The Evolution Of Basilicas In The Roman Empire During Late Antiquity Sample Essay

The basilica has a long and storied history that begins second century BCE and continues to the present day. The basilica gained popularity during the rise of the Roman Empire and went through its most dramatic changes during Late Antiquity. Modern day society has led us to believe basilicas to be religious buildings, mainly churches, and therefore has skewed the view we have of the origins of basilicas. A basilica was not initially a spiritual place. In fact, it was a civic building, much like a forum, it was used for legal proceedings and other civic needs for the Roman people.

The architecture of the early basilica allows for many people to be housed, and became ideal for spiritual buildings. The early basilicas were long rectangular buildings, usually with an entrance on the long sides rather than the shorter sides. There are several distinct pieces to the basilica’s floor plan; the apse, aisle, and nave. The nave, is the longest part of the building, generally a large open area that is flanked by the aisles on either side. The aisles were separated from the nave by a long row of Corinthian columns, stretching from the rear of the building all the way up to the front, where the apse was located.

The apse, is the most notable portion of the basilica and it was normally where the tribunal was located. The apse is normally a half circle tacked on to the end of the rectangle formed by the nave and aisles, and is [the apse] is generally considered to be the ‘front’ of the building. This is the basic basilica floor plan as it was introduced to the early Roman Empire, and as it evolved a narthex and a transept were added, due to their religious importance.

The word basilica was derived from the Greek term, “Basilike Stoa” meaning the tribunal chamber of the king. Early basilicas were found in the roman forum, and were civic buildings used from time to time for legal proceedings and other administrative needs. As with the expansion of the Roman Empire, so to came the development of the basilica and eventually its assimilation into religious architecture specifically into cathedrals for the Christian faith. The first basilica on record was financed and erected by Marcus

Porcius Cato in 184 BCE, and dubbed the Basilica Porcia and it was primarily used as a tribunal for the plebs. Between 184 BCE and 300 AD many more basilicas were built, all of which were contributing to the Roman Forum and not used for religious purposes until the time of Constantine. Basilicas were the often-favored building for the Roman Forum because of their structure and its ability to hold immense amounts of people in one area. This was also the primary reason for their integration into Christian architecture.

The Christianization of the basilica can be traced to the time of Constantine and indirectly attributed to the emperor himself. While he did not commission the plan to implement the basilicas his adoption of the Christian faith allowed for the expansion and overall acceptance of Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire. Along with this new religion came rapid expansion and the need for a place for congregation and worship, enter the basilica. Due to its open floor plan and ability for expansion, it was soon adopted into Christian architecture.

In contrast Pagan temples were built to be shrines to the many gods and were favorable to outside worship. The traditional basilica design was built upon, and two key additions were made, the narthex and transept. The transept, is set perpendicular to the aisles and separates the nave from the sanctuary. The transept also gives Christianized basilicas the cross-shaped floor plan that is often associated with them today. Basilicas were meant to pay homage to God and Christianity and adding the transept to shape the building like a crucifix was not by chance.

Gregory Nazianzen connected the initial resemblance in 380, and the resemblance was met by much success, partially due to crucifix as a symbol in the Christian faith and partially due to the rise in popularity of the Cult of the Cross. Constantine, in both Rome and Constantinople, commissioned the “new” basilicas as part of his rebuilding of the old city. Another addition to the basilica floor plan was the addition of the narthex. The narthex functions as the “foyer” of the church and in Roman architecture was further divided into an inner and outer narthex.

The narthex served as the entrance but more importantly served as a holding area for those who were not eligible to enter the sanctuary because they were not full members of the congregation. The two distinct portions of the narthex were the inner narthex, endonarthex, and the outer narthex, exonarthex. The endonarthex, acts much like a porch to the church, as it is separated from the interior of the church by a wall. The early Roman basilicas were built all around Italy and specifically Rome, during the 4th century.

