. Journal of the World Federation of Orthodontists9(2), pp.56-67. (2021). Removable functional appliances. Retrieved from

Pakkhesal, M., Naghavialhosseini, A., Faali, T., Khoshnevisan, M.H. and Karimian, A., 2022. Oral health–related quality of life changes during phase 1 Class II malocclusion treatment using Frankel 2 and Twin-block appliances: A short-term follow-up study. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics.

Siva, S., Subramanian, A. K., & Nivethigaa, B. 2021. Comparison Of Mandibular Changes After Fixed Functional Appliance And Twin Block Appliance In The Treatment Of Class Ii Malocclusion: A Systematic Review. Int J Dentistry Oral Sci8(1), 1096-1101.

Tolessa, M., Singel, A.T. and Merga, H., 2020. Epidemiology of orthodontic treatment need in southwestern Ethiopian children: a cross sectional study using the index of orthodontic treatment need. BMC oral health20, pp.1-6.

The Interrelationship Of Tourism And Society University Essay Example

Sociology is the study of social structures and human connections. Sociology aims to explain how human activity and awareness are influenced by surrounding cultural and social systems by unifying the study of these disparate fields. Sharma (2021) claims that one of sociology’s specializations and subfields is tourism, which uses sociological ideas, methodologies, and frameworks. Models and theories may be explanatory, descriptive, or predictive. Tourist activity, social aspects of tourism, its effects, traveler motivation and role, and social, economic, and cultural repercussions in both the host and destination countries are a few topics covered in sociological studies of tourism.

Because it is “the phenomenon and interactions emerging from the engagement of tourists’ businesses suppliers, host governments, and host communities in recruiting and hosting these tourists and other visitors,” tourism may be referred to as “the whole of these phenomena and connections.” Sharma (2002). Domestic, foreign, and international tourism are the three sorts. A collection of individuals with a shared industrial, social, and economic infrastructure is referred to as a society (Andrew & Leopold,2013). Furthermore, they contend that civilisation creates social groupings and molds cultures. It permits control of how public facilities are distributed and fosters interpersonal harmony. According to the UN, sustainable tourism “addresses the demands of travelers, the industry, the environment, and host communities, taking full account of its present and future economic, social, and environmental implications.”

According to Apostolopoulos et al. (2013), tourism involves cross-cultural interaction between people from different nations and fosters peace and harmony. Tourism enhances communication between communities and adjacent countries by promoting cultural understanding, mutual respect, and peace. Tourists are aware of and appreciate the art, architecture, and other aspects that greatly influence them. This essay aims to show how tourism and society are interconnected by highlighting tourism’s many effects on society. The effects on culture, socioeconomics, environment, and economy include both sound and negative, direct and indirect effects. The essay also predicts how tourism and society will function in the future:

Economic Impacts of Tourism

Tourism’s direct and indirect economic consequences on society are both beneficial and destructive. The direct effects category represents the GDP produced by enterprises directly associated with the tourism sector. This includes travel agencies, hotels, tour operators, airlines, restaurants, and other businesses that serve tourists (WTTC 2019). The term “indirect effects” describes the results of the sector’s activities. Three factors affect them: Spending by companies in unrelated sectors on tourism-related assets like transportation and hotels is considered part of the tourism industry’s total capital investment. “Government spending on tourism” refers to federal, state, and municipal dollars spent boosting the travel and hospitality industries. Other tasks include management and guest services, as well as the promotion of tourism. Implications for the Supply Chain: This refers to the money companies spend in the tourism sector on domestic goods and services that will be utilised as raw materials to produce finished goods.

According to Sharma (2021), there are six key ways that tourism directly affects the more extensive economy: Employment Creation: When tourism-related activities result in jobs being created via a variety of channels, such as hotel personnel, tour guides, and chefs. Food and furnishings are examples of the services and goods that national or local firms may provide to the tourist industry (WTTC 2019). When domestic production falls short of meeting consumer demand in terms of price, quality, or quantity, imports may be necessary. Retailers in popular tourist destinations may reap the economic advantages of the influx of tourists right away via direct sales of products and services. Construction of Tourism Businesses: High levels of tourist activity encourage the development of new businesses and the creation of new jobs. Tax and Levy Generation: The local, federal, and state governments get more revenue from tourism-related enterprises paying taxes directly to the government and tourists paying taxes.Investment in Infrastructure – As the tourist industry grows, so will its demands on the local infrastructure, which drives infrastructure investment from the public or private sector.

