The Foundation Of Army Leadership Essay Example

Leadership is one of those few qualities that is an essential condition for any society’s normal functioning. Not everyone has a natural inclination for this feature, but some courses and approaches allow developing such property. Since no enterprise in any field of activity can exist without these skills, leadership qualities are sometimes put at the foundation of a particular structure. This paper aims to examine the foundations of leadership and leadership standards using the example of the army.

This quality manifests itself and is formed in different ways, depending on a considerable number of conditions. The education of a person and the environment is crucial to the analysis. Individual characteristics associated with the personality form a unique leadership style. For example, examining Asian leadership aspects, one can note the distance orientation of power and the culture of collectivism as two fundamental factors (Koo and Choelsoon 697). Thus, a leader from China will be radically different from a commander from, for example, the United States. In this case, only a general cultural difference is considered, which can be aggravated by a particular organization’s special orders.

Therefore, it should be noted that different countries’ armies will inevitably differ in the characteristics of the formation and implementation of leadership qualities. The armed forces of various states, as a rule, are a unique formation, even despite the use of similar types of equipment. Only at first glance, the army’s structure, consisting of the military’s general division into specific units, may seem the same throughout the world. In general, leadership can be expressed as a quality imposed by discipline and rank system that exists to maintain order. Nevertheless, this concept often includes many more subtleties; the differences between the armies are quite significant and are manifested in the approaches used to form leadership. For example, a Korean armed forces study cites three types of leadership: strategic, integration, and knowledgeable (Jin 209). However, all these branches are united by one idea of spiritual unity and cohesion, which is the Korean army’s main intangible combat power.

Likewise, the US Army also has unique characteristics to form and nurture leadership in its ranks. A distinctive feature of the American army is the education of such qualities in a narrow array of officers and commanders and all soldiers. This practice begins literally from the very first days of a soldier entering the service. As part of basic training, the US Army offers combatants courses that include defining leadership expectations and multiple self-development opportunities (Kirchner and Mesut, Exploring Inclusion of Leadership Development 156). In the future, similar training continues throughout the soldier’s service. This approach’s effectiveness can be observed using statistics, according to which veterans of the US Army are much more likely to demonstrate leadership qualities in everyday life and at work.

American soldiers’ leadership education is based on four main approaches, combining both traditional methods and high technology. E-learning is a free opening for self-development, which, moreover, is combined with career opportunities for completing the provided material (Kirchner and Mesut, Military Leadership Development Strategies 359). The second method is to gradually select the soldiers and allow them to take a leadership position, leading their comrades. Third, the army encourages and promotes the exchange of knowledge among soldiers, through which subordinates learn about their supervisors’ responsibilities. Finally, like many other organizations, the US Army actively promotes and educates employees about core values such as discretion and decency.

Thus, each organization has its unique leadership foundations, depending on cultural characteristics and many other factors. Similarly, at a deep level, the army of one country differs from that of another. Speaking of the US Army and taking into account all the strategies, leadership training can be identified as the basis for authority through various programs throughout the service. It is because of this feature that all American veterans show such high leadership qualities in everyday life.

Works Cited

Jin, Jae-Yeoul. “A Study on the ROK Army Leadership for Promoting Jointness.” Korea and Global Affairs, vol. 1, no. 2, 2017, pp. 209-242.

Kirchner, Michael J., and Mesut Akdere. “Exploring Inclusion of Leadership Development into New Employee Orientations: A Proposed Approach from Army Leader Development.” Organization Management Journal, vol. 16, no. 3, 2019, pp. 156-166.

—. “Military Leadership Development Strategies: Implications for Training in Non-Military Organizations.” Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 49, no. 7, 2017, pp. 357–364.

Koo, Haeyoung, and Choelsoon Park. “Foundation of Leadership in Asia: Leader Characteristics and Leadership Styles Review and Research Agenda.” Asia Pacific Journal of Management, vol. 35, no. 3, 2018, pp. 697-718.

Similar And Distinctive Features Of Society During The Early Renaissance And Contemporary Europe

The development of public relations over time has led to the fact that the ideas relevant in the Middle Ages have changed to a certain extent, and their reflection is very superficial in modern society. Changes took place not only in cultural, but also in social life, and the confirmation is the system of conducting political and ideological courses in modern European countries. Those norms of morality and cultural values ​​that were glorified in the era of universal enlightenment have changed by today; now trade and market relations have come to the place of the ideas of humanism, and the status of a person as a supreme being has changed beyond recognition.

Forms of Worldview: Then and Now

The orientation toward the man primarily characterizes the Renaissance. The philosophical thinking of this period is anthropocentric. The central figure here is not God but the human being. According to Houston (2014), the idea that a person knows more when he speaks to God fades into the background. A typical feature of the world outlook of people of the Renaissance is its expressed humanistic character. The man appears as a free being, the creator of himself and the world around him. The thinkers of this era, however, could not be atheists or materialists. They believed in God, they recognized him as the pioneer of the world and the man. According to their views, God, having created the world and people, gave everybody freedom, and now they had to determine their destiny.

