The Fixed-Price Contract: Advantages & Disadvantages Sample Essay

  1. Such contracts are often criticized because they have a little formal incentive for the contractor to control expenses, as they are paid regardless of the final price. Moreover, the final cost of such a contract is not guaranteed. In addition, there is a problem with a limited number of contractors with the necessary knowledge and experience.
  2. By agreement with a fixed price, the contractor undertakes to perform all work specified in the contract at a set price. Clients can get the lowest price by placing an agreement for bidding. If the project’s scope is well defined, the costs are predictable, and the implementation risks are low, both owners and constructors will favor a fixed-price contract (Symes, 2019). Contractors also prefer these agreements because there is less chance that the client will require changes or additions to the deal. Minor potential modifications reduce project uncertainty and allow contractors to manage their resources more efficiently across multiple projects.
  3. For the contractor, the main disadvantage of a fixed-price contract is that it runs the risk of underestimating the contract. If serious problems arise with the project, the excess of the cost can lead to the unprofitability of the project. To avoid this, the contractor must invest heavily to ensure the accuracy of their estimate. In contrast to fixed contracts, when concluding a contract with cost-reimbursement contracts, all risks are borne by the client. The agreement does not specify the price of the project until the end of its implementation.
  4. World practice suggests organizing tenders for the right to be a supplier to stimulate normal competition. The latter activates the development of scientific and technological progress, stimulates producers to be sensitive to changes in consumer demand, and limits powerful firms’ influence.


Symes, S. (2019). Advantages & disadvantages of a fixed-price contract. Chron. Web.

Hospitality In Maori People: An Investigative Report

Maori are a Polynesian people indigenous to New Zealand; the word itself means “ordinary” or natural. This is how Maori mythology refers to mortal people, in contrast to deities and spirits. It was only after the arrival of the white European colonizers in New Zealand that it became necessary to distinguish between Mãori (“ordinary people”) and Pãkehã (“white people”) (Enari & Haua, 2021). Before that time, the indigenous population was divided into tribes called “iwi,” which means people.

New Zealand is famous for its ecology and respect for nature, so the rules are very strict. Importing plants, handicrafts made of natural wood and other living materials, animals, certain products, and much more is forbidden. Nature is essential for the Maori, so, to get the locals’ favor, it is required to honor this wonderful land’s natural resources, not violate its purity, and not damage nature (Williamson & Gaston, 2020). Perhaps it was from the Maori that all subsequent New Zealanders inherited a sense of respect for nature comparable to respect for humanity.

In the second half of the nineteenth century, the British and indigenous people of New Zealand signed an agreement on peaceful coexistence. February 6th is now celebrated as the Day of the Treaty of Waitangi and is considered one of the most popular holidays (New Zeeland Parliament, 2021). According to the treaty, New Zealand was placed under British rule. The Maori were given the right to all the lands they possessed before the Europeans arrived. Many European settlers ignored the treaty provisions, leading to disputes over the division of territory that provoked the New Zealand Wars (Kahu, 2019). The latter is a series of armed conflicts between Maori and colonial troops on the northern island.

The treaty was signed at the Waitangi River on February 6. At first, it was signed by fifty chiefs, but in time five hundred more Maori tribal leaders joined in. The historical importance of this treaty was that it guaranteed Maori ownership and protection of their lands, and the Maori, in turn, recognized the supreme authority of Queen Victoria. This successful political move went some way toward maintaining the calm between the natives and the whites. The text of the treaty was written in English and translated into the Maori language. The translation inaccuracy and the lack of many legal and political terms in the Maori language created great controversy in interpreting the treaty’s rights (Wohlfart, 2018). Despite the lingering disagreement, Waitangi Day is celebrated throughout the country. The program is full of concerts, presentations of Maori cultural heritage, exhibitions, and outdoor games.

The culture of New Zealand has absorbed the traditions of both European immigrants and the customs of the Maori population. It is noteworthy that despite the relatively small percentage of the Maori people in New Zealand, their culture is very tangible in the country’s life. New Zealanders are very friendly, welcoming, and social; the rules of etiquette in this country are in many ways similar to the European ones (NauMai NZ, 2019). Despite notable European influence in spiritual culture, the Maori try to preserve their cultural heritage.

