The Film “The Help” From A Sociological Perspective Essay Example For College

Introduction

One of the most ideologically reactionary varieties of naturalism in sociology is the racial-anthropological approach. The main theme of the film ‘The Help’ is the relationship between representatives of different social and racial backgrounds. Therefore, this particular sociological perspective will be rational as the other approaches do not concentrate on the concept of race as much. Racism as a socio-psychological phenomenon has existed since time immemorial, but in the XIX century (Nanlohy et al., 2021). For the first time, this phenomenon began to appeal widely to the authority of science.

Discussion

The main ideological functions of this trend were to justify the privileges of the ruling class within bourgeois states and imperialist colonial expansion in foreign policy. The basic principles of this theory are that social life and culture are the product of racial and anthropological factors. The fact that races are not perceived in society as equal among themselves causes inequality. According to the racial-anthropological concept, social institutions are not determined by the vital activity of races, but on the contrary. they determine it, which is demonstrated in the film ‘The Help’.

The film takes the viewer to the USA of the 60s; that is the historical time when Martin Luther King is successfully fighting for the rights of blacks in the capital. In the provincial town of Jackson, Mississippi, the white daughter of a local cotton merchant, Skeeter, unexpectedly decided to stand up for the blacks. There is no slavery in America in the 1960s, it was abolished almost 100 years ago (Nasir and Abdullah, 2021). However, most black people still serve whites. Although they are paid to work, the restrictions in society between whites and blacks are still significant. They are forbidden to ride on the same buses as whites. Blacks are not allowed to use the public library. Although white people are not rude to black servants, they still look down on them, not counting them as people.

According to the royal-anthropological approach, for several centuries’ racism remained the cause of a serious defeat in the rights of entire peoples. Some white people put themselves above other races, believing that their skin color and other features of appearance gave them such a right. Many people are convinced of the incompatibility of different races (Adam, 2018). Therefore, they have a very negative attitude towards foreigners who move to their cities, settle in the neighborhood, start families, give birth to children, and take them to the same kindergarten or school where white children go.

In the film, there is a change of author’s positions, respectively, the ideological points of view of three completely different focal characters are presented in detail. Their lives intertwined, and they came face to face with segregation. The narrators are united by the idea of writing a book with the voice of a servant about their difficult life in the White House and the unfair treatment of them. According to the idea of Skeeter, the initiator of writing the book, the events described not to be subjective, the stories of the twelve maids are included in Skeeter’s novel (Idris et al., 2020). However, all of them somehow support the postulates of the racial-anthropological social theory.

All focal characters act as the subject of evaluation of the social racial-anthropological theory, as well as its carrier. They are estimated from the point of view of the narrator, respectively, they appear to be the subject of evaluation (Hanafiah and Melansari, 2021). The evaluation carriers are in those cases when they act as narrators. For example, Aibileen acts as a carrier of evaluation from the point of view of the racial-anthropological social theory of her mistress. The servants think that Miss Leefolt is completely not engaged in the upbringing of her daughter.

In some scenes of the film, Aibileen is the subject of Skeeter’s assessment, confirming the postulates of the racial-anthropological social theory. Spending more and more time with Aibileen, Skeeter realizes how skillfully the servants have learned to hide their feelings (Iban et al., 2019). Society determines the lack of feelings in its dark-skinned members, but at the same time, the servants are still able to experience emotions, which confirms the principle of determining the racial characteristics of an individual’s behavior by society.

There are three focal characters in the film, each of which is an illustration of the racial-anthropological social approach. Skeeter is a young educated white American woman who wants to become a writer and decides to write a book on behalf of a black servant. Aibileen is a servant who raised seventeen children of white masters, agreed to participate in the writing of the book, and is the link between Skeeter and the servants (Taylor, 2011). Minnie is Aibileen’s best friend, who also agreed to participate in the writing of the book, who is constantly out of work because of her talkativeness. Thanks to Aibileen, they are joined by other maids who tell their stories. These women in this way want to resist the injustice prevailing in society, to give vent to their feelings, to talk about what they did not dare before.

