The Empirical Rule In Statistics University Essay Example

The empirical rule is one of the basic statistical terms associated with the normal distribution. Also called the three-sigma rule, this law states that for a normal distribution, virtually all observable data will be within three standard deviations (Hayes, 2021). There is a ratio of 68-95-99.7, according to which 68 percent of observations fall in the first deviation, 95 percent in the second, and 99.7 percent in the third. Therefore, using this rule, one can make predictions about the final results based on the likelihood of a particular observation. In addition, this method is relatively fast and allows getting a rough estimate in cases where detailed data acquisition is impossible or costly. Finally, this law can be used to test the “normality” of the distribution (Hayes, 2021). However, since the rule of thumb is closely related to the normal distribution, it can only be applied in these cases. Accordingly, all other types of distribution, for example, skewed, are incompatible with this theory.

In reply to one of my classmates, Jamal, I have to point out that his wording is not entirely accurate. Although my friend also notes the relationship between the rule and the standard deviation, I should note that there is nothing in the definition of the empirical rule about symmetry to a “mean.” In addition, Jamal somehow separates the three standard deviations and the normal distribution in the last paragraph of his post, as if separating them into different forms of distribution, although these parameters are closely related. Finally, a classmate of mine does not quite correctly interpret the application of the empirical rule in the context of “skew to the left” and “skew to the right.” These concepts are separate distribution laws and cannot be applied in the context of this law. Thus, Jamal’s post is not devoid of the right thoughts, but some of the wording needs clarification.


Hayes, A. (2021). Empirical rule. Investopedia. Web.

“Requiem For A Dream” By Aronofsky

Is the Mental Disorder Appropriately Portrayed?

The targeted movie for this exercise is “Requiem for a Dream”. The film is directed by Darren Aronofsky. This movie narrates the story of Sara Goldfarb and the people around her life. The health issue outlined in this film is addiction. According to the film, addiction affects the lives of different people such as Sara, Tyrone, Marion, and Harry (Watson & Aronofsky, 2010).

The movie begins by narrating the story of Sara Goldfarb. This character loves watching a show named “informercials”. The show is hosted by a famous celebrity called Tabby Tibbons. After getting a call inviting her to participate in a game show, Sara starts a new journey in order to regain her youthful appearance. Sara’s is advised by her doctor to take amphetamine pills to reduce weight (Watson & Aronofsky, 2010). She takes more pills after her invitation is prolonged. This behavior results in a condition called amphetamine psychosis (Watson & Aronofsky, 2010).

The film plays a critical role towards describing how addiction is portrayed in the contemporary society. The film portrays different forms of addiction from the right perspective. For instance, the story of Sara describes how people can be easily addicted by televisions. Individuals who are addicted to the TV might be categorized as sick people. This film shows conclusively that TV addiction is a mental condition that should be taken seriously in every society. The film goes further to show how drug addiction is a serious mental problem in the society. This is true because Marion and Harry are forced to do the impossible in order to get heroin (Watson & Aronofsky, 2010). This portrayal shows clearly that addictions can affect and transform the lives of more people in the society. Depression is another mental condition catalyzed by loneliness and lack of financial resources. Tyrone is portrayed as an individual who is adversely affected by PTSD. That being the case, the characters are addicted to heroin and prescription drugs. The film also shows clearly that Sara is a victim of TV addiction. The film also indicates clearly that addiction is a serious mental issue associated with different psychological conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and psychosis.

The symptoms portrayed in the film are in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Some conditions such as PTSD are good examples of psychological health problems. Substance-related disorder is presented throughout the film. This is the case because the DSM-5 framework includes dependence and use of drugs such as opium, heroin, or alcohol (Halter, 2013). The fifth chapter of the DSM-5 model shows conclusively that addiction to different substances and situations should be classified as mental disorders.

Harry and his partner are addicted by heroin. Tyrone, who is Harry’s friend, is also addicted to the drug. Harry engages in criminal acts in order to purchase heroin. The individuals eventually join an illegal drug trade (Watson & Aronofsky, 2010). After a short time, Tyrone is arrested for engaging in an illegal trade. Marion is willing to engage in sex in order to get heroin.