The worldview of modern Europe differs significantly from the ideas of the Renaissance. A rational thought takes the first place today, and the previous picture of the world does not fit in any way. The change of technical resources and technological progress have almost entirely removed the idea of ​​humanism, and the belief in science and the pursuit of respect for human rights occupy a dominant position. The democratic stability of today’s Europe is unlikely to be similar to the one that was several centuries ago. As Seigel (2015) notes, society no longer believes that death is salvation, not a destruction of a person.

Thus, the norms of the worldview have changed very significantly for several centuries, and a possible reason lies not only in the shift of interests but also in a rapid development of scientific thought. It is quite difficult to turn to early ideas for help when almost unlimited opportunities open up for a person and give the right to determine his or her way of life independently. Despite the fact that the people of modern Europe still remember and appreciate the achievements of the Renaissance, the path of contemporary development of the present has practically nothing in common with the former.

Comparison of Creative Activity

Creative activity acquired a kind of sacral character in the epoch of the Renaissance. In the course of it the man not only satisfied his natural needs but also created a new world and worked on himself. The art in the Renaissance reached unprecedented heyday, which is due to the economic upsurge, with a massive shift that occurred in the minds of people who turned to the cult of earthly life and beauty. As Goodey (2016) claims, the art of the Renaissance in many ways represents a contrast to the medieval, and some of its ideas are relevant today. It marks the emergence of realism that for a long time determined the development of European artistic culture.

Perhaps, the most vivid aspect of contemporary European art is its indeterminacy. In the same way, as in an ordinary world, the effect of globalization is increasingly observed in the world of art. Many boundaries and differences are lost. As Houston (2014) notes, “each art has been devised because of its certain usefulness” (p. 64). Those spheres that are popular today somehow reflect both political and economic nuances, and the influence of the new thinking of the person here seems to be obvious. Modern styles of painting, music, sculpture increasingly convey the moods of masses and do not call to admiration for the beauty but to thoughts and certain conclusions, seek to influence people’s thinking, affect and encourage particular actions.

Anyhow, it would be wrong to assume that there is no special and unique art in Europe; it is only possible to say that during the process of its formation the culture of the Renaissance did not reflect too deeply. A person probably still knows how to admire the beauty, but something today is irrelevant, and something is losing popularity, giving way to pressing issues and conveying the moods of modern people.

Summing up, it is rather evident that those norms of morality and cultural values ​​that were glorified in the era of universal enlightenment have changed by today. The idea of praising the soul of a person is no longer important, much more pressing problems have replaced it, and this can hardly be called a regress of society. The point, perhaps, is that the interests, views, and objects of society’s admiration are just changing, and this process proves to be inevitable.


Goodey, C. F. (2016). A History of Intelligence and “Intellectual Disability”: The Shaping of Psychology in Early Modern Europe. Abingdon, England: Routledge.

Houston, C. (2014). The Renaissance Utopia: Dialogue, Travel and the Ideal Society. Farnham, England: Ashgate.

Seigel, J. E. (2015). Rhetoric and Philosophy in Renaissance Humanism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Leadership Model For Migrant Workers

Introduction: When the Matter Should Be Taken into the Hands of a Strong Leader

Immigration issues have always been on the agenda of most states, and are most likely to remain there. Immigrants always have to deal with many complexities, such as the process of assimilation, the economic and financial change, as well as the associated challenges, unemployment issues, etc. Like immigrants in any other state, the immigrants in Malaysia are currently facing economic problems (Chin, Li, Kang, Behar, Chen & Chen, 2011) that can be dealt with the help of a religious organization (Yang, 2011). Introducing the principle of cooperation and knowledge sharing into the community, such an organization as the Hope for the New Life can possibly change the current situation with the Malaysian immigrant workers for the better (Abdul-Rahman, Wang, Wood & Low, 2012).

Research Questions: What Needs to Be Answered in the Course of the Research

To start with, the issues that are going to be addressed in the given research must be listed. In addition, the key factors that shape the life of Malaysian workers will be categorized. Once having the key factors are split into categories, one can analyze them more efficiently and find a unique approach to coordinate them.

What leadership model seems the most appropriate: knowledge sharing and addressing the current issues

Analyzing the problems that the migrant workers in Malaysia are facing at present, one can claim with certainty that the key issue is the uneven distribution of information (Choo & Chan, 2013), which causes economical and financial disintegration of the immigrant society. Therefore, the politics of Hope for the New Life must be focused on promoting knowledge sharing among immigrants (Hemphill & Leskowitz, 2012). According to what researchers say, the most efficient leadership styles that can help promote knowledge sharing are charismatic (Hunter, Cushenbery, Thoroughgood, Johnson & Ligon, 2011), transactional, and assumption-based leadership styles. Charismatic leadership will help set an example for the organization members to follow, transformational leadership will contribute to the knowledge-sharing process (Park, 2012), while assumption-based style will help develop further strategies to address newly emerging issues.