The category of point of view on the racial-anthropological social approach in the film is revealed by the specifics of the narrative of each of the heroines. All three narrators are evaluated to one degree or another from the position of each other (Nanlohy et al., 2021). The various points of view and evaluation systems presented in the film enter into certain relationships with each other, thus forming a rather complex system of social identities and oppositions.

Representatives of the white population of the 60s in the United States had a legal and political system that was characterized by the dominance of white Americans, which Skeeter admits (Adam, 2018). Public figure and Skeeter’s friend, Hilly Holbrook, actively advocate racial segregation. She believes that blacks are carriers of deadly diseases for whites. To minimize the intersection points between blacks and whites, she is preparing a variety of projects, which, in turn, infringe on the rights of colored people. Hilly has significant importance in society, so her opinion is listened to and her ideas are supported.

Aibileen has to follow the rules set by the whites. That is why she does not pour water into a glass for a dark-skinned worker because she knows that her mistress would not like it. Of course, throughout her life, she has learned to suppress her feelings, which she has no right to show (Nasir and Abdullah, 2021). Aibileen does not hide the fact that she has to tell the hostess what she wants to hear.

White ladies, Celia and Skeeter, violate established rules, erasing the boundaries of communication between whites and blacks, which causes an ambiguous reaction from the latter. Minnie is perplexed and calls her mistress stupid when Celia brings her, the servant, a drink (Taylor, 2011). Minnie voices her husband’s point of view, which she shares, that all whites are very strange. Miss Skeeter is the only one who talks to the servants, this is the initial description given to her by Aibileen, who is surprised by it.

Despite the significant differences between Skeeter and Aibileen, their worldview regarding the injustice in the manifestation of segregation coincides. They both think within the framework of the royal-anthropological social theory (Iban et al., 2019). Scooter is different from the rest of the girls in her town, she has a kind heart and a sense of justice. She tries to fight for equality and even loses the support and understanding of her friends.

The socio-ideological point of view of Aibileen and Minnie largely coincides due to their social status and race. Nevertheless, their personalities and how they cope with the difficulties that arise are completely different (Hanafiah and Melansari, 2021). Thanks to the narration from the representatives of the servants, the viewer has the opportunity to experience the world in which these women live.

For example, Minnie and Celia’s relationship is filled with humor, which is absent in the strained and cold relationship between Aibileen and her mistress. In this film, there is a Rashomon effect, which reflects the discrepancy in the ideological point of view of the characters, each of whom is convinced of his rightness (Idris et al., 2020). Skeeter sincerely believes that a personal visit to Aibileen’s home will help her win the favor of the dark-skinned servants. However, Aibileen was not happy about this visit, because such behavior is unacceptable in society, whites do not go to the area for colored citizens. This fact outrages Aibileen, she believes that she spends a lot of time with white people and does not want them to watch her at home.

Despite the good attitude towards Skeeter, Aibileen is unhappy with her arrival and believes that it would be possible to make do with a phone call. The opportunity to see this meeting through the eyes of both heroines reveals to the viewer different sees on segregation within the same sociological approach, without illuminating any of the focal characters in a bad light (Hanafiah and Melansari, 2021). Instead, the recipient sympathizes with them and understands that they are both victims of the racist system adopted in American society.

The ideological point of view of each focal character is formed directly through the prism of their statements, as well as through the description of each other. Getting to know Minnie and Skeeter, the other storytellers, takes place through the prism of Aibileen’s perception, which gives them an evaluation characteristic. Minnie, according to Aibileen, is the best cook in the entire state of Mississippi, but she has a drawback: she does not know how to keep her mouth shut (Taylor, 2011). The viewer finds confirmation of these words in the scene where Minnie says that she would like to find a deaf mistress, which was Miss Wolters.