However, the adverse economic effects include the following: In many cases, residents have to pay extra for transportation, meals, and other needs because of a sudden increase in demand caused by an influx of visitors. Owners of second homes in popular tourist areas sometimes only spend a fraction of the year there. Disputes between residents and tourists are common because of the rising cost of living brought on by the demand for vacation homes, which makes it harder for locals, especially young people, to buy their first homes (Apostolopoulos et al., 2013).

According to research, the sector globally supports (WTTC, 2019): 5 times the employment of the automobile industry; 5 times the number of employees in the worldwide chemical industry; four times the number of jobs in the mining sector; twice as the number of jobs in the communications sector; and fifteen more jobs than in the financial service sector. The main economic benefit of tourism-related activities is their contribution to the three top priorities of developing nations: employment, revenue creation, and foreign currency earnings. In this regard, tourism may significantly contribute to economic growth (Sparrowly Group, 2022).

Environmental Impacts

There are cases in which environmental change is sparked in part because of the positive impact tourism has on the local ecosystem. Several once-derelict factories and other locations in the United Kingdom have been renovated into tourist destinations (Fletcher, 2018). The tourist industry has also benefited from the revitalization of once-abandoned waterways. Historic buildings such as churches, castles, and cathedrals may be preserved for future generations with the help of tourism, which can help generate funding for restoration work on these sites.

However, several travel and tourist activities hurt the environment. Natural resources deplete when visitors use a lot of water and other resources in areas where such items are in short supply. Water Waste: Excessive Use of Water Caused by Tourist Attractions Like Swimming Pools, Garden Maintenance, and Individual Use. Local Resources: Increased tourism may increase the need for energy, food, and raw materials. According to the WTTC (2020), tourism may harm biodiversity by overfishing and trekking. Pollution: tourism may cause pollution by releasing air pollutants, solid waste, and wastewater. Noise & Air Pollution: As the number of tourists grows, the tourism industry’s role as a significant producer of pollutants increases. Based on data from 2005, the WTTC (2019) studied the effect of tourism on carbon emissions, and it was realized that the sector contributed almost 5% of all carbon emissions.

Social Impacts

People travel for many reasons, but one of the most common is to broaden their horizons by meeting new people and experiencing different cultures. “(Fletcher, 2018)” Improvements done with tourists in mind frequently result in a positive return on investment. No rule prevents locals from enjoying tourist spots that cater exclusively to visitors (Philipp, 2022). Travelers typically have a deeper appreciation for the culture of the places they visit. It has been shown that an increase in tourism has a positive effect on a region’s economic prosperity and educational level.

Negative social repercussions have been seen. Most of them involve problems between guests and the locals. These could develop due to the activities of residents who are upset about tourists intruding on their area. Local crimes increase, including robbery, prostitution, illicit gambling, and drug trafficking. Locals, in particular places, have been forced to leave their traditional homes to create room for tourist development. Seasonal work, or more accurately, unemployment, is another frequent problem (Philipp, 2022).

Cultural Impacts

Due to tourism, there may be a greater demand for regionally produced food and drink and an increased interest in preserving traditional arts like music. As a result of increased demand from tourists, several indigenous communities have begun producing and selling arts and crafts. To keep a place’s unique culture alive, tourist marketing is essential, says WTTC (2020). In recent years, concern has grown that rapid growth in mass tourism might damage local cultures. Instead of urging visitors to consume local dishes, giving them ethnic cuisine and beverages that they are used to is simpler. Staging of performances, such as Spanish dancing, in which the local culture is insulted or made fun of to attract visitors (WTTC 2020).

According to WTTC (2021), the tourism sector has to acknowledge that it produces a significant amount of carbon emissions and look into strategies to do so while preserving the mobility required for travel. Local tourist stakeholders must be aware of the threat they pose to protecting their original local surroundings and take action to ensure their activities are sustainable.

Future of Tourism and Society

According to Vintean (2019), international tourism is expected to expand rapidly by 2023. As of that year, there will have been 1.6 billion tourists from all around the world. With better transportation links, more people will visit the UK. According to the UN (2016), many factors will determine the future tourism business’s course. The increasing number of people on Earth, the expansion of international trade and travel, the emergence of affluent middle classes in emerging markets, the advent of low-cost airlines and their effect on consumer behaviour, and the development of new technologies that influence costs, travel times, and information dissemination are all factors to consider.

Longer flights are now possible with new aircraft technology while simultaneously reducing emissions, fuel consumption, and noise. According to Vintean (2019), Clouds in the sky include the availability and cost of energy, terrorist attacks, and political unrest worldwide. Buyers are starting to pay attention to carbon dioxide levels and environmental consequences. Companies of all sizes are beginning to understand the importance of environmental protection. This is often a result of public demand. The aviation industry, a significant contributor to carbon emissions, is under intense scrutiny.

