The Government’s Responsibility To Protect The People Sample Paper

IntroductionThe responsibility of the authorities to guarantee the safety and security of the people is enshrined in the 1987 Constitution. Article 2. Section 4 of the Constitution provinces. “The premier responsibility of the Government is to function and protect the people. The Government may name upon the people to support the State and. in the fulfilment thereof. all citizens may be required. under conditions provided by jurisprudence. to render personal. military or civil service. ”

It is along this authorization that the province purposes to set up a extremely efficient and competent constabulary force. the Filipino National Police. The PNP is an organisation that is national in range and civilian in character. It is a countrywide authorities organisation whose legal power covers the full breath of the Philippines archipelago. As such. all PNP forces both the uniformed and non-uniformed constituents are national authorities employees. They are civilian in character because the organisation is independent from the military opposite number ( Manwong. 2006 ) .

The PNP is headed by a head with the rank of Director-General. He has the power to direct and command tactical every bit good as strategic motions. deployments. arrangement and use of the PNP and any of its units and forces including its equipment. installations and other resources. The PNP has a national office. a figure of regional offices. provincial offices. territory. metropolis and municipal Stationss. On the norm. countrywide. the manning degrees of the PNP is purely in conformity with the police-population ratio of one for every five 100 individuals but the minimal police-population ratio shall non be less than one police officer for every one 1000 individuals.

With this work force demand. which is hard to run into. the PNP besides has to trust on solidarity with the people in the community on affairs related to peacekeeping. As stated in the PNP’s Manual on Barangay Peacekeeping Operations. “Bayanihan answers the demand for the whole vicinity to acquire involved in patroling and jurisprudence enforcement. The community relies upon the constabulary to “serve and protect” and the constabulary in bend rely upon community support and cooperation in order to be effective” . The PNP likewise have in its mission that peace and order and public safety can be assured merely with the active engagement of the community.

It is with this mentality that the PNP wanted to take the battle against criminalism. through citizen engagement and community authorization. Therefore. the PNP recognizes the function of the barangay tanods in the battle against criminalism. insurgence and terrorist act.

A Barangay Tanod is a local voluntary who has been deputized and trained to to transport out basic security maps under the auspice of the Barangay Captain for their barangay. This is likely to include basic constabularies maps from apprehensions. traffic control. maintaining the constabulary although the station is rather flexible dependant on the context of the barangay in which they work. They do non be given to transport pieces but sometimes they do. on juncture without a licence and therefore are improbable to hold preparation in it. More frequently they will be armed with a wand. frequently made of Calamus rotang.

The function of the barangay tanods in peace maintaining can non be undermined. Given that peacekeeping is the basic map of the constabulary and being that constabulary visibleness is one of the chief pushs of peacekeeping activity. jurisprudence enforcement activities of the tanods such as ‘ronda” from one topographic point to another would be of great aid towards this terminal.

However. the public presentation of these functions is non without hazard involved as jeopardies go with the fulfilment of the responsibilities of the barangay tanods. These are merely some of the jobs which should be addressed in order for the function of the barangay tanods in jurisprudence enforcement to be strengthened.

The research workers choose this survey to hold knowledge about the functions of barangay constabularies and how these important people participate in the care of peace and order in a community. As future professionals of jurisprudence enforcement bureau. they would wish to hold a deeper apprehension on how they perform their authorizations in keeping peace and order within the community. Furthermore. the survey will be good to the chosen respondents since through this survey. they will be able to larn the extent of their functions and duties as barangay constabulary.

Statement of the Problem

This survey will find how to beef up the function of barangay constabulary in jurisprudence enforcement in Batangas City. Specifically. it will seek to reply the undermentioned inquiries. 1. What is the profile of the respondents in footings of:

1. Age ;

2. Gender ;

3. Civil Status ;

4. Occupation ; and

5. Monthly Income?

2. What are the functions of Barangay Police in jurisprudence enforcement?

3. What are the jobs encountered by the Barangay Police in Batangas City in the public presentation of their functions in jurisprudence enforcement?

4. Is there a important relation between the profile of the respondents and the jobs encountered by them in in the public presentation of their functions in jurisprudence enforcement?

5. What extension plan may be conducted to assist work out the jobs of barangay constabulary in the public presentation of their functions in jurisprudence enforcement?

HypothesisH01: There is no important difference between the functions of barangay constabulary and common jobs encountered when grouped harmonizing to their profile variable.

Scope and Delimitation of the StudyThe range of this survey is to measure how to beef up the function of Barangay constabularies in jurisprudence enforcement within a community. The survey will cover the top 10 barangay that has the highest offense rate in Batangas City including Poblacion 24. Alangilan. Cuta. Kumintang Ibaba. Pallocan Kanluran. Bolbok. Sta. Rita Karsada. Balagtas. Calicanto and Kumintang Ilaya.

This survey will besides cover the function of barangay constabulary. and the common jobs encountered in jurisprudence enforcement within the community. The respondents will be all barangay constabulary of the chosen barangays where the research workers will carry on their survey.

The survey is limited to the profile of the barangay constabulary and their function in the enforcement of the jurisprudence within their community. The recommendation. decision and program of action that will be propose will profit the chosen barangays in Batangas City.

Significance of the StudyThis survey will be good to the followers:The Respondents. The respondents who are the barangay constabulary will profit from this survey since it will undertake the function and common jobs encountered. they will be able to thoroughly understand how to beef up their function in jurisprudence enforcement within their barangay.

For College of Arts and Sciences. Batangas State University. its instructors and pupils who are the mark donees of the survey. may happen this as an interesting paper and recognize the functions of barangay constabulary in jurisprudence enforcement. To the local authorities of Batangas City. to know/help supply the necessary information that could be their footing to forestall the societal and economic function of barangay constabularies in Batangas City. To the research workers. this survey would function as one of their footing and signifier of pattern to their chosen calling. For the hereafter research worker. this survey will function as usher and give extra information to their future surveies.

Definition of FootingsTo understand the survey. the research workers define the different footings operationally. Age. In this survey this refer to the length of clip that an being has lived ( MPDC. 2009 ) Barangay Police. In this survey. this refers to the civilian people who are empowered by the authorities to implement jurisprudence within a community ( Amurao. 2009 ) . Child Abuse. In this survey. this refers to the physical. sexual or emotional mistreatment or disregard of a kid or kids. Crime rate. In this survey this refers to a major statistical tool utilized by every cabal of jurisprudence enforcement. It gives a image of how offense is either turning or decelerating down in peculiar countries ( Amurao. 2009 ) . Economic effects. In this survey this refers to the income and net income derived by the host community when it comes to jurisprudence enforcement. ( MPDC. 2009 ) Educational Attainment. In this survey this refers to the highest grade of instruction an person has completed ( Microsoft encyclopedia. 2004 ) . Employment rate. In this survey this refers to the per centum of working-age people who have occupations ( Amurao. 2009 ) .

Gender. In this survey this refers to the set of features that worlds perceive as separating between work forces and adult females. widening from one’s biological sex to one’s societal function or gender individuality ( Microsoft encyclopedia. 2004 ) . Juvenile Delinquency. In this survey. this refer to inappropriate behaviour of the young person that may take to offenses or civil instances ( Amurao. 2009 ) . Law Enforcement. In this survey. this refers to an act to prosecute a jurisprudence or staying a jurisprudence within a community degree. Married. In this survey this refers to the united in marriage or marriage. execute the ceremonial of fall ining as a adult male and a adult female for life and to represent hubby and married woman harmonizing to the Torahs or imposts of the topographic point ( Amurao. 2000 ) Prostitution. In this survey this refers to the act or pattern of prosecuting in sex Acts of the Apostless for hire. In most civilizations. harlotry is viewed as a aberrant profession. either discouraged or illegal ( MPDC. 2009 ) .