Saint Paul Outside the Walls was commissioned by Constantine in the 4th century and is a personal favorite of mine. It is a traditional Roman ecclesiastical basilica and it stays true to the old form that was made popular by Constantine. The cross-shaped floor plan includes two transepts, a large center aisle, nave, apse, and tomb/memorial to St. Paul. The basilica was built outside the Aurelian walls, which enclosed Rome and the 7 hills of Rome, hence, the name ‘Outside the Walls’.

The floor plan of this basilica follows tradition perfectly and executes the architecture of what historians believe to be truly Roman. Saint Paul Outside the Walls follows the cross-shaped floor plan introduced to Christian architecture. The interior has 4 sets of columns splitting the central nave into five distinct sections, with a large middle aisle and 2 aisles on either side and the apse is flanked by two separate transepts. The structure of the interior has over 80 columns and is marked by long sightlines and high ceilings, a traditional mark of the early basilicas.

The interior is decorated in mosaics and artwork depicting scenes from the Old and New Testament as well as scenes from the life of Saint Paul. This traditional floor plan was popular in the Western half of the Roman Empire, and would eventually combine with the Eastern, Byzantine architecture that was developed under Justinian. The early Roman basilicas were made popular under Constantine, as this was the period where Christianity gained popularity within the empire. During the spread of Christianity to the eastern half of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine influence on the basilica begins to take shape.

The Eastern Empire, specifically Constantinople, was the site of many fine examples of early Roman basilicas, none more majestic than Hagia Sophia, which stands today as a mosque and a museum but was initially built as a basilica by Justinian I. When Constantine moved the capital of the empire from Rome to Byzantium (Constantinople) the prior culture would have a large impact, architecturally, on the Roman culture. Byzantine architecture is most known for the large domed buildings, with stone or marble columns, and beautiful mosaics dressing the walls.

Early basilicas arrived to Byzantium by way of the Roman Empire and by the time of Justinian, the simple cross-shaped floor plan would transform into the octagonal or circular dome that is now famous in the Middle East. There are two particular basilicas of note in the Eastern Empire, Hagia Sophia in modern day Istanbul is a massive Justinian era basilica that has been transformed into a mosque. The other basilica that still stands is the Church of Hagia Sofia in Sofia, Bulgaria. The Church of Hagia Sofia (St.

Sofia) is a cross-shaped basilica with three apses and is part of the Greek Orthodox church. Beginning with Hagia Sophia, we can see how Byzantine architecture found its way into Roman basilicas and created a clear division between the architecture of the empire. Early Roman basilicas were strictly Roman, and followed a general plan while not deviating far from the norm of the Corinthian columns and early Church architecture. However in the Eastern Empire we can see the emergence of massive domed structures, the circular or octagonal shape, and the minarets as well.

All of this is present in Hagia Sophia, the design that stands today is not the original design, as it was rebuilt three times with the final time commissioned by Justinian I. The original design was considered large for the time, as it was given the name ‘Great Church’ however because of a domestic dispute between the Patriarch of Constantinople John Chrysostom and the wife of Arcadius, Aelia Eudoxia there were riots in the city and the first church of Hagia Sophia was burned down and nothing remains of the original design today.

The second design of Hagia Sophia had a similar fate, another fire burned this concept down because of its wooden roof, however some marble slabs survived and remain on the grounds today. The third version was commissioned by Justinian I, in February 532. This date is important for several reasons, many historians consider the year 476 for the fall of the Roman Empire, but that was when the Western half of the Roman Empire fell. Other Historians consider the fall of the Byzantine Empire to be in 1453 with the Fall of Constantinople. The Empire is split in half once Diocletian and the tetrarchy create the second capital in Constantinople.

While the two halves of the empire were part of the larger Roman Empire it was well understood that they were two separate and distinct halves with the Eastern Empire drawing much influence from the Greeks and Byzantines. The influence of the Byzantine culture can be found in the architecture of the current structure, of Hagia Sophia, and much of the Byzantine architecture is still popular in the Middle Eastern mosques of today. The main body of Hagia Sophia is not a cross-shaped basilica found in its Early Roman counterparts but in fact it is a circular shaped basilica.