According to United Nations, Some preventative measures that can be put in place for future development include using newer planes and greener technologies and allowing consumers to offset their emissions by donating to environmental causes. Because of the damage it does to the planet, flying can lose its appeal. Better fuel efficiency, carbon dioxide collection and storage, and alternative fuel mixes might benefit the aviation industry. As a means of mitigating their impact on the planet and becoming ready for a future with fewer resources, several industries advocate for eco-friendly and sustainable technologies.

Countless variables have an impact on the tourist industry. United Nations (2016) predicts cultural and social disruptions brought by the global crisis and mindful consumerism. The emphasis is no longer on the individual but on the group. In the wake of the Great Recession, prudent consumption has taken the place of frivolous spending. Consumers’ perceptions of brands and the values they represent are shifting. Plans include promoting mindful travel, i.e., keeping in mind the true purpose of travel, which is to familiarise oneself with the locals, form meaningful relationships with the landscape, and absorb as much of the history and culture of the place visited as one’s own pace allows (Legislation 2016).

In conclusion, there are four connected ways that tourism affects economies: positively and negatively, directly and indirectly. Direct effects come directly from tourism-related activities, such as tourist spending, employment in the industry, and taxes generated by these activities. The influence of tourism on other economic sectors, such as hotels buying products from shops or procuring food from growers, results in indirect effects. The economic impact of the tourist industry on a nation is determined by these effects and the sector’s organisational structure. The statistics on the direct and overall impacts of the tourist industry reveal considerable positive economic consequences, and the section demonstrates an apparent beneficial influence on growth by the sector. The favourable effects of tourism on employment are similar to those of growth.

Overall, the tourist industry supports a sizeable number of employees and performs well compared to other important industries like the extractive, financial, and car manufacturing sectors. Depending on the nation and how prevalent tourism is, its effects vary, but generally, it is a net contributor to employment. Compared to growth and employment, the impact of tourism on incomes is more challenging to measure, primarily because of the sparse data and the global scale. The data on how tourism affects growth and employment is sufficient to understand the “raw” effects of the industry. However, more information is needed on how the industry affects incomes, livelihoods, and poverty, making it more challenging to measure and track how it affects equality. Due to the scarcity of impact data, it is more challenging to accurately estimate tourism’s environmental effects. However, there needs to be more information on the industry’s other environmental effects, such as waste, deforestation, and land degradation. However, data indicates that tourism may have a negative environmental effect since GHG emissions rise when travel demand rises along with the sector’s demand.


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Federal Contract Management Free Essay


Federal contract management refers to a process that involves the administration, acquisition, and oversight of goods and services provided by private contractors to government agencies. It is a critical process that helps government agencies achieve their objectives and efficiently provide goods and services to the public. When government agencies issue contracts, it is fair to ensure that the process is open, transparent, and fair and that the responsible government agency manages the contract administration process effectively. It is also crucial to provide contract oversight because it ensures the government gets the best value for the money invested and the contractors’ services and products that meet the needs of the government. This essay will focus on the key elements of federal contract management, including the procurement process, contract administration, and contract oversight.

The Procurement Process: Identifying Needs and Solicitation of Bids

The procurement process plays an integral part in federal Contract management. It involves acquiring goods, services, and construction work through contracts with private entities. The process begins by identifying the government’s needs and selecting the appropriate acquisition method. This step is followed by soliciting bids from potential contractors, which is done through advertised procurement, competitive proposal, or sealed bidding. The procurement process is vital because it ensures that the taxpayer’s money is spent well and that government operations continue running smoothly (United States Department of Justice, 2020). It is also part of fiduciary requirements that helps to eliminate the wastage of the government’s resources and ensure that all business between the government and private entities follows the stipulated regulations as the law provides.

The procurement process is a crucial aspect of federal contract management. It is acquiring goods, services, and construction work through contracts with private organizations. The procurement process begins with identifying the government’s needs and selecting the appropriate acquisition method to acquire the goods, services, or construction work. The next step is the solicitation of bids from potential contractors, which can be done through various methods, such as advertised procurement, sealed bidding, and competitive proposals (Federal Acquisition Regulation, 2020). The procurement process is essential to ensure that taxpayer money is spent efficiently and effectively and that the government’s operations run smoothly.