Pollution. In this survey this refers to the debut of contaminations into an environment that causes instability. upset. injury or uncomfortableness to the ecosystem ( MPDC. 2009 ) . Role. In this survey. this refers to the character or portion played by a performing artist. The characteristic and expected societal behaviour of an single Separated. In this survey this refers to two people. it possibly hubby and married woman who become apart ( MPDC. 2009 ) . Social consequence. In this survey this refers to the societal exchange that takes topographic point when tourers come in contact with the local occupants of the topographic point he visits. ( MPDC. 2009 ) Larceny. In this survey. this refers to an act of offense wherein the wrongdoer is taking another thing from another individual ( MPDC. 2009 ) . Disruptive Affray. This takes topographic point when a wrangle occurs between several individuals non composing organized groups and they engage in a battle ( Amurao. 2009 ) . Widow. In this survey this refers to a widow is a adult female whose partner has died ( Amurao. 2000 )

Chapter IIREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIESThe reappraisal of literature is important to the research workers to introduce themselves with the history and other related facts about the subject under survey.

Conceptual LiteratureThe barangay tanods or small town watchers who work on a strictly voluntary footing to guarantee public safety in the more than 4. 000 barangays in Western Visayas were given due acknowledgment during the apogee of the National Crime Prevention.

Peace and order is an indispensable ingredient in keeping economic development. societal order and political stableness. A province of peace and order aids the growing of investings. generates more chances for employment and attracts more tourers. Foremost in the government’s docket is the publicity of peace and order. This is exemplified in the city’s uninterrupted and active run against criminalism. However. menaces to peace and order continue due to short-handed constabularies force as one ground. The City has a sum of 436 constabulary officers. The ideal rate is 1 police officer for every 500 components. With about 325. 000 population of the metropolis. the ratio so falls to 1 officer to 745 components.

With this scenario. there may be certain maps which the constabulary force can non instantly dispatch particularly with regard to the execution of national and local Torahs within barangays. This is where the function of the barangay tanods would come in. Although non wholly equipped with the authorization to dispatch maps and power similar to the constabulary. they play an of import function in keeping peace and order within the barangay degree. to somehow augment the public presentation of maps of the constabulary force.

Provided in the trainors guidebook of the DILG. the responsibilities and duties of the barangay tanod among others include: help the barangay functionaries in the bar of offense and publicity of public safety through patrol/”ronda” . coverage of any perturbation or indecent incidents to the concerned offices. supervise the presence and activities of leery individuals and anarchic elements ; help the constabulary and lupong tagapamayapa in the executing of warrants and other judicial procedures ; and help the barangay functionaries in the execution of national and local Torahs ; and other agencies as deemed proper in offense bar.

Last February 22. 2011. the ABC Office headed by Hon. Joel A. Alangsab. held the general assembly and election of officers of Federation of Barangay Tanods wherein Mr. Murphy Alimba from Lower Dagsian was elected as president. The event was attended to by about 392 barangay tanods stand foring 88 barangays of the metropolis. The presence of the constabulary functionaries and station commanding officers of the metropolis showed much support of the constabulary force to the barangay tanods.

P/Supt. Constancio Chinayog acknowledged the attempts of the barangay tanods in their aid to keep peace and order. At the terminal of the Government. the Office of Congressman and the City Mayor ensured the grant of insurance to the freshly appointed barangay tanods as those earlier appointed have already received their several insurance. Hon. Edison Bilog besides expressed the attempts of his office in geting certain equipments for the barangay tanods such as ID. waistcoats. torchs. and other privileges. In add-on. Mr. Eitosan Ikiuchi besides offered free Aikido preparation for the tanods.

Even with such conjunct attempts of the ABC Office and the City Government to supply more benefits to the barangay tanods. it must be acknowledged that the spirit of volunteerism and public service bases. for despite their meager honorarium. the barangay tanods are persistently active in dispatching their functions and duties to guarantee the safety of the components.

P/Supt. Chinayog expressed. “the tanods during the clip of the Datus service as the well-admired and feared peace hatchet mans. ” It is so with the hope that the barangay tanods could looked up to with much regard within their barangays for them to be able to easy dispatch their maps as agents of peace and order. But such regard does non come automatically with the place ; instead it is earned. for as the expression goes. “Respect begets respect. ”

Hence. the barangay tanods must project themselves and move in a mode worthy of such regard. for the people to see them with much esteem and value.

Strengthening the RoleWith the being of offense in society. jurisprudence enforcement is greatly needed. Although constabulary are ever here to protect us. many people wish they had a voice in how they need to be protected. Community patroling enable occupants to fall in with local constabularies to more actively combat offense in their communities. Community patroling physiques on cardinal policing patterns with an accent on offense bar and permanent solutions to jobs. It requires new committedness from citizens and new thought from constabulary officers. Central to community patroling are three indispensable and complementary constituents: Community Partnerships: Community partnerships recognize the value of conveying people back into the policing procedure. All elements of society must draw together as ne’er before to cover efficaciously with the unacceptable degree of offense claiming America’s vicinities. Problem Solving: Once precedence concerns have been identified. job work outing involves analysing information about the job to happen out who is being victimized and how. when and precisely where the jobs occur and what environmental ( or other ) conditions make it easy for the offense to happen.

Once the nature of the job is better understood. bespoke solutions are jointly developed and implemented by constabulary and community members. They besides work together to specify success and mensurate the impact of their attempts. Change Management: This requires acknowledging that hammering community-policing partnerships and implementing problem-solving activities will alter the organisational construction of patroling. Properly managed alteration involves acknowledging the demand for alteration. pass oning a clear vision that alteration is possible. placing the concrete stairss needed for positive alteration to happen. developing an apprehension of the benefits of alteration. and making an organization-wide committedness to alter. Establishing public safety is among local government’s cardinal duties to its citizens. The safety of one’s individual and security of one’s belongings are widely viewed as basic human rights and are indispensable to the community’s overall quality of life.

When the people is non. and does non experience. moderately safe. other critical local authorities maps such as economic development. authorities finance. public instruction. stable lodging. and basic local authorities services become that much more hard to supply. In short. a community’s repute for public safety to a great extent influences its entreaty as a topographic point to raise a household or open a concern. If they are a city manager or county executive electors straight elected. or a metropolis or county director elected functionaries appointed. they barely need a usher to remind they of this: their components do so on a regular basis. And yet. notwithstanding much popular rhetoric about the nature of offense and what should be done about it. set uping existent and sensed public safety is one of local government’s more complex and ambitious projects. This usher is intended to assist them as a local authorities executive better understand how local authorities in general. and local constabulary in peculiar. can more efficaciously run into public safety challenges. The usher is a comrade to several ushers in a series known jointly as the Problem-Oriented Guides for Police. produced by the Center for Problem-Oriented Policing and published by the COPS Office.