All levels of manifestation of the ideological point of view have a semantic monologue when the external and internal manifestations coincide. Sometimes the viewer can notice that the internal and external demonstrations of the ideological point of view differ from each other, one of them turns out to be false. In this case, the viewer observes the confirmation of one of the positions of the racial-anthropological social theory (Adam, 2018). The characters in the film demonstrate that society, not race itself, is the determining behavioral factor. For example, this is noticeable when Aibileen, who does not want and has no right to express her attitude on any occasion, is unable to restrain her emotions, and utters a general phrase that does not reflect her inner state at all.

In some of Minnie’s statements, it is seen that Minnie, who understands her precarious position in the city, hardly restrains herself from saying something superfluous. Like Aibileen, she has to play by the rules accepted in society (Idris et al., 2020). Minnie has no right to make remarks to whites; she says one thing, but feels completely different, as evidenced by her facial expressions and phrases uttered by her when she is alone.

Conclusion

Thus, due to the change of narrative situations in the film ‘The Help’, the ideological point of view of the focal characters is manifested. Internal and external points of view can be revealed both in terms of sociology and ideology. They, in turn, may coincide or differ depending on the situation. The focal characters in the film act both as the subject of the assessment of the racial-anthropological approach and as its carrier. The expression of an evaluative point of view is expressed not only by speech but also by behavioral characteristics.

References

Adam, M. R. (2018). Racism in ‘The Help’ movie by Tate Taylor (a sociological approach). Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra Inggris, 7(2), 120–129.

Hanafiah, A. W., & Melansari, N. (2021). An analysis of social conflict between black and white skin in novel ‘The Help’ written by Kathryn Stockett. English Education Journal, 9(4), 1–12.

Iban, A., Sili, S., & Asanti, C. (2019). Anti-racism: A study of the main characters in ‘The Help’ (2009) novel by Kathryn Stockett. Jurnal Ilmu Budaya, 3(3), 233–245.

Idris, D., Wahyuni, B., & Prautomo, A. (2020). The influence of social class on racial discrimination in the movie ‘The Help’. Prologue: Journal on Language and Literature, 6(2), 69–77.

Nanlohy, O. M., Rorintulus, O. A., & Kamagi, S. (2021). The acts of racial discrimination to the blacks as seen in Stockett’s ‘The Help’. Journal of English, Culture, Language, Literature, and Education, 9(2), 144–158.

Nasir, A., & Abdullah, S. (2021). White saviour complex and (mis)portrayal of blacks in Kathryn Stockett’s ‘The Help’. Journal of Research in Humanities, 57(1), 43–56.

Taylor, T. (Director). (2011). The Help [Film]. DreamWorks Pictures.

The Impact Of The COVID-19 Pandemic On Oceania

Introduction

With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been concerns that the South Pacific could become one of the most vulnerable regions for the spread of the coronavirus. Many of the island nations of Oceania have “fragile” health systems, which are reflected in the lack of equipment, infrastructure and medical staff. It is necessary to analyze exactly how the pandemic affected the remote states of the Pacific Ocean and the fisheries in particular.

Impact of Pandemic on Post-Harvest Fisheries

Separately, it is necessary to highlight the impact of the pandemic on post-harvest fisheries, which is the main source of income for most of the Pacific island countries. The fact is that the introduced restrictions and changes negatively affect every stage of the entire trading process (Kose et al., 2021). It is necessary to start with the fact that a large number of specialists involved in this activity either lost their jobs or temporarily suspended them. This applies not only to the process of collecting fish, but also to its inspection, unpacking, storage and transportation (Hassanien et al., 2021). Based on this, part of the already caught fish has deteriorated unsold on the market. In turn, unemployed specialists increase the economic pressure on the state budget.