This was not a radical new design of the time period, however the massive size and complex groundwork would make this basilica the crowning achievement of architecture during Late Antiquity. The floor plan (see Fig. 2) shows the circular shaped open area within the squared outer structure. While the large dome in the center of the structure provides the most notable feature of the structure. The dome is the most talked about feature of the structure and for good reason, while the structures in the past had seen domes it was not until the construction of this basilica had a dome been transitioned into a square structure below (nave).

The Byzantine architects used pendentives to support the structure as well as provide a beautiful aesthetic appeal to the interior of the dome. Pendentives had never been used prior to the building of Hagia Sophia, which is an engineering invention by the Byzantines and proves that Hagia Sophia was not just a brand new basilica but it was in fact an architectural and engineering masterpiece because of its sheer size. The dome is the literal crowning achievement of Hagia Sophia and is 55. 6 meters (182 feet) off the ground and 31. 4 (102 feet) meters in diameter. The dome is not only famous because of its size, the addition of 40 windows around the bottom of the dome introduce 360? of light into the nave, producing a beautiful natural light to an otherwise dark room. The addition of these 40 windows makes the dome appear to be hovering over the nave and gives natural lighting to the people inside. This type of natural lighting can also be found in the Pantheon, in which a large circle was cut out of the dome and is the only source of light within the building other than the entryway.

The dome at Hagia Sophia was the beginning of a new style of basilica that would be widely popular in the Eastern Empire, because of the Byzantine influence. The Byzantine influence on Christian architecture would spread back to the Western half of the empire, in Ravenna during the 6th century. The construction of the Basilica of San Vitale would combine elements of the Roman architectural style as well as the Byzantine style. This basilica takes the traditional pieces of the early Roman basilicas; the dome, the doorways and stepped towers and mixes them with the polygonal floor plan found in Byzantine architecture.

The basilica itself is octagonal with the apse protruding out at the uppermost side, and a dome covering the entirety of the central nave. (Fig 3. ) The dome would include the pendentives found in Hagia Sophia, as they were becoming a routine inclusion into most Byzantine basilicas, because of their aesthetic appeal as well as their engineering use. The pendentives allowed for a heavier dome, because they would spread the weight into the surrounding walls instead of onto several potentially unstable columns.

The dome of San Vitale would eventually become the inspiration for the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence (the Duomo). While the dome has always been a noted mark of basilicas, it was the Byzantine interior that has been truly revered in this particular basilica. The original Byzantine artwork depicts Justinian and Theodora as well as other traditional Roman scenes from the Bible. This mixture of Roman and Byzantine would unite the two halves of the Roman Empire and still stand today.

The integration of the basilica into Christian architecture was one that still lives on today and acceptance of Christianity into mainstream Roman society is to thank for its widespread use. The spread of the basilica into early Roman Christian architecture was marked by the addition of the transept and the narthex into the nave. This addition allowed for the congregation to maintain worship to specific saints as well as to God himself during the mass. While masses were held in basilicas, it was their use of the additional side areas, normally dedicated to specific Saints or martyrs that drew people inside.

The traditional Roman basilicas were often crafted to be memorials to certain saints, and each basilica was built either on holy ground or on the burial place of a saint or martyr. This was the case with Saint Paul Outside the Walls and St. Peters Basilica as well. Building a basilica on top of the burial ground of saints was not frowned upon, instead it was looked at, as a great honor to have a building dedicated to the worship of God and built in the name of someone who dedicated their life to the worship of God.

The tombs of the saints are often integrated into the overall basilica plan either through restricted access rooms or memorials built into the main floor plan. In the basilica of St Paul, the altar was built on top of the proposed burial ground of St Paul and it wasn’t until a few years ago that the sarcophagus was excavated and determined to be the actual remains of St Paul himself. A similar situation with the discovery of Saint Peter’s tomb occurred recently as well.