The three series—the Problem-Specific Guides. Response Guides. and Problem-Solving Tools Guides—represent a sum-up of the turning organic structure of cognition about how local constabulary can more efficaciously address the battalion of specific and varied public safety jobs that they routinely confront. This usher does non straight address other facets of the local constabulary map. such as condemnable probe. exigency response. constabulary unity. or political answerability. although how the constabulary carry out their crime-prevention map has profound deductions for those affairs every bit good. Citizens mostly think of constabularies as crimefighters. Surely. Hollywood plays up this image. They know that audiences won’t be awfully interested in watching movies and shows approximately police as service suppliers. traffic accountants. and struggle directors. Audiences want action and they want narratives about the battle between good and evil.

Police officers themselves like and perpetuate this crime-fighting self-image. even though they understand it represents but a partial truth about existent policing. Real policing is. of class. at least partially about crime-fighting. But it is approximately much. much more. and it is ineluctably complex. In add-on to covering with such better-known offenses as slaying. colza. robbery. assault. burglary. and theft—which combined comprise merely approximately 10 per centum of all constabulary business—police are routinely expected to cover with other discourtesies such as drug dealing and harlotry ; such nuisances as inordinate noise and panhandling ; and such safety jeopardies as traffic clangs and crowd control. to call but a few.

By some counts. constabularies routinely deal with 100s of types of public safety jobs. each one different from another. each naming for different and many-sided responses. Furthermore. as the American Bar Association has stated so clearly below. the constabulary have multiple aims that sometimes must be balanced one against another. Police aims include the followers: Prevent and command behavior endangering to life and belongings. including serious offense. Aid offense victims and protect people in danger of physical injury. Protect constitutional warrants. such as the right of free address and assembly. Law Enforcement

In seeking to accomplish their multiple aims. constabularies have at their disposal a broad assortment of tactics and schemes. Although many people think that the chief manner constabularies achieve their public safety aims is to implement the jurisprudence. in fact. constabulary normally do things other than merely implement the jurisprudence. In most interactions with the populace. constabularies do non publish a commendation or do an apprehension. Indeed. even were it possible for constabulary to to the full implement the law—which it is not—it is improbable that most communities would digest such a thing. Sometimes rigorous jurisprudence enforcement is neither just nor effectual ; so. sometimes it is counterproductive to public safety. as. for case. when it provokes such widespread public ill will as to breed even more widespread upset and anarchy. Essential to fair and effectual policing is the demand to spread out the scope of feasible options to condemnable jurisprudence enforcement so that constabulary have multiple tools from which to manner effectual responses to quite varied public safety jobs.

Examples of options to condemnable jurisprudence enforcement constabulary normally use to turn to peculiar public safety jobs include the undermentioned: Mobilizing the community ( as informants. to police the community. for protagonism ) . Requesting that citizens exercise informal societal control over one another ( e. g. . parents over kids. employers over employees. managers over jocks. instructors over pupils. military commanding officers over soldiers. loaners over borrowers. landlords over renters ) . Using mediation and dialogue accomplishments to decide differences. Conveying information ( e. g. . to cut down overdone fright. to bring forth public consciousness. to arouse conformance with Torahs that are non known or understood. to demo citizens how they contribute to jobs and ways to avoid making so. to educate the populace about the bounds of police authorization. to construct support for new attacks ) precautions designed to guarantee due procedure and protect defendants’ civil autonomies help render the condemnable justness system ill-suited for high-volume concern.

Trusting excessively to a great extent on this expensive system designed chiefly to cover with serious and accustomed wrongdoers creates several of import public safety hazards. including the followers: It compromises the attention and attending that it can give to the most serious discourtesies and wrongdoers. It detracts resources and attending off from other establishments and systems that are every bit indispensable to guaranting public safety. Properly resourced and accessible systems for mental wellness. substance maltreatment intervention. victim and informant protection. belongings codification enforcement. consumer merchandise design. school subject. youth diversion. societal services. civil jurisprudence enforcement. and dispute declaration. to call a few. are as of import to patrol effectivity as is a well-functioning condemnable justness system. It places undue force per unit area on constabulary officers to falsify and pull strings their authorization in ways non intended under the jurisprudence and that can take to mistreat allegations. It can strive police-community dealingss and erode public trust in local authorities by and large. This has proven peculiarly true in some racial and cultural minority communities. Research Literature

Synthesis of the Study

Theoretical ModelIn societal cognitive theory ( Bandura. 1984 ) . people are neither driven by inner forces nor automatically shaped and controlled by the environment. As we have already seen. they function as subscribers to their ain motive. behaviour. and development within a web of in return interacting influences. Persons are characterized within this theoretical position in footings of a figure of basic capablenesss. to which they turn following. Knowledge of the factors. whether planned or causeless. that can change the class of life waies provides ushers for how to further valued hereafters. At the personal degree. it requires cultivating the capablenesss for exerting self-directedness. These include the development of competences. self-beliefs of efficaciousness to exert control. and self-regulatory capablenesss for act uponing one’s ain motive and actions. Such personal resources expand freedom of action. and enable people to function as causal subscribers to their ain life class by choosing. influencing. and building their ain fortunes.

With such accomplishments. people are better able to supply supports and way for their actions. to capitalise on planned or causeless chances. to defy societal traps that lead down damaging waies. and to withdraw themselves from such quandaries should they go enmeshed in them. To exert some step of control over one’s developmental class requires. in add-on to effectual tools ofpersonal bureau. a great trade of societal support. Social resources are particularly of import during formative old ages when penchants and personal criterions are in a province of flux. and there are many conflicting beginnings of influence with to postulate. To overcome the obstructions and emphasiss encountered in the life paths people take. they need societal supports to give inducement. significance. and deserving to what they do. When societal ties are weak or missing. exposure to hurtful causeless influence is increased ( Bandura. 1982b ) . The life waies that realistically become unfastened to persons are besides partially determined by the nature of social chance constructions. To the extent that social systems provide aidful agencies and resources they increase people’s chances to act upon the class of their lives.

This theory is used by the research workers as theoretical model of the survey. The societal cognitive theory can impact the function of Barangya constabularies in jurisprudence enforcement. It besides advocate their capableness of outgrowth and get the better of the possible jobs in enforcement of jurisprudence by barangay constabularies

Barangay Peacekeeping Action.The PNP employs the Barangay Peacekeeping Action Team ( BPAT ) as force multiplier. The BPAT shall be composed of different organized sectors in the community ( Tanod. young person. adult females. conveyance. seniors. householders. etc. ) . Bing the PNPs force multiplier. the BPAT shall make the ff: ( to back up the public safety undertaking of the authorities ) ( a ) Community based activities ( B ) Information Campaign.

The BPAT shall be under the direct supervising of the lowest PNP unit the vicinity. Particularly the BPAT shall work for: ( a ) Law Enforcement. ( B ) Community Organization. ( degree Celsius ) Disaster Management. ( vitamin D ) Environmental Protection. and ( vitamin E ) Barangay Conflict Resolution.

Phase of making things to: ( A ) Prevent offenses: Patroling. traffic enforcement. information assemblage. ( B ) Solve a offense: collaring wrongdoers. look intoing a offense. continuing offense scene and information assemblage

Conceptual Paradigm

Input Process Output

Figure 1

Conceptual Model

The conceptual model of the survey is shown in Figure 1. The paradigm shows that I-P-O procedure is the most appropriate diagram to be used by the advocates. The Input of the survey will be the demographic profile of the respondents. the appraisal of their functions. the schemes done by the authorities in beef uping their functions and the common jobs encountered in implementing the jurisprudence. The procedure of the survey will be study and appraisal to be done by the advocates and the end product of the survey will be the action program to heighten the enforcement of jurisprudence in Batangas City. Chapter III

RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDUREThis chapter presents the methods adopted in the research design. topic of the survey. research process. informations assemblage process. and informations analysis.

