The Global Marketing And Trade Environments Sample Assignment

The first article selected is “The Great Recession: A Self-Fulfilling Global Panic” by Philippe Bacchetta and Eric van Wincoop. The scholars explain that as long as there is minimum integration between two economies, both will be significantly affected when one falls.

Bacchetta and Van Wincoop’s (2013) argument is based on the fact that, despite the 2008 recession in the US, various countries were negatively affected. The scholars go further and identify some of the economic elements that generated vulnerability during the great recession. Some of the identified issues include, but are not limited to, loaning and credit, fiscal policies, economic integration, and zero lower bounds (Bacchetta & Van Wincoop, 2013).

In conclusion, Bacchetta and Van Wincoop (2013) explain that the close business cycle co-movement during the recession led to the worldwide impact.

The second article selected is “Social Media Marketing Communications Effect on Attitudes among Millennials in South Africa” by Rodney G. Duffett and Myles Wakeham. Duffett and Wakeham (2016) highlight some of the marketing issues in Africa and tie them to global marketing and trade.

Duffett and Wakeham (2016) argue that digital communication has become the primary marketing platform in many countries. However, one challenge marketers are facing in Africa is that a significant number of countries, and people, still cannot access the internet. This is in comparison with internet reach in developed countries.

In conclusion, the scholars explain that the significant strides that have been made to ensure Africans access the internet have opened up marketing possibilities, particularly in regards to global trade. However, much still has to be done to ensure the entire market (Africa) is connected to the internet.

The first topic is “major changes of the world economy in the past twenty years.” One of the most crucial changes in the global economy was the 2008 recession. Eaton et al. (2016) explain that the recession occurred due to several systematic, political, and economic reasons. As Bacchetta and Van Wincoop (2013) note, the impact of the recession was felt on a global scale. The fact that globalization allowed for the close business global economy ensured that other countries were also negatively affected by the financial crisis. Interestingly, this ties closely to both global economic environments and global marketing. As mentioned previously, the global economic environment allowed for a global financial crisis despite the chaos originating from the US because of a close and interlinked worldwide business economy. On the other hand, global marketing was a significant contributor to the interlinked global financial system as marketers heavily explored investment opportunities for both locals and foreigners online.

“Marketing issues in Africa” is the second chosen topic from the list provided. Amankwah-Amoah et al. (2018) argue that marketing issues in Africa affect global trade and marketing because many Africans both purchase and sell products to the rest of the world. Global marketing has evolved over the decades, with more companies and individuals relying entirely on digital platforms to interact with their target audience. This creates a significant challenge for marketers in Africa, and those target African markets, as a significant percentage of the continent’s population does not have constant access to the internet. As Duffett and Wakeham (2016) observe, there have been various efforts that have opened up the continent to the rest of the world in regards to the digital space. However, much still has to be done to ensure that the larger population of the continent population can access the internet at all times.

Analysis on the Topic

First Topic

Relation to global marketing. There are several ways in which the first topic relates to some of the aspects of global marketing taught in class. First, the 2008 recession offered marketers both opportunities and threats. In regards to the opportunities, the recession opened up the world as an equal marketing platform. Before the 2008 recession, marketers used digital platforms to reach out to markets they already had a presence in at the time. However, the fact that the close business economy affected a significant number of countries also revealed more markets to be explored. On the other hand, the event caused the loss of income; thus, making marketing more difficult as a significant number of people became restrictive with their finances. Additionally, the topic can be linked to the marketing mix as a lack of disposal funds also affected consumer behavior.

Relation to economic and trade environments. The marketing mix mentioned is affected by economic and trade environments in various ways. First, as stated previously, a lack of disposal funds affects consumer behavior regardless of whether or not there is a financial crisis. In particular, the marketing mix is affected by weak economic environments. For instance, promotion budgets have to be reduced in an attempt to lower the price of the product or service offered significantly. Second, consumer behavior is affected by changing economic situations because when people have access to money, they are more willing to purchase items that are priced higher than when they have no access to liquid cash. On the same note, when the trade environment is favorable, marketers can manipulate the four Ps of the marketing mix to suit the needs of their target audience.