Developing a unique approach: the problems that need to be addressed

The problems that the immigrants in Malaysia are currently facing can be split into several categories:

    1. financial:

  • lack of financial support;
  • low wages;
  • low life standards

    1. economical:

  • low paid jobs
  • insecure jobs

    1. political:

  • inactive in political life;
  • red tape

    1. social:

  • language issues
  • education
  • employment
  • training
  • social activities (Talib, 2011).

Though the given problems seem rather diverse, they all stem from the same issue, which is the lack of cooperation between the immigrant people in Malaysia. Researches show that Malaysian immigrant workers prefer to be on their own as opposed to creating groups and diasporas. As a result, even if some of the immigrants develop a successful strategy, the rest remain completely unaware of it. Hence, the most efficient ways of introducing an efficient system of knowledge sharing into the immigrant society in Malaysia are is the most crucial research question.

Regarding the possible obstacles: what might stand in the way of Hope for the New Life

Though the study seems very extensive and must help solve many current issues among immigrants in Malaysia, one cannot act as if this research was completely flawless. It has its own limitations. One of the most obvious is its scope – since it is impossible to embrace all the problems that immigrants face, considering the most topical ones are the only possible way out. When created, though, the Hope for the New Life will have to adjust to the specifics of the given environment. Another limitation concerns the precision of the data. No matter how up-to-date the information is, there is no way to provide the statistical data accurately within unit’s digit.

The pros and cons of the chosen leadership model and the possible alternatives

Though the chosen model seems rather viable, it still has several problems. First, it requires considerable flexibility, since it consists of three different models. Secondly, the chosen model demands great involvement of the immigrants. However, there are many positive aspects to talk about.

Speaking of the advantages of the chosen leadership method applied in a religious organization, it is necessary to mention that the given approach has already been adopted successfully in a similar environment. My ministry in Vietnamese-American United Methodist Church was based on the same idea of knowledge sharing, which helped the project turn out a complete success. Once every single member of the organization has the access to all the crucial data, it can be expected that the church members will have more chances to evaluate their chances of economical or financial success.

Research Hypothesis: The Issues for the Hope for the New Life to Tackle

The research hypothesis of the given paper can be worded in the following way: with the help of the knowledge sharing principle as the fundament for the Hope for the New Life, and the mix of transactional, charismatic, and assumption-based leadership, the Hope for the New Life will promote knowledge sharing among the Malaysian immigrant workers.

Research Methods: Choosing the Most Adequate Approach towards the Identified Problem

Since choosing the research strategy depends on the type of the data, the research question, and the adopted approach, the given research is going to be a quantitative-experimental study. Demanding a consideration of a number of factors and the ability to manipulate these factors, the given research is going to focus on its analytical aspect. Therefore, the research question is whether the knowledge-sharing model together with the principles of assumption-based and transformation leadership model can possibly spur economic and financial development of the immigrant diaspora in Malaysia (Choi, 2010).

Conclusion: The Prospects of a Religious Organization for Malaysian Migrant Workers

Although the given research is focused on the possible changes that the Hope for the New Life can give the Malaysian workers, and, therefore, demands a basically qualitative research approach, it is still clear that a number of statistical data is going to be taken into account, therefore, the research is going to be semi-qualitative and semi-qualitative; to be more exact, the mixed research approach is going to be adopted. As for the leadership styles, in the light of the fact that not only spiritual but, first and foremost, economic and financial problems are to be addressed, the Hope for the New Life will have to adopt a mixed style of leadership that will combine the elements of several other styles. With that in mind, it can be expected that the Hope for the New Life will reach considerable success in its beginnings.


Abdul-Rahman, H., Wang, C., Wood, L. C., & Low, S. F. (2012). Negative impact induced by foreign workers: Evidence in Malaysian construction sector. Habitat International, 36(4), 2012, 433–443.

Chin, J. J., Li, M. Y., Kang, E., Behar, E., & Chen, P. C. (2011). Civic/sanctuary orientation and HIV involvement among Chinese immigrant religious institutions in New York City. Global Public Health, 6(2), S210–217.

Choi, S. (2010). Reclaiming the English language in postcolonial Malaysia: Ethnicity, Class, and the Nostalgia for Global Citizenship. ProQuest: Ann Arbor, MI.

Choo, S. Y., & Chan, C. K. Y. (2013). Predicting eating problems among Malaysian Chinese: Differential roles of positive and negative perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(6), 744–749.

Hemphill, D. & Leskowitz, S. (2012). DIY activists: Communities of practice, cultural dialogism, and radical knowledge sharing. Adult Education Quarterly, 63(1), 57–77.

Hunter, S. T., Cushenbery, L., Thoroughgood, C., Johnson, J. E., & Ligon, S., (2011). First and ten leadership: A historiometric investigation of the CIP leadership model. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(1), 70–91.

Park, S. B. (2012). Transformational leadership as a new pastoral model for South Korean churches. ProQuest: Ann Arbor, MI.

Talib, I. S. (2011). Malaysia and Singapore: Complied and introduced by Ismail S. Talib. The Journal of Commonwealth Literature, 46(4), 655–672.

Yang, J. (2011). A Christian perspective on immigrant integration. Review of Faith & International Affairs, 9(1), 77–83.

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