Research DesignThe chief aim of the survey is to cognize how to beef up the function of barangay constabulary in jurisprudence enforcement in Batangas City.

In order to achieve this nonsubjective the research workers find it appropriate to utilize descriptive method of research. A descriptive method of the survey describes and interprets what is happening in the present clip ( Tan. 2006 ) . Respectively. descriptive research involves roll uping informations to reply inquiries refering the current position of the survey. It is said to be the most appropriate method to be used because the present survey analyzed a present status which is the resort industry in Sabang Puerto Galera.

Population and RespondentsThe population of the survey will be 100 per centum of barangay constabulary in top 10 barangay with highest offense viz. Poblacion 24. Alangilan. Cuta. Kumintang Ibaba. Pallocan Kanluran. Bolbok. Sta. Rita Karsada. Balagtas. Calicanto and Kumintang Ilaya in Batangas City. The entire respondents will be 172 barangay constabulary in Batangas City.

Sampling DesignPurposive Sampling will be used as trying design of the survey. It is the subset of single as sample chosen from a big set of population. Each person is chosen with intent. During the conductivity of the survey. the respondents are the barangay constabulary who have the intent of being chosen by any phase during the sampling procedure. The research workers asked the Batangas Police Provincial Office which barangay has the highest offense rate and the research workers asked each 10 barangay the population of their barangay constabularies. From this. the survey came up with a sum of 172 respondents.

Measurement and InstrumentalityThe chief instrument that will be utilize in the survey to garner pertinent informations will be a ego made survey-questionnaire. A questionnaire is a tool or device for procuring replies to put of inquiries made by the research workers themselves. It is a systematic digest of inquiries that are submitted which composed of the information desired.

The survey-questionnaire is utile for garnering great trade of specific information. The questionnaire used by the research workers was composed of three parts.

The questionnaire will dwell of 4 major parts. The first portion will include the demographic profile of the respondents in footings of age. civil position. monthly income and length of old ages in service.

The 2nd portion will include the functions of barangay tanod in jurisprudence enforcement.

The 3rd portion will include the schemes does by the authorities to beef up the function of barangay tanod in implementing the jurisprudence.

And in conclusion. the 4th portion will include the common jobs encountered by the respondent in implementing the jurisprudence.

Research ProcedureThe research workers gathered informations by mentioning to different books. published surveies and surfing the cyberspace. The research workers visited different libraries to back up their survey. The information was chiefly sourced through study and documental analysis. They come up with the subject sing how to beef up the function of barangay constabulary in jurisprudence enforcement.

The research workers will build a questionnaire and will be submitted to the panellist and statistician for the cogency and dependability. After the blessing of questionnaire. a missive of petition addressed to the Barangay Captain of top 10 highest offense rate barangay inquiring permission to administer the questionnaire. After it is granted. the research workers provide 172 transcripts of the questionnaires. which were distributed personally to the barangay constabulary in Batangas City.

Datas AnalysisThe informations were gathered and treated statistically utilizing assorted expressions. The statistical intervention will be necessary to find the response of the mark respondents the research worker used the undermentioned statistical tools. 1. Relative frequence – it is use to happen out the distribution of the respondents harmonizing to their profile. The expression for comparative frequence Rf = f/n x 100

Where Rf = comparative frequenceF =frequencyN =total figure2. Weighted average – it is the centre of the gravitation of the distribution of tonss. it is use to show the impact of profile sing factors that affect the entire occupants. The expression for weighted for leaden is


M=WSTRWhere ; WS = weighted amountTR = entire # of respondents3. Independent T –Test used to find the difference of the function and common job encountered by barangay constabulary when grouped harmonizing to their profile variable. 4. One manner analysis of discrepancy ( ANOVA ) . This is used to compare the agencies of response of more than two groups of respondents. It will be used to find the difference of the function and common job encountered by barangay constabulary when grouped harmonizing to their profile variable



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Batangas State UniversityCollege of Humanistic disciplines and SciencesBatangas City

Cafe-X In Search Of Strategy: Nestle Sample

New Espresso Maker 1 In 1986. the Swiss giant Nestle introduced a new type of espresso machine in the Swiss market. It represented one of the most advanced new merchandises developed by its R & A ; D section. Through the usage of java capsules. the patented system combined the gustatory sensation of existent espresso java with convenience and easiness of usage. However. despite an enthusiastic response from cognoscente java drinkers and really promising market research. the first few old ages after its debut. the CoffeeMaker was far from populating up to its outlooks. In fact. the dedicated concern unit was losing money. Therefore. in March 1988. Nestle appointed a new. immature Pull offing Director. called Jean-Paul Gaillard. Gaillard was sing what to make to better the new product’s lucks. He realized that. unless gross revenues of the CoffeeMaker would pick up well shortly. Nestle would hold no pick but to halt investment in the new merchandise. He wondered whether he should give the current scheme more clip to play itself out. or should he continue with a new scheme?

Coffee Industry Trends Market research showed that in bing java sectors. consumers were going more adventuresome in their purchasing behaviour and tended to prefer the premium and ace premium terminal of the market. These new markets were turning at the disbursal of blink of an eye powdered java. Other alterations taking topographic point in the java market included: ( 1 ) increasing popularity of coffeehouse and java bars ; ( 2 ) lifting trade name consciousness ; and ( 3 ) the lifting price-consciousness of the mass market consumer. who switched to supermarket trade names if the monetary value of java rose. The Rise of Espresso Espresso java is java of the greatest possible strength. Its quality is determined by the “fineness” of the java used. The choiceness of java depends on the swot every bit good as on the type of contraption in which it is used. Espresso machines. in which H2O and steam are forced through the land java under force per unit area. necessitate the finest swots of all in order to bring forth java of the greatest possible strength.

Espresso java was traditionally popular in Italy. Spain and France but it was besides going more popular in other European states and the US. Nestle’s Positions in Coffee Nestle held a dominant market place in instant java. Soluble java was the biggest money-maker for Nestle . It represented more than 80 % of Nestle’s java gross revenues. with the remainder being occupied by joint and land java gross revenues. It had strong trade names in all the sub-segments of the instant-coffee market. yet Nestle felt it could non rest on its awards. Its traditional rivals were going more aggressive and supermarket ironss were come ining the market through their ain trade names. Nestle began to section the soluble java market into finer and finer sections. This gave a farther encouragement to the demand for instant java but did non pull the high-end consumer who required a foaming java. accomplishable merely with the usage of pressurized H2O.

This instance is based on research by Costas Markides. Professor of Strategic & A ; International Management at the London Business School

History of the EspressoMaker The beginnings of the new EspressoMaker dated back to the late sixtiess. Continuous experimentation over a 10 twelvemonth period had led to the concluding system that consisted of two parts: a java capsule and a machine. The java capsule contained 5g of joint and land java. The machine was jointly developed with the Swiss machine maker Turmix. The usage of the new system was straightforward. The capsule was manually placed in the grip. which was introduced into the machine. This action pierced the java capsule at the top. At the imperativeness of a button. pressurized. steamed H2O was passed through the capsule. The consequence was a creamy. foaming. high-quality cup of espresso java. Strategic Positioning. 1985-87 The success of the EspressoMaker depended non merely on the java merchandise ( i. e. the java capsules ) which Nestle controlled. but besides on the quality of the contraptions used ( outside Nestle’s control ) and on the ability to bring forth and sell to a mass market.

