The Great West And The Agricultural Revolution Reservation System Essay Example

Treaties at Fort Laramie and Fort Atkinson marked beginnings of reservation system in the West. They established boundaries for the territory of each tribe. – In 1860s government intensified this policy and herded the Indians into smaller confines, famous was the “Great Sioux reservation” in Dakota territory. Important Battles Important Massacres – Sand Creek, Colorado, in 1864 Colonel J. M.

Chivington’s militia massacred 400 Indians who thought that they had been promised immunity – In 1866 a Sioux war party attempting to block construction of Bozeman Trail to Montana goldfields ambushed Captain William J. Fetterman’s command of soldiers and civilians in Wyoming’s Bighorn Mountains – In 1884 the government outlawed the sacred Sun Dance. When “Ghost Dance” spread to the Dakota Sioux the army stamped it out in 1890 at Battle of Wounded Knee The Black Hills – In 1874 Custer led a “scientific” expedition into Black Hills of South Dakota (part of Sioux reservation) and announced that he had discovered gold.

Enraged Sioux began to leave the reservation – Custer’s Seventh Cavalry set out to suppress the Indians and to return them to the reservation. They attacked 2,500 well-armed warriors camped along the Little Bighorn River in Montana. The “White Chief with Yellow Hair” and 264 officers and men were completely wiped out in 1876. Other Tribes – Apache tribes of Arizona and New Mexico were hardest to subdue. Led by Geronimo they were pursued into Mexico. Apaches eventually surrendered. They became successful farmers in Oklahoma. – Indians were “tamed” by railroads which shot right through the heart of the West. U. S. ould bring troops and settlers quickly.

Also ruined by diseases and firewater. Extermination of Buffalo destroyed their way of life. Inspiring Literary Works – Helen Hunt Jackson was a Massachusetts writer of children’s literature published A Century of Dishonor. It chronicled the sorry record of government ruthlessness and chicanery in dealing with the Indians. Ramona inspired further sympathy for the California Indians – In 1890 the frontier line was closed inspiring one of the most influental essays ever written about American history—Frederick Jackson Turner’s “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” in 1893.

The Coin’s Financial School (1894) was written by William Hope Harvey and showed how the little professor overwhelmed the bankers and professors of economics with his brilliant arguments on behalf of free silver. Assimilation of Indians – Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 dissolved many tribes as legal entities. It set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. If Indians behaved themselves like “good white settlers” then they would get full title to their holdings, as well as citizenship, in 25 years. Full citizenship was granted to all Indians in 1924.

Fifty-Niners and Helldorados – In 1858 “fifty-niners” or “Pike’s Peakers” rushed west to rip at the ramparts of the Rockies. However, there were more miners than minerals. – Lucky strikes drew frantic miners in boomtowns, known as “Helldorados” – A spectacular feeder of the new slaughter-houses was the “Long Drive. ” The Frontier – Homestead Act of 1862 allowed a settler to aquire as much as 160 acres of land by living on it for 5 years. They would only have to pay a fee of $30. However many were not successful on their farms because of extreme droughts.

Corporations would send “dummy” homesteaders(employees bribed with cash or beer) to grab the best properties containing timber, minerals, and oil. – New technique of “dry farming” took root on plains. It included frequent shallow cultivation but over time contributed to the “Dust Bowl” several years later. – Barbed wire invented by Joseph F. Glidden solved the problem of how to build fences on the treeless prairies. Farmers Unite – The National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry- known as the Grange- was organized in 1867. Its leader was Oliver H. Kelley.

His 1st objective was to enhance the lives of isolated farmers through social, educational, and fraternal activities. Their next goal was improvement of farmers’ collective plight. To avoid the trusts, they established cooperatively owned stores for consumers and cooperatively owned grain elevators and warehouses for producers. – Farmers found a home in the Greenback Labor party. In election of 1880, they ran Gen. James B. Weaver, an old Granger, but he only polled 3 percent of popular Vote. – Discontent came through the Farmers’ Alliance founded in Texas in late 1870s.

