The concept of global citizenship represents the idea that an individual can possess extensive knowledge revolving around what goes on in the wider world. Therefore, sustainable and equitable action is taken by global citizens to improve the wellbeing of all people across the globe (“Globalization at a crossroads,” n.d.; Reysen & Katzarska-Miller, 2013). From the psychological point of view, global citizenship is a complex phenomenon that relates to personal functioning and identity. It means that global citizenship is the everyday impact of one’s worldviews on the wellbeing of other people (Papastephanou, 2005). The current paper explains the concept of global citizenship in rich detail while validating the need to educate people across the globe on how to become aware of broader issues concerning one’s personal, academic, and professional development.
Background of Global Citizenship
According to Papastephanou (2005), global citizens aim to bring quantitative and qualitative change to the world around them in order to overcome the negative effects of modern capitalism. There are numerous individuals who have been affected by the increasing focus on the role of money in everyday life. This is why the advancement of global citizenship became a reality and paved the way for people-centered approaches to many psychological and socioeconomic issues (Reysen & Katzarska-Miller, 2013). The existence of less fortunate people has to be mitigated through recurrent efforts to make it possible for everyone to find their place in the world and remain useful. The promotion of global citizenship requires exceptional confidence because citizens have to advocate for lifelong learning and skill improvement regardless of one’s socioeconomic status or any other variable that diversifies the modern community (for example, race or religion).
Globalism and Globalization
The general concept of globalism is often described as associated with bewilderment and the feeling of awkwardness. Papastephanou (2005) stated that globalism was a mere part of globalization that required educators and students to get acquainted with the cross-cultural peculiarities of each other. Thus, globalism is all about the process of creating enough room for people to serve as global citizens and advocate for various changes that can be expected to improve the wellbeing of humans worldwide. As for the link between globalization and global citizenship, it can be safe to say that the involvement of relevant education is required to set the development vector for various socioeconomic groups (Papastephanou, 2005). Accordingly, globalization is much more effective than globalism in terms of bringing unity, but it has to be managed precisely in order to help global citizens reap all the benefits of working together and advocating for equity and empathy.
Global Citizenship and Personal, Academic, and Professional Goals
As noted by Estellés and Fischman (2021) and Papastephanou (2005), educational efforts to teach global citizenship could be important because of helping individuals overcome conservative notions and conceptions. The ability to preserve cultural identity and value is often considered one of the most vigorous aptitudes possessed by individuals when attaining personal goals. Hence, globalism and globalization are involved in education equally as well, with both concepts encouraging learners to think out-of-the-box and enlighten themselves and other people (Papastephanou, 2005). Such individual choices would relentlessly spark competitiveness among people, creating a stronger emphasis on interpersonal respect and a much more positive view of diversity. Within the field of professional goals, global citizenship is intended to overcome ego-centric values and confront heavily marketized relationship systems where ethics are lacking. An improved level of awareness would help potential global citizens protect educational diversity and identify new sources of theoretical knowledge and practical experience.
The most evident reason why there could have been a disagreement between theorists regarding the concept of global citizenship was the dynamic nature of interpersonal interactions. In other words, the ever-changing attitudes displayed by humanity should be considered fundamental when looking at how individuals perceive their communities. Consequently, I believe I am a better person in my community now because of having the opportunity to investigate contrasting views and acknowledge diversity. To my mind, global citizenship should be defined as an opportunity to advance societal development through empathy and continuous improvement efforts. Global citizenship shaped my identity through guiding me toward effective cross-cultural communication and an omnipresent acceptance of different cultures.
The two outcomes of global citizenship that I would like to discuss are intergroup empathy and intergroup helping. I believe that they are the most important because they are directly associated with the willingness to assist people and make the world a better place for everyone without exceptions. An event that illustrated the development of global citizenship through intergroup empathy was when a little girl got lost at the mall, so I comforted her and helped find her mother. As for intergroup helping, the best example is me donating blood to the local hospital. The two general education courses that affected me the most were World Religions and Introduction to Ethics. The latter helped me become a better global citizen by exposing the problematic nature of the modern world and numerous sensitive issues that cannot be resolved easily. World Religions was beneficial because it aided me in strengthening my comprehension of people and their underlying motivations.