This dependance on foreigners was unusual for Nestle . In add-on. the merchandise threatened to cannibalise the gross revenues of other Nestle merchandises. Nestle set up a joint venture with a Swiss-based operator called Sobal to sell the new product2. The joint venture ( Sobal-EspressoMaker ) purchased the machines from Turmix and the java capsules from Nestle and so distributed and sold everything as a system—one merchandise. one monetary value. A separate unit called EspressoMaker S. A. supported the joint venture and provided proficient and selling advice. As shown in Exhibit 1. 22 other distributers were given permission to sell EspressoMaker machines. Choice of Customers With the EspressoMaker. Nestle would no longer be selling simply a merchandise. but besides the needed hardware and the related services. This needed Nestle to concentrate on the production of high quality java capsules. a service offering to reassure the client. the fabrication of dependable machines. the preparation of people on how to run the system. and the organisation of a care work force. Once the mark states were chosen ( ab initio Switzerland. Italy. France and Japan ) . Nestle farther defined mark market sections. Nestle felt that the high cost of the machines and of the capsules meant that family users would non happen the EspressoMaker merchandise attractive.

By contrast. offices and little companies were thought to be less price-sensitive and more likely to purchase the EspressoMaker system as a fringe benefit for their employees. Small and medium sized companies were hence identified as the primary mark market—these companies were improbable to purchase a sophisticated. large-scale espresso machine but would be receptive to the EspressoMaker system as an attractive option due to its comparatively inexpensive monetary value and its ease-of-use and dependability. Selling and Distribution The EspressoMaker machines were sold either by Sobal- EspressoMaker or by 22 other distributers. SobalEspressoMaker approached clients through a direct mailing run all over Switzerland. If interested. the client filled out and returned a simple signifier at which point the Sobal sales representative approached him/her. The EspressoMaker machine would so be delivered to the client. The joint-venture had no gross revenues force. so it depended on Sobal forces. However. the Sobal gross revenues force consisted of two representatives and two technicians for whom the sale of EspressoMaker machines was merely one of their legion duties. As a consequence. the 22 other distributers of the EspressoMaker machines played an of import function.

Sobal was a little company active in the distribution of a broad assortment of merchandises ( contraptions. cosmetics. etc ) .

The client could order java capsules either straight from the Sobal- EspressoMaker joint venture or from the distributers. The joint-venture preferred to sell the machines at a high monetary value but kept the monetary values of the java capsules low. On the other manus. the distributers favored leasing of the machines and selling the capsules at a high monetary value. It was in the sale of capsules that the distributers made their money. Production It was decided that one of SPN’s ( Societe des Produits Nestle ) little java mills located in Switzerland would be responsible for the production of the java capsules. The production of the machines was a more hard issue. Natural spouses to fabricate the machines included companies whose bing concern included the industry and distribution all sorts of family contraptions. including java machines.

Sub-contracting fabrication to one of these companies was hazardous because they had small incentive to advance the EspressoMaker machines. Most of these possible spouses were already in ownership of a machine for joint and land java which they were selling under their ain trade name name. However. Nestle believed that these subcontractors would recognize that it was better for them to cannibalise their ain merchandises than for one of their rivals to make it for them—especially with an invention every bit promising as the EspressoMaker system. Therefore. the existent issues for Nestle related more to the volumes and the borders that it would be willing to accept from these subcontractors than whether to farm out to them or non. In the terminal. Turmix was selected as the chief subcontractor for the production of the machines to be sold in Europe. Pricing and Services Test markets showed that java made with a EspressoMaker machine was first-class but that there were few clients who would purchase a machine at SFr. 600 and pay an extra SFr. 0. 30 per cup of java.

It was hence decided that possible clients would have machines on a test footing. Coffee capsules would now be sold at SFr. 0. 60 a piece. For EspressoMaker. the loaning of machines to clients would excite involvement in the new system. For the client. the “try now. purchase later” attack was really attractive. Those interested in having a machine could buy the machine with or without services ( services included a five twelvemonth guarantee and on-site aid ) . The java capsules were manufactured by SPN in Orbe. Switzerland. and sold to the joint venture. As with the machines. the capsules were either straight sold to clients of the joint-venture or through traders. Consequences of the first two old ages: 1986-1987 Table 1 nowadayss the consequences of the first two old ages in footings of machine gross revenues. The marks were far from being reached and the existent consequences hardly amounted to half of the targeted figures. Table 1: Machines Model Manufactured Sold Number of machines manufactured and sold in 1986/87 ( in units ) C 100 15. 662 9. 852 C 1100 3. 939 2. 487 C 1101 2. 800 Entire 22. 401 12. 339

In footings of java capsules. the volume sold in the first two old ages was besides far below the prognosis volume. Despite a major leap in 1987. the volume sold in dozenss of java did non make the sums expected by Nestle at launch clip in 1985. Unless the gross revenues of machines picked up well. there was small hope that java capsule gross revenues could better a batch.

The fiscal Numberss ( Table 2 ) . reflected the dissatisfactory gross revenues of machines and java capsules. Investings in the launch of the EspressoMaker system in Japan worsened the state of affairs. It should be noted that R & A ; D costs exhausted up-front ( about Sfr. 1. 756. 000 ) are non accounted for in Table 2. There were other warning marks on the skyline. The machines were non dependable. taking to uninterrupted care and service. Defective parts led to high costs of fix which frequently outweighed the cost of a new machine. On the distribution side. distributers had non reached gross revenues marks. doing EspressoMaker’s endurance hard. Table 2: Operating consequences for EspressoMaker S. A. and worldwide. 1986-87 1986 Gross saless Cost of goods sold Operating border Fees on machines sold R & A ; D Operating consequences of EspressoMaker S. A. 1. 485 -1. 512 -1. 082 71 —–1. 011 1987 3. 842 -3. 357 -1. 979 197 -500 -2. 282

Operating consequences of EspressoMaker S. A. Operating consequences of Nestle Japan Loss on transportation pricing Operating consequences of SPN Gains on revenue enhancements Financial costs

-1. 011 NA NA NA NA NA -1. 011

-1. 782 -1. 974 -343 -277 1. 167 -90 -3. 799

What to make? It was clear that the current scheme was non bring forthing the coveted consequences but Jean-Paul Gaillard was diffident whether the scheme had to be changed or whether it was a merely a affair of leting the current scheme to play itself out. Even if he decided in favour of altering the current scheme. the inquiry was. “change to what? ”

The World Health Organization

Health and wellbeing meanings come in three forms-holistic, positive and negative. Health and wellbeing meaning cannot be fixed because health meaner different things to different people, and your intellectual thinking of health can change from day to day; depending on your experiences you go through. Literally the word health comes from an old English word meaning “the state of being hale, sound or whole, in body mind or soul”. This tells us that our thinking of health is not Just about our physical pain we feel but also emotional feelings.