Constantine initially commissioned Saint Peter’s basilica in the 4th century however due to a large fire, it was rebuilt to its current standing. The Old Saint Peter’s basilica, pre-fire, was built on top of burial ground that was thought to be the site of St. Peter’s tomb. Later excavations showed that it was in fact St. Peter’s tomb and subsequent church renovations occurred. The idea of building basilicas on top of burial grounds cannot be traced back to any one person, while it can be said that Constantine was the initial commissioner of Roman basilicas, this idea cannot be fully attributed to him.

The use of basilicas in Christian architecture was made popular during the 4th century when Constantine was emperor and made Christianity the official religion of the entire Roman Empire. Their integration was not a mistake or an accident, in fact, the integration of the basilica was a well thought out plan that was executed because of the basilicas size, potential for Christian customization. The prior temples used for Pagan worship did not provide the necessary space for Christian worship and thusly the basilica entered the picture.

The early Roman basilicas transcend time and many of them are still standing today or have been rebuilt according to similar floor plans. The integration of the basilica into the Byzantine empire via Constantinople was only seen as a success once Justinian built Hagia Sophia in the 6th century. The completion of Hagia Sophia marked an important day in Christian architecture, not only was the this the largest free standing basilica in the world at the time, but the architects and engineers created several key components that had never been used in basilicas prior to Hagia Sophia.

Pendentives were key additions to Hagia Sophia, as they were they primary reason for the support of the extremely large dome at the top of the basilica. The two styles would converge through Justinian’s reconquest of the western Empire and they would form to make the Basilica di San Vitale in Ravenna, the new capital of the Western Empire during the time. The polygonal shaped nave would serve as the lovechild of the two styles and provide a different style in contrast to the traditional cross-shaped floor plan.

These two styles would be responsible for the differences in Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox style cathedrals however the base floor plan is rooted within the early Roman basilicas from the 4th century. The basilica has clearly changed since its conception in Ancient Greece, but we see how a simple building that was first introduced to the Roman Forum as a civic building can be made into the beautiful works of architecture and engineering that were pioneered by the minds of the Roman Empire.

Late Antiquity provided the arena for differing styles because of the vast spreading of Christianity throughout the entire empire. Changes from the artwork to the exterior architecture all depict the time period and the style of the basilicas and where their roots lie in the church.

Works Cited

1. St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome – Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World. ” About Archaeology – The Study of Human History. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. 2. Basilica Di San Vitale. ” Diocesi Di ROMA – Chiesa Cattolica. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. . 3. Basilica Papale San Paolo Fuori Le Mura. Vatican: the Holy See. Web. 20 Nov. 2010. . 4. Peterson Henricks, Karen I. The Early Christian Double Basilica. Diss. Univeristy of Missouri- Columbia, 1989. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1989. Print. 5. Walthew, Christopher Vaughan. A Metrological Study of the Early Roman Basilicas. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 2002. Print. 6. White, L. Michael. Building God’s House in the Roman World: Architectural Adaptation among Pagans, Jews, and Christians. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins UP, 1990. Print. 7. Grimal, Pierre, and Caroline Rose. Churches of Rome. New York, NY: Vendome, 1997. Print.

The Breakfast Club

Attention getting material Imagine yourself in close proximity with 4 strangers nothing like you. That’s what the characters’ in The Breakfast Club were faced with. Tie to audience For this specific setting a group of 5 eclectic students are forced into serving 9 hours of Saturday detention for whatever they had done wrong. In attendance is a “princess” (Claire Standish), an “athlete” (Andrew Clark), a “brain” (Brian Johnson), a “criminal” (John Bender) and a “basket case” (Allison Reynolds). Thesis Statement I’m sure at one point or another in life we have all been faced with a similar situation.