The main center of modern Maori culture is on Marae, land in New Zealand officially owned by the Maori people. A marae is a sacred place where wharenui are built for tribal rituals ranging from family celebrations to inter-tribal gatherings. Marae rituals are based on oral traditions, as this was the only way of communication throughout the people’s history until the arrival of Europeans, who began to translate the language into written form. This is why many ceremonies may seem like a performance for visitors, but in fact, such performances are a narrative.

New Zealand’s indigenous Maori people are experiencing a cultural renaissance despite a long history of colonization and cultural restrictions. Crucial to this is a traditional worldview based on hospitality and people’s benevolent attitude toward one another. Tikanga is the basic code of Maori culture, customs, laws, and rituals passed down orally from generation to generation (English New Zeeland, 2018). It includes the two key concepts, which are Wanaungatanga and Manaakitanga. The latter is a concept that reflects the importance of caring for and providing for others. Vanaungatanga is similar to collectivism; however, it also refers to relationships with the present, future, and past generations.

An important term for these people is also kaitiaki, the essence of which is guardianship and mentoring. For the Maori, the values of collectivity are fundamental; they think of themselves in terms of community, and therefore they need to provide support for the people around them. When tourists arrive, these people need to show cohesion and the existence of their own traditions and customs within their community. But they are also willing to share the secrets of their existence; that is, they are open to contact and therefore show friendliness and hospitality.

Among the unusual traditions of New Zealanders, the Maori greeting should be mentioned – touch with the tips of the noses. After hongi, the Maori perceive the other person as a friend (Panchali, 2018). It is believed that after dividing the breath of life into two, people become one. Interestingly, in New Zealand, there are three equivalent state languages – English, Maori, and the sign language of the deaf and dumb. It is customary to celebrate the most important events in the life of the islanders on the streets. Women and men have the same rights in all areas of life. Compliance with etiquette is encouraged everywhere and towards everyone, so for example, not saying hello to the bus driver will be considered rude.

Greetings seem at first glance to be a completely insignificant, formal moment of communication. However, looking at how they are used in different countries, it can be concluded that the greeting has its own profound meaning. In Western culture, when people meet, they say hello and shake hands. The equivalent of the two in Thai culture is Sawat-dee (greeting) and Wai (palms folded together) (Rodgers, 2021). The correct use of the Sawat-dee blessing and the Wai gesture makes it possible to establish positive contact.

The famous Maori martial dance, which sounds like “haka,” is gaining worldwide popularity today. The Maori tribes have now copyrighted the dance, and the New Zealand government has officially granted tribal members the ownership of the battle cry “Ka Mate.” In essence, haka is a ritual dance accompanied by choral support or occasionally shouted words. It was performed to summon the spirits of nature or before engaging in battle with the enemy. There is also another kind of dance performed by women, the so-called poi.

Thai culture also has traditional dances, the variety of which is almost limitless. Like any folk art, Thai dance is constantly evolving as new cultural influences emerge, but the ancient elements that have existed since the beginning of the dance’s existence remain. Fawn Thai is the most famous set of traditional folk dances, but there are other types that are also part of the heritage of Thailand. For example, Likay is a form of dance that has its roots in the Muslim religion. This type of dance includes many comedic and humorous elements that the dancers play out. The culture of dance dates back to the early Thai states (Iverson, 2017). In the settlements, not a single holiday passed without performances with the participation of local artisans. And at the royal palace, there was a whole theater with actors and dancers who entertained the royal family every day. Surprisingly, the tradition of dance has slightly changed to this day, using the same technique as many centuries ago.

Cultural security is a state of systemic balance between the necessary evolutionary processes accompanying any innovation and the need of any culture for self-preservation and translation of its foundations. At the same time, it is a system of measures protecting culture from extreme threats (vandalism, genocide, destruction of monuments) and creating conditions for its harmonious development. Therefore, a culture must have an assured ability to defend itself and adapt to objective change while maintaining its identity.