Portrayal of the Condition and Societal Perception

The targeted film goes further to present something that should be taken seriously by every society. To begin with, the movie shows conclusively that different forms of addiction continue to affect many people across the globe. The stories of characters such as Sara, Marion, and Harry reflect the lives of many people across the globe. The movie gives a detailed analysis of the characters’ lives as they struggle with the problem of addiction (Halter, 2013). However, the society depicted in this film does more harm to the experiences of these individuals. This kind of portrayal therefore reflects the issues experienced in many communities.

Sara’s condition worsens since she becomes hallucinated. She goes to Manhattan to confirm the date of her show with Tibbons. After arriving at the casting agency, Sara is admitted in a psychiatric ward. She receives degrading treatments but they fail to work. The doctor goes further to recommend the use of electroconvulsive therapy (Watson & Aronofsky, 2010). During the same period, Harry’s arm is infected because of continued drug abuse. This issue explains why Tyrone and Harry are eventually arrested. While in New York, Marion engages in sexual activities in order to acquire drugs.

The society in this movie ignores the experiences and challenges affecting the characters. For example, Harry’s arm is amputated ruthlessly without considering his medical needs. Harry is also imprisoned at a time when he needs adequate medical support (Watson & Aronofsky, 2010). A similar malpractice is observed when Tyrone is imprisoned. As an inmate, the character faces discrimination and stigma.

It is also notable that Marion’s therapist is extremely unethical. This issue shows clearly that more victims of addictions find it hard to trust the providers of mental health care in the society. With the existing level of stigma, the patients are forced to take more drugs in order to address the issue of discrimination (Scott, 2012). Sara’s doctor prescribes medications for weight loss instead of providing the best support.

Sara and Marion are isolated towards the end of the film. These individuals appear to go back to their original problems or positions (Watson & Aronofsky, 2010). This is the case because they are unable to overcome the pains and sufferings that characterize their respective lives. Basically, every viewer observes clearly that the sufferings encountered by the characters are undeniable. Consequently, the long-term effects of addiction are evident in the film. The characters encounter numerous challenges such as anxiety, psychosis, and paranoia. Sara exhibits the major symptoms associated with addiction.

With this kind of portrayal, the audience and members of the society might be encouraged to avoid patients who abuse specific drugs. Abuse is associated with both medicinal and addictive drugs such as heroin. Unfortunately, the society (including different professionals) fails to support the needs of these patients. The malpractice makes it impossible for the characters to realize their health goals. Towards the end of the film, the viewer observes clearly that the psychological needs of the individuals are never addressed (Appelbaum, 2014). They remain hopeless and incapable of pursuing their future goals. This portrayal is a reflection of the experiences of many addicts in different societies.

High Priority Nursing Diagnoses

Nurses possess a wide range of skills that make it easier for them to address the health problems affecting their patients. Individuals suffering from addiction can benefit from various nursing diagnosis techniques. Such high priority techniques have the potential to identify the targeted health problems and deliver the best goals (Norko & Fitch, 2014). If implemented appropriately, the nursing diagnosis techniques presented below can address the problems associated with addiction.


This method of diagnosis is used by nurses to support patients suffering from addiction. The characters in the film appear to be helpless and hopeless. This approach can support the needs of Harry, Marion, and Tyrone. The major evidences to consider will include continuous intake of addictive drugs, alteration in personal lifestyles, and helplessness in an attempt to obtain the drugs (Appelbaum, 2014).

Harry’s arm is eventually amputated. It is also notable that Sara continues to receive the inappropriate therapy (Watson & Aronofsky, 2010). While in prison, Tyrone thinks deeply about his mother. Towards the end of the movie, Marion is seen to have a bag of heroin in her hands. Sara also has a dream whereby she wins the biggest prize in a show hosted by Tibbons (Watson & Aronofsky, 2010).

After identifying such evidences, the nurses should “encourage the patients to surrender to powerlessness over addiction” (Scott, 2012, p. 39). The affected patients should be allowed to participate in peer support (Halter, 2013). A powerful program can be implemented to promote active participation. Medications can be provided in order to produce positive results. The ultimate goal is to ensure the patients re-pattern their lifestyles and avoid drugs.

