The Framers Of The Constitution And The Bicameral Legislature Essay Example

Why the Founders Created a Bicameral Legislature

The political system of the United States involves two bodies, such as the House of Representatives and the Senate. At first glance, these entities share similar goals of helping citizens and performing their duties in the government. However, both senators and representatives, commonly referred to as congressmen, focus on different responsibilities. While senators concentrate on the elimination of the current legislative issues and compliance with the laws, congress members concentrate on the legislative proposal that could solve the existing problems. In this sense, senators need stability, control, and diligence; meanwhile, congressmen require more empathy, impulsivity, and enthusiasm.

When it comes to the essence of the bicameral legislature, in addition to the notions about what would make a desirable legislative body, the Framers of the Constitution took into account actual political factors when deciding to establish a bicameral legislature (House Committee on Rules). The writers of the Constitution believed that having a two-chamber legislature gave them a powerful tool for preventing any violations of the authority (House Committee on Rules). The founders reasoned that by splitting authority, they had produced two “different bodies of men who might watch and check each other,” as Madison described it (House Committee on Rules para.1). As a result, two responsibilities of two entities complement each other.

As for the qualifications needed to become a congressman, the Constitution substantially reduced the threshold for regular individuals seeking to join the U.S. House of Representatives. The House was the sole government institution at the moment that was regularly open for election, and the founders intended for it to be the representative branch that was closest to the public in terms of age and citizenship restrictions. According to the Constitution, members of Congress that will serve a two-year term must be at least 25 years old, citizens of the United States for at least seven years, and residents of the state they are elected to represent (United States House of Representatives). In Federalist 52, James Madison of Virginia wrote that “the door of this part of the federal government is open to merit of every description, whether native or adoptive, whether young or old and without regard to poverty or wealth” (United States House of Representatives, para.2). Thus, congressmen are bound to be closer to the public.

Meanwhile, senators face stricter criteria and more significant duties that involve legislative, informative, and other powers. Senators must be at least thirty years old, citizens of the United States for at least nine years, and residents of the state they will be representing when elected, according to the Constitution (United States Senate). Within legislative powers, the primary responsibilities covered by the legislative authority of the Senate include the Constitution, policies pertaining to the status, authority, power structures, and financial support of the federated agencies, along with rules regulating intrafederal cooperation (Senate). Within informative powers, the Senate may create reports on cross-cutting issues or national issues that influence the authority of the Regions and Communities (Senate). It has this ability in almost all situations. Even while the execution of the participation principle is restricted to a paralegislative power, the creation of such papers is the greatest manifestation of it. Yet, there are additional responsibilities of the Senate that include handling written inquiries, nominating or appointing leading judges, resolving conflicts of interest, working with other parliamentary bodies, and conducting subsidiarity reviews.

As for the House of Representatives, each member of Congress is chosen by the citizens of a certain voting district. In accordance with the Constitution, the House and Senate collaborate to develop and approve federal regulations, place bills and motions, propose amendments, and participate in committees where members can get in-depth knowledge of the subjects (The Policy Circle). Despite the fact that they both make up Congress, there are some differences between the two. The Constitution states explicitly that the House of Representatives is the sole body to initiate revenue bills, and historically, the House initiates appropriation bills (The Policy Circle). Inspections and supervision are not directly mentioned in the Constitution, but the right to start an investigation is inferred since Congress has all legal powers according to the Constitution (The Policy Circle). Therefore, while congressmen are independent, they are required to cooperate with the Senate.

In this sense, Congress’ primary duty is to make sure that the country has the statutes and regulations it needs to prosper. To accomplish this, senators and representatives introduce legislation they believe will one day be passed into law (Carper). After determining the issue, congressmen proceed to propose legislation that offers a solution. They will occasionally collaborate to introduce a bill with other Senators (Carper). In order for identical or very comparable laws to be submitted in both the House and the Senate, representatives and senators may work together on policy. Senators can join on as cosponsors if they want to show their great basis for the proposal even though they did not personally introduce it (Carper). This implies the bodies’ collaboration results in the unity of the legal system and the success of the policies and laws.

How the Constitutional Requirements for the Representative and Senator Offices Could Create Two Different “Personalities” in Each Chamber

Nevertheless, it is vital to accentuate the differences between the entities. While the distinct features and differences can be seen through the analysis, each body was conceived differently, even by the writers of the Constitution. According to Madison, the House of Representatives would serve as “the grand repository of the democratic principle of government” (House Committee on Rules para.3). As a result, the Constitution stipulated that the House would initially have the authority to pass tax laws. However, the big, elected by popular vote House too was perceived by the Founders to have traits that were unsettling: a propensity for turbulence, impulsivity, and unpredictability, as well as, as Richard Fenno argues, a short-run perspective of good public policy (House Committee on Rules). Here, the congressman epitomizes new blood or invigorating force in the system.