The farmers came together to break the grip of the railroads and manufacturers through cooperative buying and selling. The alliance was weakened by ignoring landless tenant farmers, also by the exclusion of blacks. – Queen of Populist Party was Mary Elizabeth(“Mary Yellin’”) Lease. She demanded Kansans should raise “less corn and more hell. ” – In 1892 the Populist canidate James B. Weaver won more than 1 million votes. Panic – Most famous marcher was “General” Jacob S. Coxey. He set out for Washington in 1894 with many supporters.

He demanded that the government relieve unemployment by an inflationary public works program – Pullman Strike of 1894 in Chicago. Eugene V. Debs, a labor leader, had helped organize the American Railway Union of 150,000 members. The Pullman Palace Car Company was hit hard by the depression and cut wages by 1/3 but held the line on rent for the company houses. The workers struck and paralyzed railway traffic from Chicago to the Pacific coast. U. S. Attorney General Richard Olney urged the dispatch of federal troops. He claimed strikers were interfering with the U. S. mail.

Money went in; education and infrastructure expanded. Most Flipinos emigrate to USA, the rest were given freedom on July 4, 1946. China: China defeated by Japan in 1895. Russia and Germany move in. American churches worry about missionaries, manufactures about markets. John Hay, Secretary of State, makes a bold move: 1899, sent out Open Door note. Declared fair competition and Chinese rights in all spheres of control. Italy accepted it—it had no holds in China. Brit, Germ, Fran, all accept conditionally. Russia declines. 1900, Boxers rise up, and kill two hundred missionaries/ Foreign forces quell Boxer Rebellion.

Powers demand money, USA takes $18 million. Hay now declares Open Door applicable to territory and commercial integrity. McKinley and Bryan, 1900: McKinley was renominated by Republicans in 1900. Teddy Roosevelt is VP (it was thought he would be less proactive than as gov of NY, where he served previously). Democrats take William Jennings Bryan. Bryan is pro silver. TR toured the country, and out did Bryan. Bryanites are anti-imperialism. McKinley wins 292-155. TR: Takes presidency in Sept 1901, when McKinley is assassinated. Age 42, youngest pres by far. High energy. He loved to fight. Speak softly, and carry a big stick”.

He was an outspoken moralist and reformer. He was a direct-actionist. He made many mistakes, but he always led. Panama: After the Oregon’s navel blunder, America looks to build canal. Britain gives US permission in South America. USA settles on site of abandoned French project in Panama, created by Philippe Bunau-Varilla. New Panama Canal Company drops price from $109 million to $40 million. Columbia rejects the treaty which, if passed, would grant the USA 6 miles wide of land, for $10 million, and annual payments of $250K. TR’s Response to Panama: Panamanians revolt.

Bunau-Varilla raised a puppet army. The revolution occurred on Nov. 3, 1903. US navy wouldn’t allow Columbia to end revolt. Panama is recognized as a country, and three days later allow the canal to be built in a 10 mile stretch (not 6). Completing the Canal: US upset relations with South America. TR needed canal to be started by 1904 election time. Work starts slow, taken over by Colonel George Washington Goethals. Sanitation a major problem. 1914, Canal completed. TR and the Monroe Doctrine: Germany sank two Venezuelean gunboats, because Venez. was not paying debts.

TR feared violation of the Monroe Doctrine. He created “preventative intervention. ”—Roosevelt Corollary to M. D. Next, USA takes over management of Domincan Republic tariff collections. This intervention proved a success. TR gave off “bad neighbor” impression. TR and the World: Russia and Japan fight in 1904. Russia wants Chinese Manchuria. Japan fears Russia. Japanese use preemptive strike on Russia in Port Arthur. Japan was short on supplies, and requests America intervene for peace. The two sides met at Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Japan wants Sakhalin Island. Russians won’t admit defeat.