Second Topic

Relation to global marketing. The second topic also relates to global marketing in numerous ways. First, the main issue identified, which is the lack of constant access to the internet, creates an opportunity for global marketing. Internet providers are businesses whose principal mandate is the bottom line. Through collaborations, opening up Africa to easier access will be beneficial to both the providers and marketers of various brands and products. It is important to note that a competitive advantage can be ensured through the expansion of the internet base and accessibility in Africa. The premise suggests that more marketers will either have or neutralize the competitive edge of local firms in Africa when targeting the same audience. In turn, this would make global marketing more effective as the target audience (which is assumed to be more conservative and prefers local products and services) will be more open to international trade.

Relation to economic and trade environments. The issue of competitive advantage is also affected by economic and trade environments. It is vital to point out that there are two primary ways in which competitive advantage applies in trade environments. The first is that a brand has some elements that make it significantly better than similar brands in the same market. The second is the opposite, where no brand has a significant advantage over the other. An ideal trade environment allows for healthy competition. Thereby, the competitive advantage often shifts from one brand to another. However, some products have created a monopoly in the market in some markets, giving them the competitive advantage they need to continue holding a more significant percentage of the market share. The nature of the economy, in turn, wither allows for or rejects a competitive advantage. Thus, a growing economy will better support such critical advantages compared to a restricted and narrow one.

References

Amankwah-Amoah, J., Boso, N., & Debrah, Y. A. (2018). Africa rising in an emerging world: An international marketing perspective. International Marketing Review, 35(4), pp. 550-559.

Bacchetta, P., & Van Wincoop, E. (2013). The great recession: A self-fulfilling global panic. National Bureau of Economic Research, 19062(E32), 1-43.

Duffett, G. R., & Wakeham, M. (2016). Social media marketing communications effect on attitudes among millennials in South Africa. The African Journal of Information Systems, 8(3), 20-43. Web.

Eaton, J., Kortum, S., Neiman, B., & Romalis, J. (2016). Trade and the global recession. American Economic Review, 106(11), 3401-38.

Comparison Of Two Articles About Issues Of Leadership And Management

The First Article

Purpose and Scope

The research in question was explorative in nature, so the authors instead of arguing produced several hypotheses and tested them in order to uncover new information about the topic. Their purpose was to investigate the leadership preferences in representatives of different nationalities in contrast to their cultural values. In their paper, Herbert, Mockaitis, and Zander (2014) hypothesize, among other things, that Asian and non-Asian responders will exhibit dissimilarities in collectivism and individualism both horizontal and vertical.

The scope included Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimensions that become the basis for the study. Above that, the authors used shared leadership as a key variable, the term coined by Zander Mockaitis, and Butler (2012). Theoretical and practical knowledge of leadership was also discussed in the article. Being rather broad subjects for studies, culture and leadership in this article were presented through the prism of individualism and collectivism, which make the purpose and scope of the article comply with the requirements of a good scientific paper.

Critique of Existing Literature

The authors studied and critically reviewed numerous articles and books on leadership and cultural preferences in business. Their main discovery was that there is a gap in applying shared leadership concept to global practice. Herbert, Mockaitis, and Zander (2014) mention that few studies are devoted to measuring shared leadership preferences in multicultural teams, which is why this study was produced. In addition, previous studies conducted in this area demonstrated controversial results which also proclaimed the need for further studies. It appears that the present article contributes significantly to explaining the nature of the relationships between shared leadership and dimensions of cultural individualism and collectivism. It applies the concepts to practice and brings new evidence for scientific discussion.