Deficient Knowledge

This nursing diagnosis is mainly used when there is lack of information. This high priority technique can support the needs of Sara. The continued intake of prescribed drugs and lack of purpose in life are psychological problems affecting the character. The major evidence is the continued use of drugs that have adverse consequences (Scott, 2012). There are also misconceptions regarding the issue of weight loss.

The desired outcomes include re-patterning the knowledge of the patient. The patient should be empowered to embrace a new lifestyle that is not characterized by drugs (Scott, 2012). A proper treatment program should also be used to support the patient. Multidisciplinary teams can be used to deliver long-term patient support.

Appropriate Nursing Interventions for Addiction

This film shows clearly that addiction is a serious mental health condition that affects the lives of many people. Patients affected by this mental illness should receive the best support and intervention. The best interventions should be procedural in order to produce positive results. The first approach is analyzing the unique health needs of the targeted patients. The approach will identify the issues affecting the targeted patients. The patients should then be guided to embrace healthy behaviors. A powerful model should be used to inform the patients about the dangers of various drugs (Halter, 2013). A powerful campaign should also be used to educate the addicts about the side-effects of specific drugs. The next move is to outline how medicinal drugs can be used adequately to minimize dependence.

The nurses should provide the right support and resources to the patients. A multidisciplinary team can be used to provide long-term care to every patient. Positive health practices, exercises, healthy diets, and personal goals should be outlined by the members of the team. Support groups can also be formed to encourage more addicts to stop taking the drugs affecting their lives (Halter, 2013). Specific medicinal drugs should be used to treat the symptoms associated with addiction such as depression.


Appelbaum, P. (2014). Commentary: DSM-5 and forensic psychiatry. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 42(1), 136-140.

Halter, M. (2013). Varcarolis’ foundations of psychiatric mental health nursing: A clinical approach. New York, NY: Saunders.

Norko, M., & Fitch, L. (2014). DSM-5 and substance use disorders: Clinicolegal implications. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 42(1), 443-452.

Scott, C. (2012). Forensic psychiatry: An issue of psychiatric clinics. New York, NY: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Watson, E. (Producer), & Aronofsky, D. (Director). (2010). Requiem for a dream [Motion picture]. United States: Artisan Entertainment.

Privacy Issues Associated With Data Warehousing


The issues related to the security of information in data warehouses and the risks of theft or leakage pose a severe threat to organizations’ intellectual property and budget assets. Failure to address the associated risks can lead to significant reputational and financial losses, which explains the need to implement robust digital data security principles in warehouses. The purpose of this work is to identify privacy issues and how to prevent them through the implementation of effective protective practices. A qualitative design based supplemented by a phenomenological approach has allowed gaining valuable experience of the employees involved in control over the security of data warehouses. A literature review has helped obtain relevant findings on this topic. Specific solutions have been presented at three levels – physical, technical, and administrative. Among the most effective principles for dealing with privacy issues, hiring qualified personnel, controlling authentication, and implementing adequate governance and monitoring policies are proposed.


Data warehouse security practices mean protecting infrastructure, including local and external data centers and clouds, and stored information. The spectrum of potential problems is wide, ranging from accidental or deliberate damage to information and ending with unauthorized access. Addressing these issues is critical because most data leaks ultimately boil down to data warehouse security issues. A well-designed system provides for compliance with various regulations and frameworks designed to secure data warehouses. Increasingly, security companies are developing solutions to help meet these regulations. A reliable data warehouse security system minimizes the risk of theft, unauthorized disclosure, forgery, and accidental or deliberate damage to private information.

This research work is aimed at highlighting the real privacy issues associated with data warehousing and determining possible tools and algorithms to prevent these problems. A literature review will be conducted, and the results will be compiled by comparing the most common problems and how to solve them. In addition, qualitative research will be carried out with the involvement of qualified specialists serving data warehouses in large companies. A list of levels and solutions will be drawn up to address potential privacy issues. Through surveys as the main data collection tools, information from the involved participants will be processed, and the overall outcomes will be obtained. Effective information management in data warehouses is the key to securing assets and preventing cyber threats that can harm the intellectual property of organizations.