Japan ends up with no indemnity for losses, and only southern part of Sakhalin. TR gets Nobel Peace Prize. Japanese in California: Japanese didn’t allow immigration to the US until 1884, with Hawaiian sugar plantations in need of labor. Millions then recruited to CA, to become servants and railroad workers. Faced racism and brutal work. San Fran orders segregation of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean students—tensions soar. TR invited S. F. school board to the white house, and broke the deadlock. “gentleman’s agreement” created—Japan stops allowing immigration to America, and the segregation is repealed.

Why Dogs Are The Best Pets

In contemporary society, a range of domesticated animals are kept as pets. While different areas have their own preferences for certain pets, there are some that are universally beloved. These popular pets worldwide include cats, dogs, fish, and birds. However, among these choices, dogs are widely regarded as the superior pet option due to their exceptional qualities. Dogs not only make fantastic companions but also display remarkable intelligence. Additionally, they come in various sizes, shapes, and temperaments to accommodate the diverse needs of individuals.

Dogs are the ultimate companions and the best pets. They eagerly join you on walks to alleviate boredom, as my own dog does when sensing my restlessness. They also enjoy cuddling for warmth and comfort. Moreover, they express unwavering happiness in your presence and sadness upon your departure. These qualities make dogs exceptional companions and perfect pets. Additionally, their intelligence sets them apart from other animals, further establishing them as the top choice for pets.

Dogs, from a young age, possess the ability to acquire tricks and are often sent to obedience school in order to become pets that can be easily trained. Sometimes, these tricks become more important as dogs are taught how to rescue people and work with teams in situations like getting lost in the wild or being stuck under avalanches. In these instances, dogs display their cleverness. Additionally, dogs demonstrate their perceptiveness by responding to their owners’ emotions. They have the capacity to understand and appropriately react to various emotional fluctuations experienced by their owners.

Dogs are versatile and intelligent pets that can meet a variety of owners’ needs. They are available in a wide range of breeds, each designed to fulfill specific requirements and make them perfect companions for different people. Some dogs assist individuals with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, while others serve as seeing-eye dogs for the blind. It is important to mention that plagiarism is illegal. Additionally, there are various breeds suitable for different individuals.

Although Jack Russell Terriers are suitable for active individuals, there are other breeds more appropriate for people with a sedentary lifestyle or who find it difficult to handle high-energy dogs. The wide variety of dog breeds ensures that potential owners can find the perfect pet for their specific needs. Dogs make exceptional companions due to their intelligence and the vast selection of available breeds.

Dogs are excellent companions, always ready to alleviate their owners’ boredom and establishing deep connections with them. They possess remarkable intelligence and excel in acquiring tricks and assisting humans in rescue operations. Their adeptness at adapting to different individuals makes them the ideal option for a pet. Hence, when searching for a pet, unquestionably contemplate the delightful and perceptive dog as your ultimate choice.

“The Hurricane” David Hickox

Film Critique of “The Hurricane” David Hickox ENG 225 Jared Kline August 20, 2012 Film Critique of “The Hurricane” The movie, “The Hurricane” premiered in 1999 starring Denzel Washington and was directed by Jason Jewison. This film is based on a true story of Ruben “Hurricane” Carter.

This film is based on a biography titled “Hurricane: The Miraculous Journey of Rubin Carter” that was written by James S. Hirsch (Jones, 2000). The story starts in the mid 60’s when racial prejudice was still very high, and many where looking to keep the black man “in his place”, including a corrupt police lieutenant (Dan Hedaya) that had disliked Ruben for many years and had arrested him twice before.

The story is a drama that unfolds in chronological order, but jumps back and forth to show how “Hurricane” remembers things, primarily during his stay in Trenton State Prison (where he is the majority of the movie), and to the 1980’s when Lesra Martin, a Brooklyn teenager (Vicellous Shannon) living in Canada reads an autobiography called The 16th Round and decides he wants to help the “Hurricane. A question that comes to mind is, how does an innocent person survive 20 years in prison dealing with confinement, physical deprivation, the rage of other inmates and the anger he hold for this injustice that at times leads to great despair. As “The Hurricane” shows, there is really no one way to do this. At times he had to cut himself off from the possibility and hope of getting out. At other times he had grab onto the hope and dream that freedom was possible, by connecting with people that wanted to help and encouraged him to keep fighting for what is right.