At the same time, the restrictions introduced a number of new rules for the processing and consumption of fish, especially relevant for the first half of 2020. The fact is that scientists have not established the exact cause of the virus, as well as the main ways of its transmission (Hooke et al., 2020). Based on theories and suspicions, the fish needed to be chemically treated and descaled in such a way as to minimize the spread of COVID-19. This led to the fact that the quality of products began to fall sharply, and the fish began to deteriorate even faster, which only complicated the situation in the niche (Pangelinan & McVey, 2021). Finally, the fall affected the export of goods, which significantly affected the marketing process (Kose et al., 2021). In addition to economic benefits, the goods themselves and vehicles began to stand idle, which brought several important export instruments out of operation. Thus, in post-harvest fisheries, virtually every single process has been affected (Husted & Sinkovics, 2021). By the end of the pandemic, all production will not be able to fully function again, since repairs and restoration will be required, as well as the search for new specialists. This can be explained by the fact that professionals did not wait for the end of the pandemic, but retrained into other professions or online work. However, the pandemic has affected not only post-harvest fisheries, but also the ocean fishing industry as a whole.

Impact on Fisheries

Separately, it is worth highlighting the impact of the pandemic on fisheries in the countries of Oceania. Despite the fact that the fish was not affected, the demand for it has decreased significantly (Singh, 2021). This is explained by the fact that many ports and trade routes were closed, and, accordingly, the number of fish caught decreased. First, there is a cleansing of the ocean due to the lack of a large amount of human impact, which leads to an increase in the quality of the fish (Connell & Campbell, 2021). In addition, the lack of large-scale fishing increases the population of edible fish, which means that after the end of restrictive measures, states can maximize the use of the resource for economic profit.

However, the short-term outlook is negative as the dose from fisheries falls. In addition, there is a growing need for the purchase of additional medical supplies and vaccines, and the main source of income is frozen. This means that the authorities need to look for alternative state earnings. Such a multifaceted problem gives it additional complexity, since the island states do not have strong flexible economies (Hussain et al., 2021). Based on this, the most acceptable way out is the help of more developed partners, such as Australia.

The economic situation has also affected the food security of the South Pacific island nations, with many households in the island nations and territories cutting back on food consumption to save money. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), in 2020 the economic downturn in the island countries of Oceania ranged from -3.3% to -21% (Green & Kanongata’a, 2021, p. 45). On the other hand, the IMF predicts a recovery of regional GDP in 2021 to the level of 2019. Such consequences are caused by the fact that, as noted above, fisheries have suffered serious damage due to pandemic restrictions. In addition to the fact that the state budget is suffering, funding after commercial fisheries is also decreasing, as there is a reorientation towards medical care (Ng & Stoeva, 2021). This can lead to the fact that the Pacific Islands niche will begin to lose its competitiveness, which means that it will be in crisis.

Conclusion

The island nations of the South Pacific have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, both economically and on the health front. Moreover, in early 2021, a COVID-19 outbreak hit Papua New Guinea, the largest and most economically developed country in Oceania. Vaccination will help them reopen to the outside world, ease the strain on fragile health systems, benefit the region’s economy and avoid mounting external debt. Australia, as the traditional leader of the South Pacific, is trying to mitigate the effects of the pandemic in its zone of influence, both in terms of approaching regional security and the formation of a unified South Pacific identity.

References

Connell, J., & Campbell, Y. (2021). COVID in the islands: A comparative perspective on the Caribbean and the Pacific. Springer Singapore.

Green, B., & Kanongata’a, K. A. (Eds.). (2021). Weaving theology in Oceania. Culture, context and practice. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Hassanien, A. E., Alshurideh, M. T., & Masa’deh, R. (Eds.). (2021). The effect of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on business intelligence. Springer International Publishing.

Hooke, A., Vachharajani, H. Kaur, H., & Dow, K. E. (Eds.). (2020) Emerging business and trade opportunities between Oceania and Asia. Hershey: IGI Global.