Background of the Problem

In the context of a massive transition to cloud services and other advanced methods of data storage, many companies have managed to optimize their algorithms of control over information and create convenient platforms for accessing it. Data warehousing is an approach utilized in many spheres, and in Figure 1, some areas are provided, including the complexity levels (Shahid et al., 2016). One can note that the business sector uses the advantages of this technology actively, and data warehouses are convenient information storage spaces that provide opportunities to manage specific data conveniently. However, according to Binjubeir et al. (2019), numerous operations over intellectual property are associated with the risks of losing valuable data caused not only by careless handling of information but also by external threats. The disadvantages of unstable protection, in turn, affect the credibility of companies in the market and can lead to great expenses associated with the loss of important information. Therefore, the assessment of hazards and methods of overcoming them is of great importance for modern organizations. A literature review can help identify the existing issues associated with privacy and highlight mechanisms to avoid these problems.

The use of data warehouses
Fig. 1. The use of data warehouses (Shahid et al., 2016).

Literature Review

Before implementing a specific data warehouse security system, this is crucial to understand the types of threats that a company may face when establishing the infrastructure of these systems. In general, in academic literature, all these factors are usually divided into three categories – external, internal, and unforeseen. According to Geetu and Vats (2016), organizations and cloud service providers are responsible for ensuring the safety of their clients’ information. However, companies themselves are at risk, and any threat is fraught with the leakage of valuable information that can subsequently be used to the detriment of the organization by competitors or other interested parties. Therefore, many studies are devoted to researching the top threats to data warehousing with a focus on privacy issues and their causes.

External Threats

The list of external threats includes cyber fraudsters who conduct hacker activities and organize criminal groups on the world wide web. As Parikh et al. (2019) note, organizations often face individual cybercriminals who steal valuable information and sell it to interested parties. Another external threat is the terrorist activities of extremists who, using less sophisticated tools and applying the active methods of pressure, steal private data (Shahid et al., 2016). This threat poses no less danger since organizations are vulnerable to direct aggression from extremists. Industrial espionage competitors are capable of stealing data if they are interested in obtaining private information. This type of threat is common and represents a form of active entrepreneurial struggle. Finally, the intelligence services of individual countries can conduct targeted activities involving the steps aimed at stealing valuable information. This threat is severe and fraught with foreign policy disagreements and struggles on the world stage, which, in turn, require vulnerable companies to create a highly effective defense mechanism. All these types of external threats are real and explain the need to develop adequate solutions on the part of organizations and companies that own private data.

Internal Threats

With regard to internal threats, researchers agree that ineffective work with personnel is a consequence of data leakage from corporate networks. Singh and Gurm (2016) argue that one of these dangers is employees’ insider activity. Employees, guided by criminal thoughts, collude with competitors and sell valuable information for money, thereby creating problems for their organizations. This form of fraud is hard to detect since many workers have access to private data, and this is challenging for managers and responsible employees to identify those who sell information to third parties. Another internal source of data leakage is poorly trained staff using corporate databases without proper preparation. As Alvi (2018) remarks, employees who do not understand the importance of securing information can exhibit errors in the work with passwords and unknowingly provide attackers with an opportunity to steal valuable data. Poor password management, negotiating access keys with third parties, and other gaps in team training can be the causes of inadvertent information leakage and lead to severe outcomes. Thus, targeting employees from the perspective of communicating the importance of compliance with data protection mechanisms is an important aspect of data warehouses security.

Unforeseen Threats

Unforeseen threats are risks that are not related to external or internal activity and concern situations caused by interruptions in the operation of networks due to concomitant circumstances. One of the possible reasons is power outages, which can lead to a security failure and, therefore, open vulnerabilities in data warehouses (Parikh et al., 2019). This threat is dangerous because such interruptions cannot always be identified timely, and even if appropriate measures are taken, information can be lost. The storage of digital data depends on the technical characteristics of networks, which, in case of a breakdown or failure, may cause problems. Another unforeseen threat is a natural force majeure caused, for instance, by a flood, fire, or another element that is beyond human control (Liang et al., 2021). In this case, there is a risk of physical damage to the hardware. Data warehouses, like any digital bank, operate due to a secure system that is free from physical threats. In case of force majeure entailing the aforementioned failures, the information may be lost irretrievably. Therefore, protection against such threats should also be part of adequate data warehouses maintenance and control.