The selection of Denzel Washington as the lead actor and star and protagonist could not have been better. Denzel uses his professional acting abilities to draw the audience in with his tremendous dedication to portraying himself as Ruben “Hurricane” Carter, a middle weight boxing contender that is unjustly imprisoned for murder. “The Hurricane” uses a tremendous actor, and an experienced director that make incredible use of the state of the art cinematography, an abundant editing techniques, and great precision in the proper usages of sound..

The plot to this story is in a chronological order although much of the story is told in a reflective manner based on how “Hurricane” remembers things taking place, and narrates a good deal of the time which aids in keeping the audience aware of the timeframe that the scene is reflecting.. The story takes place in multiple places and covers about a twenty year range of time. The movie setting begins in Patterson, New Jersey in 1966 and begins with a shot of two men’s legs and the barrel of a shot gun hanging down, all in a dark setting as they walk along.

The scenes continue with the men walking through a door and then raise their guns; at this point the film cuts to the inside of a bar. The mise en scene consists of a bar with a glass background and many bottles of liqueur, a male bartender, a women standing and a man sitting at the bar which is dimly lit. They turn their heads to see who is entering. The film now cuts back to the barrels of the guns as they fire, and then there is a jump-cut to a man approaching the bar on a dark street. As the story continues it jumps to various scenes that are all done in dark settings.

Although, it was night it seems that darkness was intended to bring a dark seediness to these scenes, including one in the hospital where darkness continues. In a very short span there are several jump-cuts which move the action in the show along very quickly. Now the film transitions for time to the activity of Lesra and his getting to go Canada with people that will help him. This is a brief but significant encounter that includes a conflict of its own. The thing Lesra wants more than anything is to go to college.

In testing Lesra the Canadians discover that he is very smart, but he cannot read. They are willing to teach Lesra to read and prepare him for college, but his old fashion, black father opposes this. The father displays a form anger that really can be seen as a threat to his manhood and ability to be a good father. A small victory is won in this scene as the Canadians assure Mr. Martin that they are not trying to replace him as Lesra’s father. They are just trying to help Lesra to achieve his goal of going to college.

Lesra is finally granted permission, as a small, but important victory is won. Again a dark setting prevailed in the scenes surrounding this ordeal, indicating how dark things were at this time. When the action that was shown in the beginning of the film using quick jumps and movement from different but related scene to scene the movie was at a fast pace that makes the audience stay very focused in order to now miss anything. Next the editors held the scenes longer and did not make as many cuts.

The editors appeared to now be using more dissolve and fade editing in order to transition from one scene to the next. This caused the film to move at a slower and less tense pace. This film contains a significant amount of referential content, “The things that happen in the plot and that we understand about the story, even if merely mentioned rather than dramatized, are part of the first and most basic level of understanding” (Goodykoontz & Jacobs,2011, Chapter 10. 2, Digging Deeper: Levels of Meaning Summary of Movie Clips, par. 3).

Although there are some distant and medium distance shots, the cinematographers, mostly took close-up and very close up shots in order to bring your attention specifically to an action taking place or to see the facial expressions of the actors, particularly during intense moments, such as when the corrupt white detective Vincent Della Pasca (Dan Hedaya) and “Hurricane” meet at the hospital where the police are attempting to question one of the shooting victims. The cinematographers take advantage of filtering in order to emphasis or enhance mood and dramatic effects.

They also do an incredible job of controlling the depth and focus of the scene. Although this may actually be credited to the selections made by the editors, it is the cinematographer’s “job to translate the director’s vision for the film, to capture what the director wants to see and to say, and to physically make that happen” (Goodykoontz & Jacobs, 2011, Chapter 4. 2, What is Cinematography, par. 4). As the movie moves into the areas of Lesra and the Canadians deciding to seek the freedom of Carter, the darkness disappears from the scenes.