Identifying Needs

The first step in the procurement process is to identify the needs of the government. The contracting government agency determines the required goods, services, or construction work. It also determines the requirements and specifications for these items. There are different ways in which the government uses to identify needs. These include market surveys, the user needs assessments, and feasibility studies (Roberson et al., 2020). After identification of the needs and determining the quality thresholds, the government agency determines the method of acquiring the identified needs. (goods, services, or construction work.) the method of acquisition depends on the complexity and nature of the requirement and the government’s needs and resources (United States General Services Administration, 2020). Standard acquisition methods include sealed bidding, sole source procurement, and competitive proposals.

Solicitation of Bids

After determining the government agency’s needs and the acquisition method to be used, the next step is soliciting bids from potential contractors. Solicitation of ids involves inviting private business entities (contractors) to submit offers to supply goods, services, or construction projects the government needs. The solicitation of bids takes place in different ways, including advertised procurement, competitive proposals, and sealed bidding. The most commonly used approach is the advertised procurement method. This method involves publishing a notice on the Federal Business Opportunities (FBO) website, which is the official source for all federal procurement opportunities exceeding $25,000 Federal (Federal Business Opportunities, 2020). On the other hand, sealing bidding is a method of soliciting bids used when contracting work that can be clearly defined and is suitable for firm-price contracts. Lastly, competitive proposals are used when the government agency requires a detailed proposal from a contractor for specific work goods or services.

Contract Administration: Managing Performance and Resolving Disputes

Contract administration is a process that ensures both the contractor and government meet their contractual obligations. On the other hand, dispute resolution refers to resolving disputes fairly. Both functions are essential in ensuring the taxpayer’s money is spent efficiently and effectively to perform the required job (Brunjes, 2020). Government officials must monitor contractor performance to ensure they are meeting the terms of the contract. In the event of a dispute, both parties should work toward a resolution in a timely and efficient manner.

Managing Performance

Managing Performance refers to the process of managing and overseeing the performance of a contract. It ensures that the government and the contractor meet their contractual obligations and work within the law (Gill et al.,2019). Contract administration includes monitoring the contractor’s compliance with the terms and conditions of the contract, as well as evaluating their performance in meeting the contract’s requirements. One of the primary responsibilities of contract administration is to ensure that the contractor meets the performance standards outlined in the contract. Managing performance helps to ensure the contract meets the required quality and satisfies the needs of both the contractor and government agency.

The responsible authorities monitor the progress of the contract and ensure the contractor meets the schedule, budget, and other requirements stipulated in the contract. The government can terminate the contract if they feel the contractor has failed to meet the required performance thresholds (Brescini & Giacalone, 2020). Another important aspect of contract administration is change management. Changes to the contract affect its performance and success. Therefore, the contract administrator is responsible for managing these changes and ensuring that the contractor works in compliance with the contract. Failure to manage change effectively can lead to the project’s failure, which requires immediate action whenever they happen.

Dispute Resolution

Dispute resolution is resolving disputes between the government and contractors fairly and promptly. Due to business challenges, disputes between the government and contractors are inevitable. Dispute resolution is an integral part of change management that ensures differences receive an amicable solution that makes it possible for the contracts to succeed. According to the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), there are several dispute resolution options between the government and the contractor (Brescini & Giacalone, 2020). These methods include mediation, arbitration, and negotiation. Mediation is adequate despite the resolution method because it allows a third party to help resolve the dispute.

On the other hand, most cases prefer negotiation because it provides grounds for both parties to find a mutually acceptable solution. If the two methods fail to find a solution, the two parties can opt for arbitration to resolve the dispute (Brunjes, 2020). Alternatively, the two parties can use the Contract Disputes Act (CDA) to resolve their disputes (Contract Disputes Act, n.d). The CDA provides a mechanism for resolving conflicts involving the government and contractors using the boards of appeals. These boards work independently and impartially and are responsible for resolving disputes arising under government contracts.

Contract Oversight: Monitoring and Evaluating Contractor Performance

Contract oversight refers to ensuring that the contractor is meeting the contract’s terms and conditions and performing their work as per the contract requirements. This function is crucial to government operations because it ensures that the government spends taxpayer money correctly and that government activities run smoothly. Government officials must regularly review the work of contractors to ensure they are meeting their obligations under the contract and take appropriate action if they need to comply. This helps to ensure the successful execution of the contract and the efficient use of government resources.

Monitoring Contractor Performance

Government authorities are responsible for managing the contract’s performance to ensure it aligns with the terms of the contract. This process includes monitoring how the contractor complies with the project schedule, budget, and other requirements stipulated in the contract. The government can use different methods to monitor the contractor’s performance, including on-site inspection, performance evaluations, and progress reports (Park & Krause, 2021). With on-site inspections, the government sends representatives on the ground or project site to observe and evaluate the work performed by the contractor. Such inspections allow the government to ensure the contractor meets the contractual obligations, observes safety requirements, and meets the project standard and quality thresholds.