Based on the evidence collected within the framework of the current paper, it can be concluded that global citizenship is a strong concept that is intended to bring out the best in people. From interpersonal relationships to education, global citizenship can be expected to aid people in advocating for social justice and better approaches to social and public dimensions. Global citizenship is a fundamental concept because it advocates for diversity, equity, and the mitigation of any crisis.
Estellés, M., & Fischman, G. E. (2021). Who needs global citizenship education? A review of the literature on teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 72(2), 223-236.
Globalization at a crossroads. Infobase.
Papastephanou, M. (2005). Globalisation, globalism and cosmopolitanism as an educational ideal. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 37(4), 533-551.
Reysen, S., & Katzarska-Miller, I. (2013). A model of global citizenship: Antecedents and outcomes. International Journal of Psychology, 48(5), 858-870.
Improper Recycling And Its Effects
In recent years, climate emergencies have been declared a crucial issue with the plastic waste’s devastating effects on the environment and wildlife increasing the recycling need. In the society where people consider the concepts of sustainability, recycling provides the conversion of things thrown away into new ones. Therefore, it ensures that neither the raw materials nor the energy employed in making the items are left to waste, further preventing the ground and air pollution. However, if recycling is not done properly, the benefits associated with it may not be achieved.
Importance of Recycling
Some materials that can be recycled in Fresno are plastic, glass, paper, and metal. Fresno has also been working towards meeting California State’s mandate that demands a reduction of up to 50% of the total waste sent to landfills (Lim-Wavde et al. 91). The necessity of recycling is determined by the safety of the environment. Through recycling, natural resources, the environment, and the entire planet are protected. Plastic, for instance, is made from a mixture of crude oil and natural gas. After being taken to a landfill, plastic can last more than 700 years to decompose and disappear completely, making it necessary to recycle it (Lim-Wavde et al. 103).
Similarly, a considerable number of trees are destroyed every day, and wood unsuitable for lumber is used in paper production. That is why paper should be recycled as well to prevent further massive forest destruction for this industry. It utilizes less energy in comparison with the situation when the paper is manufactured from fresh timber. Recycled paper can be used as printing paper, writing paper, fibreboard, animal bedding, egg cartons, flower pots, building insulation, roofing products, tissue, packing materials, among others.
Society can derive various benefits from its ability to conduct proper recycling of its waste. First, recycling ensures that natural resources are preserved as old items are used to make new ones instead of raw materials. Secondly, the energy used in recycling materials is less compared to the extraction, transportation, as well as processing of raw materials involved in making new products, saving energy (Makridis 248). Additionally, the recycling plants can create more jobs when more recycling is done. This ranges from jobs in the new product design, packaging, and the involved innovation as well as technology.
Consequences of Improper Recycling
At the same time, improper recycling has multiple negative consequences. First of all, the improper disposal of hazardous materials leads to the contamination of water, air, and soil. For instance, the leaching of toxins affects groundwater, soil and produces toxic gases. Further, recycling lowers the waste levels sent to landfills because when waste overstays and rots in a landfill, the environment is polluted in various ways. For instance, the leaching of toxins from the waste pollutes the soil, groundwater and produces gases like methane that contribute to global warming. In the United States, all recyclables are collected in a common facility.
From the facility, people and machines are responsible for sorting and separating recyclable materials, an incredibly difficult process for workers. Plastic bags are likely to tangle around the rotating machines at the recycling facility. This breaks down the machine forces workers to climb up the machine and remove it by hand, making their job unsafe.
Further, whenever a center is forcefully stopped to disentangle the present non-recyclables, severe delays are experienced in the facility, which can be expensive in the long run. Therefore, improper recycling can decrease efficiency because these unwanted materials interfere with an efficient process running smoothly (Lim-Wavde et al. 103). In addition, some materials, including needles, garbage found in the bins, and scrap metals, present a hazardous environment to the workers who may handle them. Some of these items could be of a size that can hurt a worker if it falls. Some materials that are non-recyclable can cause irreparable damage to the equipment, and to some extent, some may cause a fire.
Repairs to the equipment can sometimes be costly to an extent the firm cannot meet. Further, each time the equipment has to stop, the effectiveness of the involved processes is decreased, resulting in the need for a backup plan, which may also be costly. Therefore, improper recycling can cause damage to both equipment and the employees.
