The H3N2 Virus Pandemics Of 1968 Free Writing Sample

The 1968 H3N2 pandemic resulted from influenza A/Hong Kong/1968 virus. The H3N2 virus contained two genes derived from the six genes from the A(H2N2) virus, associated with the 1957 H2N2 pandemic, and the avian influenza A virus. In the United States, the experience with the epidemic was unlike in any other country. A less severe second pandemic wave occurred in the 1969-1970 season, while 70 percent of additional epidemic influenza deaths and influenza occurred in the 1968-1969 season (Taylor et al. 64). However, the pandemic only had a 0.5% mortality rate and had a brief duration (Taylor et al. 66). Although the infection had comparatively low deaths, the virus was highly contagious, an issue that enabled its speedy global spreading.

The virus originated in Hong Kong in July but first appeared in the U.S. in September and remains a circulating flu to date. In the U.S., the clinical attack rates between member states varied. For example, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the reports from the public health authorities showed a 43 percent illness attack rate (Jester et al. 671). A 40 percent illness attack rate was chronicled in Georgia, and the Californian retirement community residents revealed a 10 percent infection rate (Jester et al.671). The infection rates may have reflected some preexisting immunity within the older population. Worsening of underlying health conditions and complications as cardiac failure, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were major contributors to mortality rates in the U.S.

Investigations by the U.S. public health reported that influenza activity increased dramatically in October 1968. The public health identified the first chronicled case in the country in Needles, California, where more than one-third of the population reported having Influenza-like illness (ILI) (Taylor et al. 69). The amount of absenteeism in school increased with the spread of the infection with the peak week of the epidemic, December 14 and January 11, resulting in most states falling to influenza. Based on a survey among nearly 7000 high school students, the findings showed “the median duration of illness was five days, although cough and prostration in some cases persisted as long as three weeks” (Jester et al. 671). Beyond increased screening and the school closure, the significance of the flu was minimal since there were little widespread changes.

The advent of antiviral medications and expansion of influenza vaccine options, in the 1960s, offered the U.S. an arsenal against the pandemic (Jester et al. 672). Studies show that on November 15, 1968, vaccine manufacturers released the first lot of 110000 H3N2 vaccine doses, with another 15 million doses becoming available by the peak of the pandemic in January 1969 (Wu et al. 45). A study of prison inmates showed that “all indicators of a therapeutic effect of amantadine approached or achieved statistical significance” (Jester et al. 672). The 1983 Mayo Clinic Symposium revealed that antiviral medication on influenza, especially amantadine, was beneficial in minimizing the effects of H3N2. The use of the vaccine enabled the people to survive the pandemic. However, the H3N2 virus remains in circulation to date and is considered a seasonal influenza strain.

The H3N2 flu originated in Hong Kong, had a brief duration, and was responsible for a 0.5 percent mortality rate. The pandemic started on July and by January it had reached its peak. However, its effect was controlled through vaccination, that became available by the peak of the pandemic. Despite school closure and screening, the significance of the epidemic was minimal to the global society and with the vaccination, the people survived the flu, which remains a seasonal influenza strain to date.

Works Cited

Jester, Barbara, Timothy M. Uyeki, and Daniel B. Jernigan. “Fifty Years of Influenza A(H3N2) Following the Pandemic of 1968.” American journal of public health vol. 110, no. 5, (2020): 669-676.

Taylor, Charles A, Christopher Boulos, and Matthew J. Memoli. “The 1968 Influenza Pandemic and Covid-19 Outcomes.” Medrxiv. 2021.

Wu, Nicholas C, Jakub Otwinowski, Andrew J. Thompson, Corwin M. Nycholat, Armita Nourmohammad, and Ian A. Wilson. “Major Antigenic Site B of Human Influenza H3n2 Viruses Has an Evolving Local Fitness Landscape.” Nature Communications, vol. 11, no. 1, 2020.