Data Warehouse Security Principles

At the highest level, the security of a data warehouse should comply with specific principles governing its resilience. In case one or all of the conditions are not met, threats to privacy arise, and related dangers appear. According to Binjubeir et al. (2019), the initial three main concepts of information security are confidentiality, integrity, and availability” (p. 20070). Each of these aspects forms a general algorithm of work and determines the convenience of operating with information. In Figure 2, the architecture of a common data warehouse is demonstrated (“Data warehouse architecture,” 2021). This scheme shows how the process of information transmission takes place.

Data warehouse
Fig. 2. Data warehouse (“Data warehouse architecture,” 2021).

Confidentiality implies creating a system in which unauthorized users cannot access a warehouse and download or modify data. As Binjubeir et al. (2019) state, unauthorized access to information should be prevented both over the network and locally. This is a key principle to prevent information leakage and avoid data theft by third parties. The factor of integrity presupposes the establishment of a system that is not subject to modifications and changes without the knowledge of its administrators. In other words, the data in the storage are to be protected from tampering and unauthorized changes. Otherwise, hackers or inexperienced users can disrupt the algorithm by restructuring security options and introducing new information that is not recognized by the security system. Finally, the principle of accessibility implies the ability to modify the structure of a data warehouse by responsible parties. Following this rule helps minimize the risk of storage failure or inaccessibility, both deliberately, for instance, through a DDoS attack, and accidentally, for example, during a spontaneous action, power outage, or mechanical failure. The aforementioned security aspects are mandatory conditions to comply with to exclude threats to privacy in data warehouses.

Research Method

To determine how to protect data warehouses and identify the security levels that need to be taken into account, qualitative research is a method of evaluating information from qualified employees. Professional administrators of such systems will be engaged as the target audience, and survey results compiled from their responses can help identify the key security principles. This means that the study has a phenomenological framework because the participants’ experience is the key assessment tool to take into account and analyze. The outcomes obtained are valuable in the context of productive work to eliminate potential privacy issues associated with data warehousing and establish a stable mechanism for storing digital information.


The target sample includes 20 specialists serving data warehouses of large organizations. The parameters of age, gender, and other demographic characteristics are ignored because the main focus is on the experience and professionalism of the participants. Accordingly, the sampling criteria are selective and affect the working practices of the members invited from different companies. The participants will be involved online for safety and social distancing purposes. All ethical conventions will be respected, and the study members will be made aware of the research goals and how their responses will be processed. Their distinctive experience can be a valuable factor in obtaining an accurate and unbiased assessment of the issue under consideration.

Data Collection

Surveys are the key tool for collecting data from the target audience. This mechanism is appropriate for the type of research claimed and involves obtaining information based on the research members’ experience. The surveys will be conducted online and will include questions regarding privacy issues associated with data warehousing and potentially effective ways to avoid them. This principle of data collection allows obtaining information from each participant individually, which increases the credibility of the study.

Instruments and Measurement

For conducting the study, a table will be compiled, including the participants’ responses. A special online program will contain the questions and record the answers as the survey is conducted remotely. By evaluating the response of each of the survey members, the most frequent opinions will be displayed in the table. For the convenience of the participants, special criteria will be proposed. The aim of the study is to clarify privacy issues associated with data warehousing. Therefore, the optimal solutions provided by specialists will be divided into groups. Specific safeguards for data warehouses will be categorized into three levels – physical, technical, and administrative. The most frequent solutions cited by the participants will be included in the results of the study after comparing all responses during one week.


The principle of evaluating the methods of dealing with privacy issues associated with data warehousing by dividing potential solutions into categories allows optimizing the research results. In Table 1, the results of the surveys are summarized based on the participants’ responses. Specific solutions are presented in terms of their frequency of mention, ranging from the most popular answers to the rarest opinions. Each of the proposed interventions is relevant to any data warehouse and may be applied by IT specialists and managers of different organizations.

Table 1. Methods of combating privacy issues associated with data warehousing.

Physical Level

Physical security measures protect infrastructure and data from physical unauthorized access.

Technical Level

Security measures at the technical level include IT solutions, for instance, network perimeter protection, intrusion detection systems, firewalls, and antiviruses.

Administrative Level

Administrative measures are limited to planning appropriate security procedures and implementing data warehouse security control practices.