Purpose Statement “The Breakfast Club” provides us with many unique displays of how small groups interact in their case it’s through ,dancing, harassing each other, telling stories, they fight , smoke pot and speak on a number of topics. During this time they eventually open up to each other and reveal their inner secrets. After listening to our presentation you may see “The Breakfast Club” in a different way other than just their stereotypes portrayed in the movie but how they communicate as a group to solve problems throughout the day.

During our presentation we will provide you with examples of status, rules and norms, power and cohesiveness that were illustrated in the movie. Transition to body First Jenifer is going to speak about status, and its effect on group dynamic. Jenifer STATUS I am going to talk to you about the effect status has on a group dynamic. The fact is that every teen character in this movie can be related to someone we knew in high-school, perhaps even your own self. As a child of the 80’s, I believe that movie is truly an honest representation of a cross-section of every high school in America.

Status is a huge part of this movie. The different walks of life that these kids represent are resounding throughout the entire production. The brain… the athlete… the basketcase… the princess… and the future criminal. They all exist, to some degree or another, in the classrooms of every high school on this continent. These 5 lost characters, were members of a group…members of the “Breakfast Club”, whether they liked it or not. The movie may have been a bit cliched, but what film isn’t; you always like certain elements that you can relate to.

We can see ourselves or parts of ourselves in one or maybe more than one of the characters in this film. No matter what little sub-culture you were in while going through the trials and tribulations of high school you could relate to it. What makes the film unique is that each character tells his or her own story with credibility. The emotion in this film is immense considering it is a teenage film – and touches on these 5 individuals who seem to be searching for some type of approval or acceptance. (Just like our-selves)

The Future Criminal, John Bender, a delinquent “bad boy”, while tough on the exterior, masks a difficult home life. His emotions sway from angry to emotional – making you feel for him when he is describing what things are like at his house. The Athlete, Andrew is under pressure from his father to perform up to high standards, which his Dad believes will add to his own lost youth. The Brain, (or nerd if you will) Brian excels academically, but is failing shop class. And neither he nor his family can or will ever accept an F.

The Princess, Claire the high school’s Prom Queen is rich and snobby, but has pressure to conform from her friends, as well as issues with her parents, such as the reference that she makes to them only using her to get back at each other. The Basketcase, Allison has few if any friends, wears all black, is a compulsive liar, acts very bizarre, and yet has similar problems at home. The question is can the emotional bonding they share in detention hold true beyond the library, and can stereotypes be broken?

They are able to work through many of the stereotypes in that 9 hour day of detention, and are able to begin to understand that even though their statuses in high school and in their community are very different. Their lives are also very similar. In the end, you discover that there is a little bit of the brain… the jock… the basketcase…the rich pretty-girl snob… and the future criminal in each of the characters, and probably in you too!! Tatyana- Rules and Norms I am going to be talking about rules and norms. First I am going to talk about rules.

The definition of a rule is an explicit, officially stated guideline that governs group functions and member behavior. There are many examples of rules in the movie, but I am going to talk about one particular incident. In beginning of movie when the students first arrive for detention, Principal Vernon sets down the rules, what he expects them to do, and to behave under his supervision. He does this to show that he is the one in charge and they must follow his rules or face further Saturdays of detention. Now, I will show you this clip. Now I am going to talk about norms.

A norm is shared values, beliefs, behaviors, and procedures that govern a group’s operation. I am going to be talking about a social norm in particular. In the movie, five completely different people are stuck in detention together. Social norms say that if they become friends over this one Saturday, they won’t stay friends once they leave dentition and will go on with their lives like nothing happened between them. This is because their regular school friends would make fun of them because they are in completely different social classes. Now I will show you this clip.