The term originated in the formation of the Maori nursing and midwifery system in New Zealand. At that time, it became clear that this activity had to consider the traditions and customs of the peoples to whom the relevant health care was being provided. Culturally appropriate safety is understood as an activity that supports, respects, and inspires confidence in individuals’ cultural identity and flourishing (Curtis et al., 2019). It enables them to express their identity and meets their cultural needs. Culture in this concept was presented primarily as a set of characteristics of the individual (Curtis et al., 2019). It included age, gender, sexual orientation, occupation and socioeconomic status, ethnicity or experience, religiousness, or other spiritual beliefs. However, the essence of the term was not reduced to this list.

Meaningful intercultural dialogue appears to be an effective means of conflict resolution. Since the middle of the twentieth century, with intensive globalization and the development of communications, it has become more intense but also more contradictory. On the one hand, the culture of a nation is the criterion that determines its identity, the uniqueness of its spiritual forces, creative potential, and values. On the other hand, the global transformations act as a catalyst in forming a single world culture, standard and universal. As a consequence, the preservation of cultural diversity takes on special importance (Curtis et al., 2019). Therefore, the dialogue of cultures should contribute both to the formation of cultural identity and national consciousness and be a means of mutual spiritual enrichment.

The Maori are a people with a rich culture and exciting traditions in New Zealand culture. There are so many features of their style of life that influence the overall New Zeeland atmosphere. However, their past is cruel and full of pain and struggle. Colonialism and globalization have stifled Maori identity and devastated their resources. Most will never know the internal conflict that continues in New Zealand. Behind the celebratory exterior that they display to visitors and people outside the country is the fact that the European and Maori mix has merged through brutality and suppression. Today Maori are still struggling with marginalization and being treated worse than white people.

For centuries, Maori have lived and worked on their ancestors’ rugged but very fertile land with great reverence. Traditionally the Maori believed the ground was the nurturer and giver of life to all living things (Lockhart et al., 2019). Mother Earth was the giver of food for human beings, so the food had to be cooked under the ground. The Maori believed that people born on the earth had the right to enjoy their gifts and were supposed to protect them for the benefit of the whole tribe. The cuisine of the local indigenous Maori people is considered traditional in New Zealand.

The cooking process is varied; Maori food is dried, smoked, boiled, and stewed in cauldrons in earthen pits. The last way is how the most popular national dish, hangi is prepared. Accordingly, it is essential to the Maori people that tourists are satisfied and appreciate the taste of the prepared dishes. It is also necessary to observe the ritual of the meal because of the importance given to the land. Moreover, a new person should not enter the room without an invitation: the Maori must make sure that they will receive the guest with dignity.

Food is directly related to the emotional world of a person and their self-identity. As a set of specific ideas about the food preferences of people, national cuisine remains one of the key factors of self-consciousness and identity of representatives of different ethnic groups. Due to them, people recognize themselves as part of this or that culture. The food preferences of each ethnic group have historically been formed depending on the geographical location and economic development of a particular territory. However, cultural traditions and customs that determine the way of life of each ethnic group also had an influence.


Curtis, E., Jones, R., Tipene-Leach, D., Walker, C., Loring, B., Paine, S.-J., & Reid, P. (2019). Why cultural safety rather than cultural competency is required to achieve health equity: A literature review and recommended definition. International Journal for Equity in Health, 18, 1-17. Web.

Enari, D., & Haua, I. (2021). A Māori and Pasifika label—an old history, new context. Genealogy, 5(3), 1-7. Web.

English New Zeeland. (2018). Guide to Māori culture and customs. Web.

Iverson, K. (2017). The history and basics of thai dancing. Culture Trip. Web.

Kahu, T. (2019). To honor the treaty, we must first settle colonization’ (Moana Jackson 2015): The long road from colonial devastation to balance, peace and harmony. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand,49, 1-15. Web.