  1. Hiring professional staff to monitor data centers and storage spaces.
  2. The use of access systems based on biometrics/smart cards and turnstiles with protection against the penetration of several persons at the same time and reverse that allow only one person to pass after authentication.
  3. Indoor monitoring with temperature and smoke sensors.
  4. The use of alternative power sources, such as a spare generator.

  1. User authentication and access control by avoiding account sharing and adhering to all accounting standards.
  2. Traffic analysis with behavioral analysis applications.
  3. The protection of management interfaces by means of encryption and data encryption systems.
  4. Monitoring and reporting to detect and better understand security breaches and prevent data privacy risks.

  1. The consideration of storage aspects in security policies after identifying the most important and business-critical categories of information and security requirements.
  2. The integration of repository-specific policies and other regulations where possible.
  3. The implementation of data security and protection measures.
  4. The implementation of measures for the removal of information and disposal of media.
  5. Verification that all elements of the storage infrastructure comply with security policies.

Based on the responses of the participants involved, one can point out that the correct maintenance of data warehouses is more important than the technical characteristics of these systems when privacy issues arise. The principles of reporting and monitoring occupy the last lines of the proposed lists. Hiring qualified personnel, effectively managing user authentication, and evaluating control practices are the key procedures to implement in organizations. The study outcomes confirm that the adequate maintenance of data warehouses involves creating an integrated infrastructure in which all nodes are protected at different levels, and appropriate security standards are applied. The results of the work done are valuable in view of the massive transition to cloud storage systems as the main algorithms of digital information management. Subsequent research on the topic of data warehouses privacy may include narrower issues regarding individual components of these systems.


Despite the relevance of the research and its specific results, this study has some limitations. Firstly, the representatives of large companies have been involved as a sample, which narrows the assessment of the results and does not allow asserting the above safety principles in all organizations without exception. Future research may include a broader list of participants from different types and sizes of companies. Secondly, in this study, the levels of protection are predefined, and all information is grouped into ready-made categories. A wider range of areas involved in addressing privacy issues can increase analytical credibility and attract more procedures to be implemented. However, the stated goals have been achieved, and the results of the research confirm the importance of discussing security aspects of data warehouses.


Privacy issues associated with data warehousing are a critical reason to examine potential threats and how to avoid them in modern digital storage systems. The relevance of the problem is due to the growing interest in this form of data management and cases of theft and leakage of information. The conducted research has made it possible to identify the most frequent risks and highlight the range of potentially important solutions at the appropriate levels – physical, technical, and administrative. Hiring qualified employees, adequate algorithms for controlling user authentication, and relevant practices for assessing security standards are the components of secure data warehouses management. Despite some limitations, the research is relevant and offers valuable insight into the issues of digital data privacy.


Alvi, I. A. (2018). Best practices for ensuring impenetrable data warehouse security. Data Warehousing Information Center.

Binjubeir, M., Ahmed, A. A., Ismail, M. A. B., Sadiq, A. S., & Khan, M. K. (2019). Comprehensive survey on big data privacy protection. IEEE Access, 8, 20067-20079.

Data warehouse architecture. (2021). GeeksforGeeks.

Geetu, G., & Vats, S. (2016). A survey on issues of security in cloud computing. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science, 7(6), 204-207. Web.

Hayes, J. (2020). The security challenges of data warehousing in the cloud. Cloudera.

Liang, Y. (2021). Study on overseas warehouse location of manufacturing cross-border e-commerce enterprises based on multi-objective. Converter Magazine, 2021(3), 172-184.

Parikh, S., Dave, D., Patel, R., & Doshi, N. (2019). Security and privacy issues in cloud, fog and edge computing. Procedia Computer Science, 160, 734-739.

Shahid, M. B., Sheikh, U., Raza, B., Shah, M. A., Kamran, A., Anjum, A., & Javaid, Q. (2016). Application of data warehouse in real life: State-of-the-art survey from user preferences’ perspective. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 7(4), 415-426.

Singh, P., & Gurm, J. S. (2016). Detecting insider attacks sequences in cloud using freshness factors rules. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, 9(3), 278-288.

Zhang, H., & Zhu, Y. (2019). A method of sanitizing privacy-sensitive sequence pattern networks mined from trajectories released. International Journal of Data Warehousing and Mining (IJDWM), 15(3), 63-89.

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