Ancient Greek & Roman And Medieval Philosophies

The examination of universal and basic concerns such as presence, reason, wisdom, values, consciousness, and language is referred to as philosophy. These issues are frequently offered as issues to be investigated or handled. The concept of happiness is central to Ancient Greek and Roman beliefs, yet at the Dawn of the Medieval, people’s positions in society were predetermined, and their basic rights were essentially non-existent.

Ancient Greek and Roman cultures can be considered essential parts of the world’s philosophy and thought heritage. The primary difficulties for any philosophy are providing reasons why individuals should do the correct thing and justifying why they do it so often (Leahey, 2018). Socrates, like other Greeks, considered that happiness was the rightful purpose of life and that ethical conduct would produce happiness (Leahey, 2018). As a result, as did most Greeks, he supposed that since everyone seeks enjoyment, they automatically pursue virtue and that there was no necessity to present explicit reasons for doing right (Leahey, 2018). Thus, the main notion of Ancient Greek and Roman philosophies is related to happiness and its connections.

Since moral philosophers in Ancient Greece and Rome had no difficulty comprehending why individuals should behave properly, they concentrated on why they did not always do so. Socrates advocated an exceptionally intelligent solution to the problem of negative conduct, claiming that individuals only act badly when they are unaware of what is good (Leahey, 2018). In terms of this idea, it is feasible to suggest an example of how this approach can be applied to a real-world experience. For instance, a thirsty individual would not consume alcohol deliberately but under the mistaken impression that it was clean water. In other words, in real-world practice, a person can act inappropriately if he lacks no understanding of the good standard. Destructive deeds are only performed when the perpetrator is unaware of their negative repercussions.

The Middle Ages, often referred to as the medieval period, commenced with the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and terminated with the Renaissance in European history. According to the Dawn of the Medieval, the roles in society of medieval individuals were predefined, God determined their position in the hierarchy of the world, and their basic rights were almost non-existent (Leahey, 2018). Individuals, highborn and lowborn alike, were supposed to be divided into types depending on social standing, with minds that operated according to laws specific to each category (Leahey, 2018). Concerning an application of this theory to real-world examples, for instance, the faith of devout and religious people in their initial predisposition in society and the impossibility of change reflects the conception.

To summarize, the central theme of Ancient Greek and Roman philosophy is the pursuit of happiness and its ramifications. Socrates proposed a very rational answer to the problem of bad behavior, saying that people only act poorly when they are uninformed of what is good. According to the Dawn of the Medieval, medieval people’s social positions were predetermined, and their basic rights were almost non-existent.

Reference

Leahey, T. H. (2018). A history of psychology: from Antiquity to Modernity. Routledge.

The Coca-Cola Company’s Healthy Marketing Strategy

The Coca-Cola Company is an American food company, the world’s largest manufacturer and supplier of concentrates and syrups. The Coca-Cola company is also a global leader in the production of soft drinks. The company’s most famous product is the Coca-Cola drink, which has expanded into an international market.

At the moment, the topic of healthy eating is especially relevant in America. In this regard, the internal marketing company focuses on taking care of the consumer’s health. Outside of America – in the international market – the main mission is the formation and constant updating of a favorable image of the company and product (Talug, 2018). Coca-Cola’s strategy on both the international and domestic markets consists of referencing the taste of the drink: it is not adapted to the markets of individual countries depending on any special requirements or tastes of consumers. The taste of Coca-Cola is the same in all countries where the company operates. On the contrary, the market (buyers) has to adapt to the taste of their drinks (Talug, 2018). Only the language of the labels applied on the packaging is adapted (in case of relevant requirements from the national laws of the country of presence). Moreover, depending on demand or production capabilities, the volumes and types of beverage containers change. The marketing strategy as a whole differs only in terms of the timing of the release and the duration of circulation of the trademark in the market of a particular country in which the company is represented.

Thus, the strategies developed to promote the line of products – functional beverages – to the world market have several directions. Thus, they are aimed not only at expanding the company’s share within the traditional, established markets but also gaining a leading position in new markets.

Reference

Talug, D. Y. (2018). Investigation on the transformation of advertising strategies and ads according to cultural values from a semiotic perspective: Coca-Cola case. Global Journal of Arts Education, 8(1), 01–07.

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