Now the scenes are light and bright. This helps the audience to have hope (things are looking brighter). This is an example of how the selection of lighting stayed in tune with what was occurring in the show. The lighting also seemed to basically set the mood or at least matches the activities that are taking place. Not only did the lighting help in defining the mood for the scene it greatly assisted in the transition of many scenes. This is particularly true when moving from a poor and negative (dark) scene to one of hope and encouragement that is show in a right setting with multiple bright colors to distinguish this change, not only geographically, but in mood and attitude as well. Lighting in several scenes was used in several cased to light up the backs of the actor, causing them to “pop out” from the rest of the mise en scene so that the audience knows to focus on that particular actor. It is apparent that the editors were very conscientious in their use of scenes. They made fantastic use of continuity editing throughout this film.

The editors did such a great job of arranging the shots the audience is never confused about what is taking place of in what time period even when the scenes are going back and forth from the present to the things “Hurricane” remembers and is either thinking about, such as his attempts to get a new trial, or talking about the past with someone else about thing like what happened the night of the shooting, other incidents from his memory, and then to the activities that Lesra and the tree Canadians are working on..

The editors made it very easy to follow what was past and what was present time. The professional use of editing also kept everything in line with the theme of the film while it moved from time period to time period. The editors show an expert level knowledge in controlling when to speed the film up, primarily by making quick cuts and jump-cuts that have the shots on the screen for a very short period. At the points when things needed slowed down, such as when the Canadians where analyzing and preparing a plan to get “Hurricane” his freedom.

This was primarily accomplished by keeping the shots on the screen for a longer period of time. This is consistent with our text for this class “Editing is far more than merely assembling shots into some coherent order that tells a story. It controls exactly what viewers will see and when they will see it and can profoundly affect how they will interpret a film” (Goodykoontz & Jacobs,2011, Summary of Movie Clips, par. 1). Sound effects were used in order to enhance scenes as needed, but not overly used as if to make too much of them and take away from the focus of the scene.

Sirens in the background or background talking that did not drown the dialog that was taking place are a couple of examples of this. There are also times when a sound effect such as the slamming of a book onto the table gave tremendous emphasis on the amount of frustration that Sam, one of the Canadians is having with the amount corruption he is discovering in relation to the conviction of Ruben “Hurricane” Carter. Sound effects also helped set the mood, for example by having birds chirping in the background as the sun rose at the Canadians home, giving a feeling of calmness and the start of a good day. The Hurricane” also uses music on occasion, such as when “Hurricane” first enters the Trenton State Prison the 1975 ballad “Hurricane” by Bob Dylan begins to play. It is very powerful to hear a song written as part of the protest of many celebrities (Bob Dylan, Dyan Cannon, Ellen Burstyn, Stevie Wonder, Burt Reynolds, Johnny Cash and others) wanting the release or at least a retrial in a non-corrupt court to be given the Ruben “Hurricane” Carter. (Jones, 2000)These activities of many performers and others show that the injustice to Ruben “Hurricane” Carter was not seen as fair and something needed to be done.

The dialogue in this film matched the era it portrayed very well, as did the attire worn by the actors. The dialog was always understandable and made excellent use of relaying information that is critical to the plot and story. One of the great lines in the dialogue of this film is Ruben “Hurricane” Carter stating “Hate put me in prison. Love’s gonna bust me out”. He could feel the love and dedication of Lesra Martin (Vicellous Shannon), and the three Canadians, Sam (Liev Schreiber), Terry (John Hannah), and Lisa (Deborah Unger) as they gave their all to see that “Hurricane was vindicated of this crime and set free. Berardinelli ,n. a. ) The dialogue, the music, and even the sound effects contributed to the excellence of this film in a very big way. All of these things contributed to feeling as though you are right there and it is taking place right before you. The release of the film brought even more attention than that of the activists, such as Bob Dylan. This causing a good deal of society to take a closer look at the situation causing many people to be prosecuted, but seemed suspect of being racial based or simply unjust by the way the criminal investigation took place.