Next Victoria is going to talk about the importance of power in the movie show some examples of it in the movie. Victoria -Power Power is defined as the ability to influence others. Sometimes, the ability to influence others comes from legitimate power also called position power, that arises from the title one holds for example a principal. The following are a few examples that show a principal (Mr. Vernon) using his position to influence five teenagers in Saturday detention. 1- Mr. Vernon tells the students that, “You may not talk. ” “You will not move from your seats. ” “You will not sleep. 2- He also tells Bender one of his students not to mess with the bull (referring to himself) or else he will get the horns. “Any monkey business is ill advised. ”

3- Bender (one of the students) gets up and takes out the screw that holds the door open so that the door closes in order for Mr. Vernon not to be able to see what is going on in the classroom while he is sitting in his office. Mr. Vernon gets upset about it and wants to know who took out the screw. After a few minutes of silence, Bender says, “Screws fall out all the time. The world is an imperfect place. ” Mr. Vernon gets even more upset telling Bender that “you are not fooling anyone Bender. The next screw that falls out will be you. ” The two start arguing. Bender tells Mr. Vernon, “Eat my shorts. ” Mr. Vernon gets even more upset telling Bender, “you just bought yourself another Saturday” Bender replies, “Well I ‘m free the Saturday after that. Beyond that, I’m going to have to check my calendar. ”

Mr. Vernon replies, “Good, because it’s going to be filled. We’ll keep going. You want another one? Just say the word say it. Instead of going to prison you’ll come here. Are you through? ” Bender replies, “No” Mr. Vernon replies, “That’s another one right now! I’ve got you for the rest of your natural born life if you don’t watch your step. ” Mr. Vernon decides to lock Bender in a closet. While Mr. Vernon escorts Bender to the closet, he tells the other teenagers that, “The next time I come in here, I will be cracking skulls. ” 4- While Bender and Mr. Vernon are in the closet, Mr. Vernon asks Bender, “Are you going to cry? Let’s go. That’s the last time, Bender. That’s the last time you ever make me look bad in front of those kids, you hear me? I make $31,000 a year and I have a home and I’m not about to throw it all away on some punk like you.

But someday when you’re out there, and you’ve forgotten all about this place and they’ve forgotten all about you, and you are wrapped up in your own pathetic life, I’m going to be there. That’s right. And I’m going to kick the living shit out of you. I’m going to knock your dick in the dirt. ” Bender replies,” Are you threatening me? ” Those are a few examples that show how legitimate power or position power can influence others. Ellie-Group Cohesiveness Contributing factors for group cohesion in this film include •The amount of time spent together in detention

•Mutual enemy/ Mr. Vernon and authority figures •Self-disclosure Parents •Peer pressure •Stereotypes One of the first signs of true group cohesion is when Bender shuts the door and then when Mr. Vernon walks into the room asking who shut the door, the other students cover for Bender One example of them covering for him is when Mr. Vernon asks who stole the screw to the door and Claire responds by saying “excuse me sir but why would anyone want to steal a screw” After some time passes they begin getting bored again and the storming phase start when they start discussing their home life and the way they believe the others act at home, so they also include the beginning of their self-disclosure.

After a long time of silence they start cohering by whistling and now I would like to show you this clip Later on after lunch the group start cohering again through rebellion by roaming the halls and shortly afterwards smoking pot. This is when the majority of self-disclosure happens. They discuss peer pressures of being popular, being a brain, and the pressure they all feel from their parents and friends. After some storming again they finally realize they are not all that different and they are not alone in the world. (Play the dancing clip in the background)

Conclusion. The Breakfast Club has been used as a tool in many speech and psycology classes as to the nature of how groups interact and function. It shows what elemements need to be present to make the group function. The Breakfast Club is unique in a way that it shows how teens in america really feel. I can rememeber being labeled as a teenager and I believe that the movie is quite accurate. Our presentwation has covered status, rules and norms, power and cohesiveness. Not that everyone will run out and watch it now but the next time you do watch it I bet you see it in a different light.