Data Collection and Analysis

The scientists used a quantitative method to prove their hypotheses. A four-part survey was distributed via e-mail to students from around the world. The sample of students was comprised of 476 people, 357 of which submitted the completed questionnaire. Dimensions of individualism and collectivism as well as shared leadership perceptions were measured using a 7-point Likert scale. This measurement tool is rather standard for this kind of assessment and seems to correspond to the study’s goals. The collected data was quantitatively analyzed using descriptive statistics, factor, parallel analysis, p-value, ANOVA and a range of other tools available in SPSS. The research features standard metrics used in quality studies to safeguard the results from bias and inconclusiveness, which speaks further to its value.

Findings, Results, Conclusion

The authors have found that despite the fact that cultural dimensions of individualism and collectivism were significantly diverse in Asian and non-Asian participants, leadership preferences were less different from ones expected. The scientists argue that such results contain broad implications for implementation of shared leadership. Theoretically, the authors managed to confirm other author’s claims and add more statistical value to them. Another positive feature is the article’s strong practical value. The researchers conclude that a multicultural team should include members with similar cultural perceptions of shared leadership. The importance of the article is in the uncovered theoretical and practical possibility of combining Asian and Non-Asian workers and managers into an effective team.

The Second Article

Purpose and Scope

The purpose of the article is to relay the results of key performance issues in leaders of organizations subject to rapid change. The study’s scope includes a variety of concepts such as change management, performance, the manager-employee relationship in all their complexity, multisource feedback, and other notions. The purpose is rather practical which corresponds with aims and tasks of present-day management discipline and the needs of businesses worldwide which makes the article highly relevant. The scope is rather broad and includes multiple spheres of leadership, management, and human resources, yet the authors view them only at specific angles.

Critique of Existing Literature

As Longenecker and Yonker (2013) suggest, the literature contains extensive evidence of the adverse influence of performance deficiencies on individuals and businesses. The research of feedback importance is also in place. However, the previous studies lack data on implementing multisource feedback to managers with the aim of identifying shortcomings in their leadership behavior connected to a rapid change environment (Longenecker 2010). The authors seem to have chosen the underdeveloped area in the literature and rightfully decided to fill it with fresh evidence which is positively characterizes the article.

Data Collection and Analysis

The research is quantitative and included a sample of 153 middle and front-line managers from 50 different organizations across the US. The managers were asked to identify a few critical members of their team or supervisors who could give feedback on their performance, which the participants of the study then assessed and singled out areas in which they were lacking. Then, both, the initial results of the multisource feedback and the assessed version done by managers was submitted to the authors. The results were measured using frequency analysis. Part I of the study under analysis seems to be lacking descriptive statistics and measurements of the statistical significance of the results. However, the frequency of identified deficiencies is rather demonstrative and easy to understand.

Findings, Results, Conclusion

Longenecker and Yonker managed to identify the most frequently surfacing issues in managers subject to rapid change environment. Among the top 3 performance deficiency factors were ineffective communication practices (66% of cases), inefficient time and goal management (54%), poor clarity of directions (46%). Authors note that communication problems need to be addressed with proper training and increased attention to this issue. Investing in developing time management skills was also noted as no less important than any other professional competency. Clear instructions were also identified as a valuable area to invest time and resources. The authors not only identified the key deficiencies, but they also produced ways of dealing with them, which increases the value of their paper. However, since the paper in question is only a part of the work, the solutions are limited to general recommendations. The paper will be a valuable addition to the annotated bibliography as it contains insights on leadership problems that are frequently encountered by executives.

Comparison

The two articles seem to address issues of leadership and management in a distinct yet clear manner. The differences between them are numerous. Firstly, the two papers differ in depth. The article by Herbert, Mockaitis, and Zander demonstrates a proper example of quantitative research with measures against bias, inconclusiveness, and statistical errors such as p-value, ANOVA, standard deviation, etc. In Longenecker and Yonker’s article, the measurements were taken rather briefly, which to some extent allows questioning the external validity of the results. However, it is also possible that certain study design items and measurements were excluded from part one for the sake of simplifying the results.