This brings about a question for society, how many people are behind bars that should not be, and what can be done to improve the situation. Is sending a few innocent people to prison worth it, or should be more diligent and hold those involved, if intentional, accountable for this tragedy? The directing on this film was top notch. It is apparent that the director, Norman Jewison, took great care in making sure the story was put together in a way that would keep the audience in their seat wondering what setback would have to undergo next while hoping for the victory of freedom for “Hurricane”.

At the same time Jewison appears to have let Denzel Washington (Hurricane) takes his part and run with it and in many ways control the film. “The Hurricane” was probably the best film that Jewison has every directed, at least up to this point in his career. “For Jewison, who has spent the better part of a decade making marginal and/or forgettable motion pictures, The Hurricane represents a return to top form” (Berardinelli ,n. a. ) Jewison was apparently a fantastic facilitator in keeping all the pieces together in a way that made the entire movie the great success that it was.

This film makes it easy to feel as though nothing else in life was going on by keeping the audience entranced in this film as the journey of “Hurricane” progressed. “The Hurricane” showed great controversy and many pitfalls as Ruben and the Canadians attempted many avenues to get himself exonerated. It is difficult to tell Jewison, is a believer in the auteur theory from the stand point of director accountability, but he certainly seems to take charge and make things happen as he uses a great deal of technological knowledge in making this film unfold in a smooth and logical way.

Jewison’s professional skill is apparent throughout this film. Jewison manages to take this film as far as it can go in relaying a true story in dramatic yet heartfelt way. This film is a true winner for those of us who like to see unjust things get corrected. “A great deal of film analysis examines not only how filmmaking techniques shape the viewer’s understanding of a given film but how their style fits into a director’s body of work, a studio’s output, and/or a cinematic movement (Goodykoontz & Jacobs,2011, Chapter 7 Summary of Movie Clips, par. ). The team that worked on this film was apparently very dedicated to making this a great film. In order to do this they had to, and did, latch onto the vision that Jewison was creating about this story and how it would unfold. The actors, Cinematographers, and editors, as well as every involved in prop’s, lighting, sound, etc. stepped up and made a story come to life. In watching this film it is very apparent that not only the director and star of the movie, Denzel Washington, wanted this to be more than just a good movie.

The entire crew must have bought into the importance of the messages that this show was to send out, “Never Give Up” and “Justice Will Prevail. ” “The Hurricane” has continual and evolving textual theme of a 20 year battle inside one mind, and how a man became a hero simply by surviving. Although there were never any character figures, video games or other miscellaneous memorabilia created due to this show. The story, even before the film was produced was making a stir in the lives of many activists and artist such a Bob Dylan. This film stands tall as a masterful film on never giving up, and that injustice can be overcome.

This is a film that anyone would benefit from seeing… very inspiring. This drama is certainly a must see movie covering injustice, controversy, and finally victory by the freeing of Ruben “Hurricane” Carter. “The Hurricane” starts strong with a very dramatic seen and continues to keep your attention by having a standard of excellence from the lead actor, Denzel Washington, to great cinematography, the use of editing techniques that keep things moving in an exciting way, a superb job of directing, and integrating sound in just the right way and at just the right time.

These things and more make this an outstanding film, a must see! References Berardinelli, J. (n. a. ). “Hurricane, The”, Reelviews movie review. Retrieved from http://www. reelviews. net/php_review_template. php? identifier=259 Goodykoontz, B. and Jacobs, P. J. (2011). Film: From Watching to Seeing. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education Inc. , Retrieved from https://content. ashford. edu/books/AUENG225. 11. 2 Jones, M. (2000, January 7). “Hurricane: The miraculous journey of Rubin Carter” by James S. Hirsch. Salon Magazine. Retrieved from http://www. salon. com/2000/01/07/hirsch/