Ethical Dimensions Of Gandhi

Mohan Chanda Karam Chand Gandhi popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi all over the world. He was also called as the father of nation by one of the greatest revolutionaries of the world Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. Mahatma Gandhi has been considered as the embodiment of simplicity & openness. Gandhi’s philosophical inheritance is from the spirit of of renunciation actions of Bhagawat Gita and his practical doctrines are based on the inspirations from three great thinkers of the world- Tolstoy, Ruskin and Thoron. Tolstoy had great influence over his life and shaped his personality.

Before going or peeping into the Gandhian Philosophy, we have to understand Leo Tolstoy. Leo Tolstoy used his life like a peasant. He gave up his wealth and took up the life of poverty. He earned his needs by his own labour. Tolstoy believed that- – In this world men should not accumulate wealth. – No matter now much evil a person does to us , we should always do good to him. This, according to Tolstay, has been the commandment and law of god. – No one should take part in fighting. – It is sinful to wield political power, as is leads to many of the evils in the world.

Man is born to do his duty to the creator, he should, therefore pay more attentions to his duties than his rights. – Agriculture is the true occupation of man. It is therefore, contrary to divine law to establish large cities, to employ hundreds of thousands of minding factories so that a few can wallow in riches by exploiting the helplessness and poverty of many. Mahatma Gandhi followed most of the principles of Leo Tolstoy in his life. His life has been message. Things that Gandhi is known for, have great relevance to the human world.

Gandhi’s Satyagraha, his fasting & hunger strike, his simplicity, his collective resistance, his movement on the call of conscience, his experiencing truth, his simple living, his self labouring, his commitment of the divine, his duty orientation, his complete sincerity, are examples before the human world. Ahimsa or non-injury of Gandhi has been one of the most formidable and powerful instrument of human action. His philosophical belief predominated his empirical actions. Gandhi believed in the experiencing of the tenets of religion and philosophy.

His attitude to work has been that of renounced work. Gandhian Attitude to a Businessman Gandhi believed that a Vanik or Trader must have certain superior attributes like- A true Vanik should never speak untruth. A true Vanik should never give short measures. A true Vanik should honour his father’s word. A true Vanik should return principal with interest. Good sense is the Vanik’s measure and king’s measure his credit. MAHATMA GANDHI’S DEFINITION OF CUSTOMER • A customer is not an outsider to our business. He is a definite part of it. A customer is not an interruption of our work. He is the purpose of it. • A customer is doing us a favour by letting serve us. We are not doing him any favour. • A customer is not a cold static; he is flesh and blood human being with feeling and emotions like our own.

• A customer is not someone to argue or match wits with. He deserves a courteous and attentive treatment. • A customer is not dependent on us. We are dependent on him. • A customer brings us his wants. It is our job to handle them properly and profitably – both to him and us. A customer makes it possible to pay our salary, whether we are a driver, plant or office employee, salesman or a manager. • A customer is most important person in our business. The Make of a Personality: Moksha Through Non Attachment Gandhi’s belief in personalities has a special feature. He does not believe in the types of personalities aggrandized by greed and desire. Gandhi thinks that the root of all human problems lie in the desire and greed that the personalities are known for. Desire and greed arises out of the intrinsic attachments.

Gandhi thinks that liberation is possible only when the person free from attachments. Attachment creates all problems for human existence. Gandhi wants business to run by people with self control. Non-attachment could be achieved through a practice of self control that Gandhi advocated through a continuous practice in his own life. Self control gives a grace to the atman and the graceful Atman leads towards Moksha also. Gandhi Suggests that the first step towards moksha is freedom from attachment. A mind attached to a single object helps getting a Self Control or ‘ Vairagya ‘ helps getting Moksha for everyone.

Gandhi thinks that a life based on righteousness could be made to be involved in Artha ( or material objects ) and Kama ( or desire ) can yet maintain the rigout of non- attachment to finally achieve the state of Moksha or liberation. Gandhi’s Dharma or righteousness is based on principles given in the scriptures and practices of the culture and its heritage. Dharma is what holds an individual to the state, the condition. Gandhian Moral views have been taken from the Bhagwat Gita. He was an ardent believer of the Karma Yoga of the Bhagwat Gita.