Nevertheless, there is much more to the image of the congressman rather than impulsivity and turbulence. They can be characterized as ambitious and empathetic individuals who serve the interests of their community. One can compare a representative to a surgeon. Similar to surgeons who save patients, congressmen are required to solve the issues that affect the public. Despite the short term, congressmen might be perceived as young individuals eager to change the system in a short time.

On the other hand, the Senate was established as a stabilizing factor and is chosen by State lawmakers rather than by large numbers of voters. As a kind of republican grandeur and a contrast to what Madison regarded as the “fickleness and passion” that may consume the House, senators would be more informed and cautious (House Committee on Rules, para.4). The Senate’s purpose, he continued, is to operate with more calmness, with more order, and with more intelligence than the public branch (House Committee on Rules). The Founders decided to give the Senate power over foreign affairs as a result of Madison’s reasoning because stability, control, and precaution were thought to be particularly crucial (House Committee on Rules). In this situation, senators epitomize trustworthy and calm individuals.

Unlike congressmen, senators might be perceived as older and wiser individuals attentive to detail. Due to their responsibilities involving resolving conflict situations, dealing with laws and regulations, and appointing judges, such individuals require a diligent, hardworking, and patient nature. In this situation, senators can be compared to accountants who oversee every action, when even a small mistake can lead to a collapse. While senators are fully capable of performing such duties in this role, the turbulent nature of members of Congress would be an impediment for the representatives.

Hence, both congressmen and senators share similar goals, such as the establishment of a cohesive legal system. However, each body performs different duties and has individual features. Congressmen focus on the legislative proposal that might resolve the existing concerns, but senators are more concerned with the eradication of the current legislative issues and compliance with the laws. In this regard, senators demand steadiness, discipline, and effort, but congressmen need more empathetic tendencies, impulsivity, and enthusiasm. Congressmen might be perceived as young and ambitious individuals, and senators can be characterized as older and wiser people who take pride in their diligence and hardworking nature. Thus, the former can be compared to surgeons, and the latter can be compared to accountants.

Works Cited

Carper, Tom. “How a Bill Becomes a Law.” United States Senator Tom Carper. Web.

House Committee on Rules. “Bicameral Relations and Interchamber Cooperation.” House Committee on Rules. Web.

Senate. “Responsibilities of the Senate.” Senate.

The Policy Circle. “U.S. House of Representatives – About Congress.” The Policy Circle, 2022.

United States House of Representatives. “Constitutional Qualifications.” United States House of Representatives. Web.

United States Senate. “U.S. Senate: About the Senate and the U.S. Constitution.” United States Senate, 2022.

Impact Of Different Population Group On Children Development

Modern society is increasingly paying attention to different people, remarkably other population groups. Now more and more classes are starting to be not just ordinary, but those that accept people with various disabilities or social statuses. This kind of change has an excellent effect on society because the active involvement of such different population groups allows other children to understand and perceive the world differently.

To attract more and more diverse people to education, this is necessary to develop a program and method of education for them. Because of their perception, it is better to make a somewhat simplified training system. That is, taking separate groups into account: youngsters from diverse cultural backgrounds, students who have learning disabilities, and students, in general, etc., it is necessary to develop practical training by analyzing a specific part of these groups and learning all the details of such people.

If people with specific physical disabilities come to the class, it is necessary to provide them with comfortable and uncontrolled movement. For those learning English, it is worth organizing the educational process, so they know the language quickly. Here it is worth focusing on the fact that they do not have much opportunity to speak their native language, that is, to organize a space where you can speak only in English. It is worth adding that you should also use games because you can often learn many things and use English for such purposes.

The Response to Intervention is the best opportunity for teaching special needs students. Given that this method allows you to communicate with students in more detail, it also enables you to improve the efficiency of information perception. Such diverse groups will be able to familiarize themselves with the requests in more facts and how to fulfill them well. When giving the student more instructions, they will be able to do it much more efficiently and themselves without using the help of teachers.

Yes, it is challenging to organize children when they have a completely different background and can understand the presented information differently due to: diverse languages, dialects, cultures, and literary heritage. Thus, it is crucial to research this issue and find new ways to solve it. Everyone must have access to education, regardless of origin and status. And to consolidate their knowledge, it is worth spending a lot of interactivity, that is, watching movies or listening to songs.