For example someone could be eating their 5 a day and exercising every day to keep fit, so their physically healthy but they mightier been through a lot of emotional things such as death of loved ones all of the sudden and to her health doesn’t meaning anything because she is emotionally not happy. She might think that she’s not healthy when someone asks her because she’s be through a lot of emotional things so all she can think of is her worries and may not concentrate on her diet that she is eating healthy and doing exercise.

The World Health Organization is an agency of the United Nations (UN) that o-ordinates international public health service. They have also likewise said that the meaning of health cannot be fixed because different people have different intellectual thinking of health depending on their experiences. But they have agreed upon the meaning of health and wellbeing as “a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’. There are 6 factors which might affect our health from day to day and probably change our intellectual thinking of health as well.

This can affect us positively or negatively , an example of a social factor is, someone could be physically really fit and health but they might not have any friends to socialize with, and they might also not attempt to go out and find a friend because they’re feeling low about them self. This is also an example of negative meaning of health because the person is not doing anything to look after their health. Holistic definition: A holistic definition of health accesses health based on a combination of physical, intellectual, emotional and social factors.

Literally it looks in all parts of a person’s health. This definition is based on Mascots hierarchy of needs. For example Paula Radcliff, the British marathon runner, offers a good example of someone with a holistic attitude to health. She keeps herself physically fit, eating a balanced diet and exercising. She learns about different training strategies and has written books (intellectual) and is happily married (emotional), with a family and lots of friends, meeting people all over the world as she trains and competes (social).

An example of someone who has a holistic view is my cousin because she goes to gym every day for an hour which helps her burn fat and become more active, this helps her physically. She attends university and has many friends, this helps her intellectually as she learns new things so seen Is Increasing near Knowledge, Ana also socially as seen socializes with her friends and other people. She lives with her loving family, they encourage her to try new things, and this helps her emotionally. People that that have a holistic view will relate to Mascots hierarchy of needs.

The Mascots hierarchy of needs shows us that everyone has the same basic needs such as food, shelter, clothes. If the most basic needs are not met, the person will not be able to move up the Mascots hierarchy of needs. Mascots hierarchy and holistic definition is very similar because it focuses at all aspects. Positive: Deduced GEESE health and social care work book states the positive definition of health is based on the achievement and maintenance of physical fitness and mental stability… T is positive because you realize there is something you can do to improve your health and do it. A positive definition of health and wellbeing is when a person has a positive out-look towards life and always looking to improve their state of health and wellbeing. However though some people may think if a person has a usability this will limit them in certain activities in life, so they will not lead a healthy life this is wrong as a positive definition of life can be based on the person’s attitude towards health not their restriction.

For example if a person is in a wheel chair, they may feel as if they can’t do anything as they are always sitting down. A person with a positive definition of health may think though I’m in a wheel chair I can still lead a healthy life my disability does not mean my life has to stop I can still do actives such as Join a wheel chair basketball club and have an active life” Another example of money is Fern Briton.

Although she is attractive, quick-witted and extremely well liked, has a loving family and an excellent career, she realized that she would be physically fitter if she lost weight, which she did successfully. Negative definition: Deduced GEESE health and social are states that a negative definition of health and wellbeing is based on “the absence of physically illness, disease and mental distress. T is negative because it is based on not having anything wrong with you” A negative Definition of health and wellbeing is when a person refuses to try to improve their elate and wellbeing, for example if a person states ” though I binge drink and smoke I look healthy as I am a size 8 so I don’t need to exercise or need a balanced diet”. A negative definition of health and wellbeing is a consistent negative approach and refusal to try to improve their health and wellbeing, this negativity can be prompted by a variety of reasons.

For example if a person has been told they have to become paralyzed as a result of an accident they may think “as I cannot move my legs, I can never maintain a healthy life style so there is no point going to physical hereby as I will never walk again”. Nevertheless, though a negative definition of health and wellbeing can cause many barriers for a person, a person’s view point may be altered to become less pessimistic due to change in life style or out-look on life or shock in life.

For example a person may lead to a unhealthy life style and become obese this may result to an heart attack, after a health scar, the person may condos to lead a more inanely Testily Ana looses well NT. Conclusion: The difference between these three definitions is positive and negative look at a one died point of view either the good or bad whereas holistic looks at the overall view of the situation (the good and the bad). For example a positive deflation of health is “I’ve broken my leg, this doesn’t mean my life should stop.

I can still do my exams as I can write A negative example is “Vive broken my leg, this meaner I can’t do my exams as I am in pain and cannot walk”. From the positive example you can see this is one sided as the person is not looking at the issue that they may find it hard to get into the exam hall. Whereas from the negative they are only looking at the fact that they are in main not the fact that there are pain killers available to deal with the pain.

However in the holistic definition looks at the overall view “Though I have broken my leg and it hurts (physical) I can take pain killers for the pain and still do my exams ( intellectual) though I may feel a bit silly walking into a exam room limping (emotional) I can talk to the school about my concerns and see what they can do (social)” This looks at all sides of the issue and is not Just one sided. Social Construction: Social construction is something invented by members of a culture or society, that exists because people agree to behave as if it exists. One example is social status.

Social construction is about the way that factors such as your social class, religion, gender, sexuality; race, ethnicity and education determine your experience of reality and affect what your life is like on a today basic. For example woman lives longer than men, but are more likely to seek medical attention and have higher levels self- reported illness. Social status is when the honor or prestige attached to a person’s position: for example, doctors and other professional are considered to have high social status; someone’s position or rank within a group or society.

Social class is where someone comes in a hierarchy of groups within a society: for example, working class, middle class and upper class, as determined by a person’s occupation, education and income. Culture can affect the way you’re socially constructed, as some people may have to change some things in their culture to fit into other cultures. For example someone who comes to England from India will have to learn how to adapt in the new environment. They may want to dress in a different way to fit in the new environment.

They may stop wearing traditional dresses and may start to wear Shares instead. This will make them feel more comfortable in the environment and it will make them want to socialize with other people with different cultures. This will affect their health and wellbeing positively because they understand that they will need to change the way they dress to make it easier for them to fit in the community, so it will make them feel more comfortable around people and will raise their self-esteem. They may also want to learn how to speak English so they can communicate with people that speak English.

Learning English will help them to adapt to the environment around them, which will make it easier for them to socialize with people from different cultures and it will also increase their knowledge. Also, because the person is from a different place their accents are different. However a person that just comes into England from Poland may feel different because they do not have an English accent. They begin to attend an SOL course which can help improve their English. This will help them communicate with other people much easier as their accents will improve and people will find it much easier to understand them.

This meaner a person NAS a positive flew AT Neal Ana wellbeing Decease some people will not want to socialize with people they talk in a different way, however as people are using their time wisely trying to learn English in an advanced way, this shows that they are trying to improve their knowledge and make it easier for them to socialize. Time can affect the way a person’s socially constructed. Back in the days people used to believe that it was healthy for a baby to cry. However, nowadays when a bay cries people assumes that they are unhealthy and needs something.

For example: nappy hanging, food, sleep etc. This meaner their views on health and wellbeing are positive, as they are trying to improve the health of the baby, so every time the baby cries they will go and check what is wrong with the baby so they will try to resolve the issue, but back in the days they would of left the baby to continue crying as they believed it was something a baby Just did. Factors affecting the individual health and wellbeing: Physical factor: Physical factor can affect Claire positively, negatively or holistically.