Another consequence of improper recycling is the contamination of other recyclable materials. Some items like unwashed jars, broken glasses, and greasy containers can lead to the contamination of the whole recyclable material load (Lim-Wave 99). The toxic load attracts other problems such as the creation of unsanitary conditions, the attraction of pests, among others. Further, when this load of recyclable materials is presented to a buyer, the buyer can refuse to accept it entirely because of contamination. Should this become a trend, this can affect the recycling industry economically since the employees have to be paid, and other operating costs will have to be met. Therefore, decreased profitability will lead to increased recycling service costs.
The effects of improper recycling that have been discussed in this paper pose a great danger to the well-being of society. However, consumers are responsible for avoiding the various consequences of improper recycling because of the impacts of their actions. Their actions can affect the recycling centers as well as the various opportunities created by proper recycling. For the residents of Fresno and the entire US to experience the benefits of recycling, they should take both individual and collective responsibility in ensuring that improper recycling is avoided.
Lim-Wavde, Kustini, et al. “Household Informedness and Policy Analytics for the Collection and Recycling of Household Hazardous Waste in California.” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 120, 2017, pp. 88-107.
Makridis, Christos A. “Is Recycling Effective? Evidence from California between 2004 and 2017.” Land Economics, vol. 97, no. 1, 2021, pp. 246-261.
“The Lost Letters Of Pergamum”: Book Review
The Lost Letters of Pergamum is a collection of letters in which prominent people from the nobility and churches of the first century communicate and discuss various matters. In general, this book shows people writing letters about how Christianity gradually appeared and influenced the world around them. The plot describes the appearance of the first ideas of Christianity through persecution to recognition.
In the first century world depicted in this book, society was divided into several layers. The desire for honor and patronage stood guard over the code of relations between patricians and plebeians. Therefore, Antipas, communicating with Luke and discussing Jesus of Nazareth, fears for his honor (Longenecker and Witherington 87). It seemed impossible to sacrifice social norms the way Jesus did, but it was this example that allowed looking differently at honor, reciprocity, and patronage. These categories are only a fraction of the total number of Antipas transformations. The influence of Christianity encroached on the pronounced segregation of society, in which the code of social honor was valued above all else. If Antipas first tries to ascribe more titles to himself, boasts of patronage, and promotes his city, he later moves away from this, increasingly showing love and care for the servants.
Through the dynamics of the transformation of Antipas, it is clear that honor is not at all connected with the number of titles and positions in society. Moreover, reciprocity and patronage began to be expressed through love and not the condescension characteristic of representatives of the noble society. As a result, Antipas reaches sacrifices himself to save his brother, which confirms his belief in Christ.
First, a profound closeness to like-minded people in the houses of Calandion and Antony, later real Christian love awakens in Antipas, who increasingly understands the diametrical opposition of the society for which Jesus and the Roman society of the first century stood up. In addition, through Luke’s stories about Pontius Pilate, the Pharisees, and the great fire in Rome, the personality of Christ is gradually revealed, which is why Antipas feels his increasing influence on himself (Longenecker and Witherington 59). These stories sounded new to the representatives of the Roman society of that time, built on old traditions, the reasons which were not so obvious. Christ’s actions are contrary to the code of honor and shame concerning sinners or tax collectors. In addition, Jesus was not always meek; he selfishly adhered to the principles of these anachronistic codes, which demonstrates his behavior in a society without culture.
Understanding the New Testament
The history and culture of the New Testament are presented here, not academically or religiously, which creates a sense of life. Styles, events, events, and even the communication style of the authors of letters better reveal their personalities. Imperial traditions collide with Christian teachings, and the reasons for the first persecutions, the development of Christianity, and the transformation of social thought become more apparent. The social code, which is often possible to lose humanity, mercy, and gratitude, goes into lawful oblivion. The imperial nobility, firmly holding on to such a foundation, is indignant, so there are reasons for the first persecutions. People who have gone through the transformation and are impressed by the new teaching no longer stop on their way because of shame, fear of losing privileges or title, or acquired property, but more value their kindred people. The New Testament with this book is now much better perceived as a real story with a hidden and very complex layer of problems.
The book quite vividly illuminates the events of the New Testament – this format for many readers will be more familiar and accessible than the original. Perhaps not all of the letters in the book are important for revealing the characters, but the atmosphere of that time is conveyed perfectly. I would recommend this book to other readers who are partial to the history of Christianity to look at it from a rather unexpected and unpopular point of view.
Longenecker, Bruce W., and Ben Witherington III. The lost letters of Pergamum: a story from the New Testament world. Baker Academic, 2003.