Lockhart, C., Houkamau, C., Sibley, C., & Osborne, D. (2019). To be at one with the land: Māori spirituality predicts greater environmental regard. Religions, 10, 1-14. Web.

NauMai NZ. (2019). New Zeeland culture. Web.

New Zealand Parliament. (2020). A brief history of Waitangi Day. Web.

Panchali, D. (2018). Maori—we greet each other by pressing our noses and foreheads together. Times of India. Web.

Rodgers, G. (2021). How to say hello in Thai. TripSavvy. Web.

Williamson, E., & Gaston, N. (2020). Nature and nurture: Connecting conservation and wellbeing. National Library Wellington. Web.

Wohlfart, I. (2018). Cultural mediation in New Zealand postcolonial translation. Lebende Sprachen, 63(2), 254-271. Web.

Moral Catastrophe In “Les Misérables”


The moral concept of Les Miserables corresponds to Hugo’s view of life as a continuous alternation of light and darkness. Hugo raises the theme of crime as one of the terrible vices faced by the characters. Is it possible to justify a crime that is entirely in the throes of feelings? Probably not, but Jean Valjean shows the opposite: burdened by hunger and poverty, he steals bread for his sister and pays for it with hard labor. On the other hand, the policeman Javert is unburdened by suffering and serves an authority whose power he cannot doubt. Hugo confronts the two characters, each of whom has experienced an inner moral catastrophe and made his own choice.

The Worldview of Valjean vs. Javert

Jean Valjean chooses crime so that his family can survive the famine. His act speaks of him as a man of strong perceptions about truth and duty. Penal servitude changes Valjean, and he no longer sees the good in people. But the convict’s blind embitterment transforms under the influence of Bishop Myriel into a conscious rejection of reality as it is and a desire to improve life (Hugo, 2021). The Bishop treats Valjean with kindness and preaches the same attitude to people. The Bishop’s perceptions changed his attitude toward people, and Valjean saw the light again. Bishop Myriel shows the former convict that the world can change.

Jean Valjean lives under a false name and tries to help people. Valjean is tormented by a choice when justice finds an innocent man, for his fate is at stake. But he cannot lie and hide because of the moral principles taught to him by the Bishop. He goes to court and voluntarily puts himself in the hands of the law. Valjean remains locked up alone again; he meets fate with a smile. Valjean could have checked his perceptions and wondered why he was sacrificing himself for another person. He would have wondered again what would have happened if he had not stolen bread for his sister. But even after introspection, he would not have acted differently because the Bishop had taught him to be honest and kind.

Police Inspector Javert is the antagonist of good and human qualities. Javert personifies a powerful opponent who embodies the law of the state. Javert strives for power and justice, and he always sees crime as a bad deed. He sees the world only in terms of the law, so he cannot discern nobility in crime. The reader only sees a glimmer of good in Javert: Valjean’s accidental rescue from the Cockerel Hour gang. He does this to catch Valjean himself later, and even now, Javert follows his perceptions without checking them.

Javert’s perception of the world changed after Jean Valjean saved him from the young revolutionaries. For the first time, Javert felt kindness, and his worldview was turned upside down. He realized that goodness could be above the law and changed his mind (Hugo, 2021). He stopped pursuing Valjean and even helped him, but he could not bear the moral suffering. He dies jumping into the Seine because a rethinking of his perception realized that he had committed crimes worse than stealing bread. It probably becomes the last moment of introspection in perceiving the world and realizing that not all laws are righteous.


Hugo reveals in Les Misérables the gravity of moral choices, emphasizing crime as a righteous act if circumstances warrant it. There is goodness in Jean Valjean that compels one to commit a crime. Bishop Myriel changed his view of the world and set him on a righteous path. Valjean was again sent to penal servitude, but he was aware that he could not commit a moral crime. Javert is an antipode that combines evil and inhuman. He is a brilliant detective who is incapable of tolerating any offense. However, Valjean changes his picture of the world, and unable to bear the realization, Javert dies.


Hugo, V. (2021). Les Misérables. (Hapgood, I. F. Trans.). Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. The Project Gutenberg, Web.

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