Within the tangled world of politics and religion, Gandhi moved freely. He believed in the righteous actions and constructing a world worth of living through that. He believed that politics has to have a religious basis. Unless politics is founded on righteousness, its scope and its preview gets limited. ( Harijan 3rd March ) Action is my domain, and what I understand, according to rights, to do my duty and what comes my way. I do. All my action is actuated by my service. Action being the domain, the Gandhi used to call himself a Righteous Doer or renounced doer.

Action was what he was destined to do but not running after the fruits thereof. He was an ardent believer in the maxim of the Baghwat Gita saying- “ Karmanyae wa adhikaraste ma phaleshu kadachanah. ( you are destined to do the work and not hanker after the fruits of it ). According to Gandhi, it is the quality of the work that brings forth the matching result. Gandhi believed in the purity of means to achieve a pure result. Gandhi Vs. Modern Civilization The basis of modern civilization has been the nurturing and cultivation of desires. Gandhi was opposed to cultivating desires.

Modern business paradigm is based on the theme and action plans to create desire and through the cultivation of desires to possess various objects and project images, desire is given shapes accordingly. Desires of various kinds are converted into needs and finally into demands making a consumer out of human beings. With the making of the desire principle as the central theme of life , the modern man competes either individually or in collectives to fulfil his ends. The means to achieve the ends become insignificant here. Gandhi’s belief is just the opposite. He believed in the strength of renunciation of the fruits of work.

While he discussed about the work, he used to forget and ignore the likely end results to that. Since the personal or collective desires are missing, the work that is not attributed to the doer of the work. Doer does the work as per his vision and philosophies of him as an instrument of the divine. Work that is performed by the doer is done by him as an instrument of divine. Hence the best way to perform would be to shy out the individual of the work context and finally to perform on a righteous principle, which is the divine’s way. Another important point of difference lies in the realm and imputes to responses.

Modern civilization is constructed along the line of ruling and running the internal based on the message and guidance of the externals. Exteriorization being the phenomenon, the world drags human beings into the market place of messages. Everybody wants to declare his or her point of view vis-a-vis the interactions, incidents and occurrences. The messages thus created by the business, trade and commerce also the commercial mind are continuously drawing men way from the inner realms. Man forgets about the inner and intrinsic realms of life, loses the quality of being able to be guided by the conscience or any voice from within.

Human choice, preference and modes of action are more determined under the influence of externals. Results and achievements are determined on the basis of the competitive status and environment not on the inner voice and calls. This makes the means an insignificant component of action. Achieve, at any cost – don’t hear the message and voice of conscience – this has been the control theme of the modern civilization. Gandhi, on the other hand maintained his faith in the divine and considered himself as a devotee or bhakta of the divine.

Though he maintained Bhakti, he demonstrated that this practice of Bhakti ( devotion to the divine ) neither involve indecisiveness nor ineptitude in worldly matters. On the basis of unalterable conviction, one can confidently refine thoughts and indirect action. Gandhi’s bedrock was spiritual truth earned through intense urge constantly, he abided by the inner voice and through a constant set of practice ( puja, singing of hymns maintaining righteous principles in worldly interactions ) , he had won the character and charisma to experience the truth in every ction of life.

Gandhi wanted freedom from within. People become a prey to unethical practices as a result of the lack of inner freedom. A lack of inner freedom makes people dependent upon externals and allow externals to give a shape to things in their chosen ways ethics becomes a casualty in most of the cases. Gandhi’s concept of Swaraj helps to attain inner swaraj ( freedom ) to attain a collective swaraj for the country. Strengthened by the inner voice, man then lives on the spirit of morals and ethics in individual as well as collective life.

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