Physical factor can be broken down into various groups. Inheritance: Many disease are inherited which meaner they are passed down from generation to generation. One example is hemophilia, which only affect males. It meaner that blood doesn’t clot. A male with this disease would have to ensure he doesn’t cut himself, because he could bleed to death. As a result, he may decide to avoid tackling do-it-yourself Jobs at home, taking part in contact sports or having a Job that involves sharp objects, such as knives and spades.

Disability and illness: When an individual has a disease, they become ill, some people can even become disabled because of their disease. People with disabilities have to find ways to cope with their everyday situation, while people who have no disability will be able to do so easily. Some people with disabilities need a lot of help to do things as they are dependent on their career this is because they cannot do the things independently so their careers have to help them to adapt to their lifestyles.

Diet: Each individuals needs to have a balanced diet to stay healthy. A balanced diet should contain the right nutrients to keep our bodies healthy. We should provide our bodies with fats, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, water and proteins. The food an individual eats affects how they look and feel it is important to their health. If an individual takes in more food than they actually need, their bodies will store it as fat which will lead to many problems such as: obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure, strokes, tooth decay and cancer.

However, under-eating could lead to a number of problems such as: heart failure depression and scurvy. Over-eating and under-eating can both lead to death. My client, Claire has very less money therefore she is not receiving the right nutrients. Claire often diets but then gives up in a couple of days. Eating unhealthy is affecting Claimer’s health negatively; however, if she begins to eat healthy it will affect her health positively as she is reducing the risks of her developing any disease or Illness.

Claire also Arles alcohol every cay; tents will cause Clare many problems such as she may become addicted it alcohol or may get into depression, which can make her do terrible things, so I would advise Claire to stop drinking, even though it’s difficult. Exercise: Exercise is very important, it improves our strength, stamina and supplement, and it also tones the body. It relaxes an individual, relieving stress and it can also make the individual feel good about them giving them a high self-esteem.

Not enough exercise can result to obesity, strokes, heart attacks and many other conditions. My client Claire does not undertake any kind of exercise as she works alone. This will have a negative impact on Claire health as she isn’t toning up her muscles which leads to her putting on weight on, this can lead to obesity and Claire not feeling comfortable in her own body. Alcohol: Alcohol is an addictive substance which people din on special occasions; it lives stress, helps people to relax or even to accompany a meal.

However, drinking too much alcohol causes illnesses and problems, problems that include: less self- control, become aggressive, makes an individual’s reaction much slower, it can also include depression, cancer, high blood pressure, increased risks and many more problems. My client Claire does drink alcohol every day, this can have a negative effect on her health, it will make her put on extra weight as alcohol contains many calories, so she will fell more depression which will have a negative effect on her health. Drinking too much can lead to slurred speech vision and losing balance.

If she continues to carry on drinking like this the symptoms could lead to really serious problems like brain damage, risks of strokes and even high blood pressure. Smoking tobacco: Smoking tobacco is legal, although it has recently been banned in public places. Smoking is addictive, but it can also cause major problems, such as: increased blood pressure, increased heart attacks, narrow the arteries, poor growth, and extra work for the heart, cancer, and gum disease and many more problems. My client Claire does smoke heavily, which has a negative impact on her health.

If Claire stops smoking then her blood pressure returns to normal, breathing will be improved, loss of smokers coughs; hair, skin and breath do not smell of smoke, more money available for other use, sense of achievement and many more. However I know smoking is not easy to do and a person should really want to stop. Emotional factors: Community Involvement: Community involvement in a project – for example, raising funds to repair church roof, planning a community use a piece of land, or planning a street party to elaborate some local or national landmark- can improve health and wellbeing of all those who take part.

Even the local authority building, for example, new sports facilities can lead to more involvement of many of the local community in something Tanat Darlings teen together. Sun projects stimulate ten Drain (Intellectual). Being a useful part of a community can generate a feeling of happiness and wellbeing (emotional) and allow you to make new friends and relationships (social). On the other hand, someone who is not involved in a community can become socially isolated, and their health and wellbeing will decline.

One example is homeless people, who may have a little choice about what they eat or what care they take of themselves because they do not have regular access to resources that meet their basic needs. Other people who can become socially isolated include older people who are physically or mentally ill, or live alone after death of their partner. Lack of company can lead to loneliness and depression. Similarly, people become socially insulated by illness, language or cultural difficulties, through loss of status and role in life or through having to live alone in high-rise flats or bed-sits.

My client Claire lives on an outskirt of town, in a four-bedroom house. She has access to a swimming pool, fitness center and a multi-use games area nearby. Claire could go to the fitness center which would keep her fit (physically), this way she will be more happier and would accept herself more (emotionally). She will learn new things and learn why it is important to keep fit and exercise in her daily bases (intellectual), this way she would meet new people and may socialize more (socially). This would affect her positively towards health and wellbeing. Educational Experiences:

Learning is something you do from birth. The amount and quality of education you receive will affect your health and wellbeing, as it will determine your choice of Jobs and employment prospects and so your income and standard of living. A good education will increase your status in society, making you feel good about yourself and give you a sense of security. For this reason, education is high up to Mason’s Hierarchy of Needs. Culture and religion: The health and wellbeing of a person is influenced by the values, traditions, and way of life and beliefs of the society or group into which that person is born.

It is important for you to have opportunities to keep up your cultural and religious needs if you are to have positive wellbeing. Economic Factors: Income: People who can afford to buy a range of healthy foods are more likely to be ill, and so are more able to exercise more (physical). They will also be able to afford to go to a variety of places and take part in a variety of places and take part in a variety of activities, so they would be less bored , and have more opportunities to learn (intellectually), to meet new people and to have good friends (socially).

These factors wherefore not only affect our health and wellbeing because they allow many of our needs to be met, but also affect our lifestyle. My client Claire works part time Job and has to take care of her husband who is retired and is at poor health. This will affect her negatively because she doesn’t get much money due to the fact she works in part time Job and would get into depression of money. Occupation: An occupation or Job allows us to use enterprise you already have and develop new skills and knowledge, which is intellectually stimulating.

It not only provides your income but also gives you an opportunity to socialize and gives your days a routine, so Glenn you consonance Ana sell-esteem. I nee type AT Zoo affects our Neal Ana wellbeing. If you are in a high-powered Job, you will usually receive a salary that reflects the pressure you are under. You might become very wealthy. You might, however, find that you have a lovely home and never have enough time to spend in it; the pressure may affect you badly and cause stress.

If you are paid low, even live in poverty, you may feel a kind of pressure, because trying to make ends meet on a limit income is extremely stressful. Physical environmental factors: The environment is everything that is around you, be it your bedroom, home, house, school or the area you live in, from the air you breathe to the noises you hear. Your environment has a major impact on your health and wellbeing. Pollution: We all need clean air and water and proper waste disposal facilities but in many cases these aren’t available because of our modern way of living.

Air pollution can cause and aggravate respiratory conditions and can irritate your eyes, nose and throat. Other sources of pollution are pesticides and Hebrides on food, noise (such as aircrafts taking off and drills) that can damage hearing, and even light. In the countryside at night you see the stars; in the city, the lights can stop you seeing the star. A healthy environment can enhance your feeling of wellbeing, whereas a polluted atmosphere can make you feel ill (physical), stopping you going to school to learn (intellectual), making you feel low (emotional) and stopping you going out with your friends (social).