The government can also use project reports to monitor the performance of the contract. The contractor must prepare and submit project progress reports within stipulated timeframes per the contract’s terms and conditions. These periodic progress reports give a clear picture of the performance of the contract and give the government representative time and opportunity to question and make suggestions for improvement (Roberson et al., 2020). They also provide updates that ensure the contractor meets schedule and budget requirements if the budget. If the progress reports indicate a deviation from the expected performance, Government agencies make recommendations on what should be done, including termination of the contract. Any input and recommendations must align with the contractual terms and regulations.

Evaluating Contractor Performance

The government is responsible for evaluating the contractor’s performance and ensuring it meets the contract’s requirements. They evaluate the contractor’s compliance with the contract’s terms and conditions and assess the work’s quality. There are different methods that the government uses to evaluate the performance of the contractor. These include audits, performance evaluations, and assessments (Stritch et al., 2020). The most common way to evaluate a contractor’s performance is through evaluations. Government representatives conduct these evaluations, assessing how the contractor’s work complies with the contractual terms and conditions. These evaluations also focus on the quality of the work and ensure the performance meets the required quality. These evaluations are based on pre-defined criteria, and they help us determine whether the contractor meets the contract’s requirements.

Another way of performing contractor performance that focuses on the ability of the contractor to meet specific requirements is the use of audits. For example, it evaluates whether the contractor meets the performance standards such as quality and safety and their ability to meet other contract requirements (Hemmatian et al., 2021). Government agencies can detect and prevent fraud, abuse, and wastage through audits. Additionally, the government can use assessments to evaluate if the contractor complies with industry (such as construction) regulations. Just like contract oversight, performance evaluations are crucial in ensuring that public money gets used efficiently for the right job and that it helps in keeping the government in operation.

Compliance with Federal Laws and Regulations

Federal contracts are subject to a wide range of laws and regulations that contractors must comply with to execute the contract successfully. Compliance with federal laws and regulations is essential to federal contract management. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations can result in significant penalties and can negatively impact the successful execution of the contract. Contractors should be aware that compliance with federal laws and regulations is a continuous process that requires them to be vigilant to avoid liability (Resh & Lee, 2022). They should stay informed of new laws and regulations that the federal states may introduce to avoid potential violations. They should also review their internal policies and procedures to comply with these regulations.

The Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) is the primary regulation governing federal contracts. It sets out the requirements for contract formation, performance, and administration. Compliance with FAR is essential for contractors and is one of the factors that makes them eligible for federal contracts. Failure by the contractors to meet FAR can result in the termination of their contracts. The FAR covers many topics, including contract pricing, subcontracting, and intellectual property (Resh & Lee, 2022). Other components include specific provisions for unique entities such as businesses owned by service-disabled veterans, small businesses, and historically Underutilized Business Zones (HUB Zone.). Contractors are also required to comply with other federal laws and regulations depending on the nature of the contract. Examples include labor laws, environmental regulations, and anti-corruption laws.

Examples of regulations required of the contractors include the Davis-Bacon Act and the Service Contract Act, which set out wage and benefit requirements for certain types of federal contract workers. They must comply with the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) to provide safe and healthy working conditions for employees and with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) to ensure that their activities do not harm the environment. Contractors doing business with the government must also comply with Anti-corruption laws, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) (Jia et al., 2022). This law prohibits American firms from using bribes to retain or obtain business. It is essential to comply with FCPA because violations will lead to heavy fines and penalties and can even sever the contract with the government.

The government can conduct audits requiring contractors to submit reports to ensure compliance with federal laws and regulations. Such audits and reports are essential because they ensure that the contractor complies with the terms and conditions of the contract. The government can also include clauses in the contract requiring contractors to have a strict compliance program and to self-report any violation. Other important laws include the False Claims Act (FCA), which illegalizes the submission of false claims to the government (Brescini & Giacalone, 2020). This law allows individuals to sue contractors on behalf of the government and share in the recovery. FCA is a powerful tool that helps the government combat fraud and abuse in federal procurement. It is essential, therefore, for all contractors to be aware of FCA to avoid potential liability.


In conclusion, effective federal contract management is essential for the successful execution of contracts between the government and private companies. It involves overseeing the entire process, from contract formation to performance and administration. Critical aspects of federal contract management include contract administration, contract oversight, and compliance with federal laws and regulations. Effective federal contract management is essential for ensuring that government contracts are executed successfully and that government resources are used efficiently. It helps to ensure that the government gets the best value for its money and that contractors meet their contractual obligations. It also protects the government from legal and financial liabilities.


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