Street Chargers Setup In Russia

The success of introducing any product to the market depends on numerous internal and external factors, which must be studied in detail. One of the most influential of them is the country of business, and Russia can be suggested as a convenient option for the project. According to the statistics, the country ranks 28th in terms of the business climate, which should contribute to the effectiveness of implementing the product in the market (Global Business Knowledge, 2022). Furthermore, economic complications in recent years have weakened competition in multiple market sectors. Vacated niches can be occupied with less investment, and the threshold to enter the business can be crossed without a tremendous effort. Furthermore, the liberal legislation and amount of potential consumers should ensure a rapid increase in profits, making Russia a reasonable option for the product.

It is challenging to imagine a modern man without gadgets: everyone uses cell phones, tablets, laptops, e-books. Therefore, outdoor charging gadgets are relevant and modern products in the market. This idea is successfully realized in developed countries, but it is unique for Russia, where a discharged phone is still a concern for its owner (Panfilov, 2020). It is the largest state globally with a considerable number of people and tourists so the charging machines will be in demand. This market niche is free, and that is why there is a prospect to start a business with minimal investment and gain consumers fast.

The use of an outdoor charger is an unexplored novelty for Russian consumers. The culture of distrust is common to the state, carrying severe risks for the product. People do not want to leave their phones in the cells for fear of theft or doubt in the quality of the machine. However, this peculiarity can be avoided by placing instructions and assistance at the initial stage of the product’s launch. It is also crucial to take care of the security of charging machines, equip them with video surveillance and choose the location carefully.

Although a public outlet is the sale of electricity, this activity is not subject to licensing in Russia. Based on the Electricity Use Regulations, the owner of the premises where the chargers are installed is the end consumer. The only requirement to start the business is registering a sole proprietorship and signing state contracts or agreements with private companies to place the equipment (Panfilov, 2020). The size of the market, ease of registration, and national legal regime will contribute to the business idea. It is also essential to consider the unstable state of the Russian economy. Bureaucracy and the crisis cause lower incomes, which can lead to a drop in consumer demand. Nevertheless, the product does not require a significant investment of funds and is available to everyone. The features of charging machines allow them not to lose relevance even in times of crisis, so the product will be able to withstand economic risks.

The concentration of political power or the monocentric regime has become the central feature of contemporary Russian politics. The foremost obstacles are corruption, administrative barriers, the selective implementation of laws, and state control of the economy (Letova et al., 2018). These negative consequences can be summarized by the statement that the regime objectively narrows the support base for modernization. It creates incentives for illiberal elements in the political class and the bureaucracy, used to rigid control over the business. These factors cause hardships in introducing and developing the product in the market.

The technological component of the charging products is straightforward, and the selection of equipment depends on the location. There is no need to make a charging station as the choice of terminals is extensive. The prices vary depending on the technical characteristics, the number of outlets, and the possibility of securing the phone against theft (Letova et al., 2018). There are many options for suppliers in Russia, and one can get a quality product for a reasonable price. Charging stations both with and without storage cells do not need the constant presence of an employee, and the issue of payment is solved automatically.

A gadget charging machine is a unique product for Russia, which may cause distrust. However, it is not an issue as the population will appreciate its convenience shortly. This market niche is free and in development, so there is a possibility to start a business with minimal investment and risk. This product is remarkable in that it can be presented in different ways: a socially oriented business, cooperation with the state or private organizations, and payment on the fact of service from the client. One can choose several outlets or start with one vending machine; buy expensive new equipment or save money. There are several political hazards, but they are balanced by advantages such as volume of the Russian market, simplicity of licensing, and absence of technological complexities. Therefore, all the risks are feasible, and it will be possible to profit from the product quickly.

During the project, there were many fascinating things, and first of all, I would like to highlight the site’s ability to provide all relevant information about the country and its trade opportunities and barriers. It was also remarkable how products are licensed in Russia and how the political situation in the region affects the economy and businesses. Surprisingly, not all companies are losing profits, and on the contrary, there is an opportunity for many startups as market niches are becoming freer. The last thing I would like to mention is the strong correlation between all the components, they influence each other, and the lack of one can be compensated at the expense of the other.

References

Global Business Knowledge (2022). Russia: statistics. GlobalEdge. Web.

Letova, K., Yao, R., Davidson, M., & Afanasyeva, E. (2018). A review of electricity markets and reforms in Russia. Utilities Policy, 53, 84-93.

Panfilov, P. O. (2020). Favorable Business Environment as a Criterion for Criminal Proceedings Effectiveness in Modern Russia. LEX, 73(10), 74.

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