Housing: Our housing is where we spend our most of time. If a home is damp, overcrowded, cold and in a middle of a town (urban), you are more likely to become ill, with notations such as arthritis. Overcrowding can cause infections and diseases to spread and can lead to accidents, sleeplessness and stress. Also your health and wellbeing may suffer it, for example, you live in a high-rise apartment, with no garden space and a broken lift, so the children have nowhere to play.

On the other hand if you live in a detached house with a garden in suburbs or the countryside (rural), you will be able to get fresh air and exercise in the garden and sleep well (physical), so that your brain is more alert (intellectual), you feel more happier (emotional) and you re less likely to fall ill, and so able to enjoy an active social life (social) Urban/rural lifestyles Although living in an urban environment can accuse problems, some people prefer to live in town. For example, if you are young, single and well pay, you might live in a high-quality apartment, with every modern convince.

With double or triple glazing to cut out the noise and no overcrowding, such a lifestyle might increase your feeling of wellbeing. You would be near to libraries, museums and theaters, which would enhance your intellectual life, and close to your friends, so you would always have someone to go out with. You would also be closer to work, so you would waste less time traveling, and near to all services you might need to access. Psychological Factors: Psychological factors can be broken down into two main points.

It is to do with the mind and how an individual copes with certain situations. Stress: Stress occurs when you have with certain situations which could either be physical or mental. For example, someone who has an exam will feel mentally stressed, and it could lead also affect their health physically as they stop looking after themselves as teen are too Autocue on studying, tents wall affect teen positively Ana negatively. Stress can also cause depression which can lead to many other mental illnesses. However, not all stress is bad for us; a little stress can be good for a person.

It can make a person feel more focused so they know they have to try to achieve the best in whatever they are doing; this can lead to the person having a high self-esteem and a high self-confidence, as they know they have achieved their target. Claire might be under a lot of stress which can affect her health negatively. Claire works at a part time Job, so she doesn’t get enough money as she needs. Her husband is retired so al of the duty of running the house is at her hands. She may not have enough money to buy quality food so this could affect her health and wellbeing as a person.

Relationships: Relationships can affect an individual’s health and wellbeing positively and negatively. When a child is young they depend on their families to do lot for them. During childhood is when the child learns how to form a relationships, this will help them as they grow older as they will use the sane social skills. In adolescence, the person begins to rely on friends emotionally and socially: they will begin to encourage and support each other. They may Join clubs which can help them intellectually, physically or even socially and emotionally.

They may Join sports club which can help them physically, they may Join tuition which can help them intellectually and socially, as they are learning new things and also meeting new friends. , and these kind of clubs can help them emotionally as they will support and encourage the individuals to do their best and aim high. When they become an adult they will learn to be more responsible, they will become a partner, parent, a neighbor and an employer. They will find it easier to make new friends as they have much ore experience and most of the fiends and may be there for the rest of their lives.

Health monitoring: A important thing about health monitoring is to make sure everything is the way it should be and it can find out any problems that might cause many other problems, so it is important that the doctor or however else finds out the problem at an early stage so the problem can be treated, and also as the professional will be advice the patient and support them to make them feel much better about themselves. It can help the person physically, emotionally, intellectually and socially (PIES).

They will earn about the problem which helps intellectually, they support from professionals this helps them emotionally and socially as they are meeting new people and it can also help them physically as they are learning how to cope with the problem. Illness prevention service: Illness prevention services are services which aim to prevent people from becoming ill. An example of this is the national healthy schools programmed, which encourages schools to inform children and young people with the skills and knowledge to make informed health and life choices.

It includes delivering a high standard to personal, social and health eating, taking an active part in physical activities and enhancing emotional wellbeing through. Screening: Health screening Is a way AT checking Tanat certain parts AT our oodles are working well. An example of a health screening programmed is the Gaston, Leigh and weighing Pact’s find and treat, which aims are to find people between 55 to 74 years old with high blood pressure and then to treat these conditions early.

Those who are picked by the scheme will also have the opportunity to discuss lifestyle issues and be referred to service that promote healthy lifestyles, including medication. Other examples include a dental check-up and screening for breast and testicular cancers. Blood pressure: The blood in the body provides all organs in the body with materials that help stay healthy. Blood pressure is the pressure that is exerted by the blood against the walls of your arteries.

Blood pressure is measured in millimeters, the pressure changes from person to person, but normal blood pressure at rest is up to 140/90, the top number is the systolic pressure which meaner it’s the maximum pressure in the arteries and the bottom number is the diastolic pressure which is maximum blood reassure as the heart relaxes between beats. Claimer’s has a Just high blood pressure which meaner she is hypertensive so she should be concerned. It is a major problem that needs reducing quickly, either by removing the source of the stress causing it, or by treating either the conditions causing it or the blood pressure itself with medication.

If left untreated hypertensive can lead to heart and kidney disease, strokes and even blindness. This will have a negative effect on her health and wellbeing because it can lead to health problems. Peak flow: The peak flow is a measure of the maximum rate, the expiratory flow rate- in liters ere minute at which air is expelled from the lungs when you breathe out as hard as you can. Why measure body fat? It is important to measure people’s body fat, some people are obese, which meaner they are at more risk to high blood pressure, diabetes, arthritis, being underweight can also lead to problems such as anorexia nervous or bulimia nervous.

Body mass index: Body mass index shows how much fat a person has in their body compared to their height. This is worked out by dividing an individual’s weight by their height squared. It is important to measure this because having too much can lead to obesity which dads to major health problems like heart disease. Hip/waist ratio measurement: Those who carry their fat around their waist and abdomen are more likely to suffer from the consequences of being overweight. To work out your hip/waist ratio, you divide you hip measurement by your waist measurement.

This measure is a much better indicator of risk of cardiovascular disease in people over 75 than IBM, although IBM is a good indicator for younger adults. Body fat composition: The amount of fat you carry is called your body fat percentage and affects your shape cause muscles tissue is more compact than fat. If you exercise regularly, you will have smaller body fat percentage and look slimmer than someone of the same height won doesn’t exercise Ana so NAS a enlarger orator AT y Ta .

I e two most common ways of measuring it are by standing on a body fat monitor or by using a skin fold caliper to pinch at certain parts of the body- a gauge measures the thickness of the pitch. This latter method is better carried out by a professional. The average man has 15 per cent to 17 per cent body fat, while the average woman is between 18 per cent ND 22 per cent. Blood test: A variety of tests can be carried out on your blood to see that you have the correct levels of certain substances in your body, such as cholesterol, glucose (sugars) and minerals such as sodium.

Blood tests can also show whether organs such as your liver are functioning properly. Cholesterol levels: Cholesterol is one of the body fat and is used to produce energy hormones and build body cells. It is made in you liver. A fasting blood sample is taken and cholesterol level is measured in mollies per liter of blood, or mol/l for short. There are two sorts of cholesterol: a good sort referred to as HAD, and a bad sort, called OLD. The more HAD you have in comparison with OLD the lower the cardiovascular risk.

It is possible to have high cholesterol level and a low cardiovascular risk if you don’t smoke, have diabetes or high blood pressure, and have a high proportion of good cholesterol. High cholesterol levels can occur because it runs in your family, your diet is high in saturated fats (such as full-fat dairy products, red meat, prawns) causing your liver to produce more back cholesterol, lack of exercise, being overweight, age, kidney and river disease and cardiovascular risk. My client Claire has 4. Mol/l which meaner her cholesterol level is desirable, but if she exercises then the cholesterol will decrease m