The goals of the two articles were also distinct. If the first one was explorative in nature, the second one appeared as explanatory. The gaps in the literature identified by both researcher teams suggested the problems of the chosen areas were of dissimilar nature, which required them to take different study approaches. Another difference was that the results produced by Herbert, Mockaitis, and Zander (2014) need further research in order to have sound implications for practice. Positive correlations identified in their study require further confirmation from case studies that focus on international teams and shared leadership implementation. In contrast, the study performed by Longenecker and Yonker (2013) produced results that are easily implemented in practice as recommendations to managers and leaders. Thus, the first article bears more value for theoretical research, while the second is probably more useful in today’s business context.

The methodology was also different in the two articles. The first used an online model of questionnaire distribution while the second group of researchers preferred conventional methods. The difference may be pertaining to the desired number of participants, as in the first case a larger sample was required to confirm major correlations hypothesized in the beginning. The second sample was twice as small, yet sufficient to uncover vivid trends and problems. The sample in the first case was comprised of rather young people with mean age constituting 22 years. In the second case, this figure was 45. This again speaks to the theoretic affliction of the first article as it worked primarily with students, rather than experienced members of teams and leaders. The second study, on the other hand, aimed to help to resolve a practical problem, which determined the need for a sample of employed participants. Demonstration of research results was designed more for scientists in the first article. In the second one, it was oriented more on business analysts, leaders, and team members.

Reference List

Herbert, K, Mockaitis, AI & Zander, L 2014, ‘An opportunity for east and west to share leadership: A multicultural analysis of shared leadership preferences in global teams’, Asian Business & Management, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 257–282. Web.

Longenecker, CO 2010, ‘Barriers to managerial learning: lessons for rapidly changing organizations’, Development and Learning in Organizations, vol. 24 no. 5, pp. 8-11. Web.

Longenecker, CO & Yonker, RD 2013, ‘Leadership deficiencies in rapidly changing organizations: multisource feedback as a needs assessment tool – Part I’, Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 159–165. Web.

Zander, L, Mockaitis, AI & Butler, CL 2012, ‘Leading global teams’, Journal of World Business, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 592–603. Web.

Global Warming, Climate Change And Ozone Depletion

Introduction

Global warming refers to an increase in the Earth’s average temperature that is characterized by rising global surface temperatures and the accumulation of pollutants in the atmosphere. According to scientists, it is the result of land surfaces heating faster than water bodies, an increase in atmospheric energy, and higher rates of evaporation that lead to extreme weather conditions (McCoy, 2019).

Main body

The major causes of global warming include greenhouse gases, land surface changes, and aerosols. Moreover, human activities like deforestation, farming, and burning fossil fuels also contribute to the phenomenon. Climate change refers to shifts in weather patterns across the globe that are characterized by changes in temperature, wind patterns, and precipitation that occur over an extended period (Ward, 2016). The main causes of global warming include livestock farming, burning fossil fuels, and deforestation. These activities lead to the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the environment, thus raising temperatures and causing a shift in weather patterns. Ozone depletion refers to the destruction of the ozone layer in the atmosphere (Nunez, 2019). It is caused by the release of solvents, propellants, and foam-blowing substances into the atmosphere, as well as sunspots and volcanic eruptions.

The three concepts are similar because they are aspects of environmental destruction that lead to changes in global temperatures and changes in weather patterns. Moreover, greenhouse gases are cited as a major cause. In many fields, global warming and climate change are used interchangeably because they are caused by similar sources. However, they have distinct differences.

Conclusion

Global warming refers only to the rise in surface temperatures while climate change encompasses both changes in surface temperatures and their effects that include melting glaciers and prevalent drought. Unlike global warming and climate change, ozone depletion increases the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the atmosphere. Its effects are more pronounced and include skin cancer, immune system damage, and eye cataracts.

References

McCoy, E. L. (2019). The top six threats to civilization: Global warming. Cavendish Square Publishing, LLC.

Nunez, C. (2019). Climate 101: Ozone depletion. National Geographic. Web.

Ward, P. L. (2016). What really causes global warming? Greenhouse gases or ozone depletion? Morgan James Publishing.

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