Husted, K., & Sinkovics, R. R. (Eds.). (2021). Management perspectives on the Covid-19 crisis. lessons from New Zealand. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

Hussain, C. M., Rawtani, D., & Khatri, N. (Eds.). (2021) COVID-19 in the environment. Impact, concerns, and management of coronavirus. Elsevier Science.

Kose, U., Watada, J., Deperlioglu. O., & Saucedo. J. A. M. (2021). Computational intelligence for COVID-19 and future pandemics. Emerging applications and strategies. Springer Singapore.

Ng, K. H., & Stoeva, M. S. (Eds.). (2021). Medical physics during the COVID-19 pandemic. Global perspectives in clinical practice, education and research. CRC Press.

Pangelinan, P. J., & McVey. T. (Eds.). (2021). Learning and reconciliation through indigenous education in Oceania. IGI Global.

Singh, S. (2021). Life after Covid-19. BFC Publications.

Value Chain Analysis For Walmart

Introduction

Walmart value chain diagram 
Figure 1. Walmart value chain diagram 

Today, Walmart is a well-known American retail corporation promoting services in its hypermarkets and other stores locally and worldwide. This organization successfully proved its stability in three major areas: opportunity (employment and investment), sustainability (emission reduction), and community (specific social needs) (Harrison, 2019). Value chain analysis is a unique opportunity to investigate the company’s activities and introduce improvements regarding available resources and achievements. This process consists of three major steps: identifying primary and supportive value chain activities, defining cost, and introducing competitive advantage opportunities.

Walmart Support Activities

As shown in Figure 1, Walmart has a strong organizational infrastructure and additional supporting activities, including human resources, technological development, and procurement. Despite the existing criticism in its human resource sector, the improvements cannot be ignored. Walmart has cooperated with more than 210 distribution centers where more than 2.3 million people work (Harrison, 2019). The company has offered new policies to remove minimal wages for regular employees and promote high pay with more than $250 billion investment in US-made products (Harrison, 2019). Special attention was paid to its technological advancement due to a powerful digital platform, the development of new information technology strategies, and the analysis of appliable mobile devices. The company wants to be sure that its customers are able to use services from any part of the work with their favored devices. Finally, the success of procurement is explained by the possibility of working with multiple suppliers, organizing ordinary and bulk purchases, and following a low-price policy.

Walmart Primary Activities

At the same time, Figure 1 describes several primary activities related to inbound and outbound logistics, the choice of operations and services, and the implementation of marketing/sale policies. Inbound logistics introduce the processes in which Walmart is involved to store and receive its raw materials. The company’s success is cooperation with various global brands and the maintenance of technically advanced supply chains. In addition to using and offering goods, Walmart develops handling activities and cooperates with suppliers to obtain enough recommendations. Besides, Walmart converts raw materials into finished goods, allowing product diversity for affordable prices. Warehouse clubs are located across 28 countries in more than 11,000 stores to offer real-time sales and fast payment methods (Harrison, 2019). Cross-docking, low transportation costs, and full delivery services attract customers and supplies. Walmart does not want to stop its low pricing policies and continues offering promotional sales, communicating with customers and suppliers directly, and analyzing current community needs. People may use its delivery and repair services, enjoy its customer-service focus and greetings, and communicate anytime if they want to leave feedback or ask a question.

Conclusions and Recommendations

Walmart has already achieved positive results in its strategic planning and product/service diversity. The offered value chain analysis proves that focus on low and competitive prices is still the major requirement. There are many competitors and alternative services for customers to address, and Walmart should not drop its idea, which has already attracted much attention. The number of stores and warehouses allows contributing to inventory. Finally, examining customers’ needs is a serious step, and the improvement of the value chain directly depends on how well Walmart might cooperate with customers, gather their opinions, and offer the best services.

Reference

Harrison, V. (2019). Legitimizing private legal systems through CSR communication: A Walmart case study. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 24(3), 439–455.

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